Rot wie die Liebe: Roman (Die Ring-Trilogie 3) (German Edition)
On the whole these do not have a strong or intricate plot structure; the organizing pattern tends to be chronological, with interest focused on individual scenes in which the characters are portrayed in their shifting, sometimes perplexingly contradictory relations to each other and to an evolving socio-political environment. By the end of the year it had been taken up and published in book form by S. Two were highly fictionalized narratives of different phases of her own life: Barker, and New York: Frederick Stokes, , told in the first person by its fourteen-year old heroine narrator and concentrating on a short period of about six months, and the more expansive Reise durch ein Leben Bern and Leipzig: Jonathan Cape, , told in the third person and extending over a far longer period of time from childhood through adolescence and an unhappy marriage to the threshold of disillusioned middle age.
The basic structure of both novels, in short, is that of the Judeo-Christian story of the Fall and the pursuit of redemption. At the same time, their realism allows both novels to be viewed as belonging to the traditional German genre of the Bildungsroman — except that the leading figure is a woman instead of a man and the focus is on the social world, which the heroine discovers and unmasks, as much as on the heroine herself. Gotthelf; English translation, Guests in the House [London: Frederick Muller, ] , which contained many references to the current political situation and which received favorable reviews in newspapers in Berlin, Vienna, Prague, and Basel.
She appears to have been discouraged by the oppressiveness of the Stalinist regime in the Soviet Union one of the writers whose work she had translated and who was also a personal friend and admirer — the French socialist poet, art critic, and journalist Henri Guilbeaux — was a fervent supporter of Trotsky and by the authoritarian dogmatism of the German Party itself, which found it more important to combat the Social Democrats than to join with the latter in combatting National Socialism. However contradictory and imperfect, the individual emerges more and more clearly from these later works as the highest value, and the the emphasis falls increasingly on basic conditions of human existence — the fleetingness of happiness, the difficulty of relationships with others, even those we love, the persistence of malice, the sadness of aging, and the finality of death.
Overcoming the pessimism, despair, and sense of isolation that she projected convincingly on to several of her women characters, identifying with the oppressed, and taking an active stand against injustice remained the primary imperative of the lapsed Catholic as well as the former Communist. Not surprisingly, individual Communists remain, along with truly devout Christians, among the most decent and admirable characters in her fiction.
The contemporary situation is illuminated in this polemical and vigorously satirical work by the interlocking first-person narratives of three women from different social classes in a small town in Southern Germany, three mothers whose daughters join the Nazi Party — a working class Social Democrat, a lonely aristocrat who, buffetted by life, has withdrawn into a world of her own, and the resentful, frustrated, and ambitious middle-class wife of a scheming doctor whose practice has lagged far behind that of the popular and respected local Jewish doctor.
The appeal of National Socialism — to young women in particular — is explained in psychological, as well as economic and social terms, and the ultimate message of the novel is that all decent people, be they Christians or Communists, working people or aristocrats, conservatives or Social Democrats, must unite in organized resistance, a truly popular front, to a fundamentally evil and inhuman regime. One episode in particular had branded her as an enemy of the Reich.
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In the highly respected S. Stefan Zweig responded in the same way to an identical request from the Insel-Verlag. Apparently it is more important to them that their work be printed in the newspapers and their books sold in the bookshops of the Third Reich than that they remain true to their past and to their convictions.
That struggle cannot therefore logically be described as hostile to Germany by anyone truly connected with the German people and German culture. As for the accusation of betrayal of the homeland, I should point out, if that emotion-laden term must be used, that in view of the way the Third Reich has treated Austria, I, as an Austrian, would be guilty of betraying my homeland if I did not oppose the Third Reich with all the modest means at my disposal. In addition, as most publishers in the smaller German-speaking lands were dependent on the German market, they were loth to alienate the German authorities by bringing out overtly anti-Nazi books.
This was especially the case in Austria, where National Socialism already cast a long shadow. Resourceful and hardworking as always, she appears to have won a contract to supply Belgian radio with documentaries on prominent historical figures. This time they headed for nearby Bratislava, in Slovakia, where they decided to get married. With the German occupation of Bohemia and the establishment of an independent Slovak puppet state under Father Tiso in , she and Klein fled to England, where they lived a penurious existence until their deaths a few years after the end of the Second World War.
The small income Hermynia derived from the short pieces she wrote for the exile press, from some radio broadcasts for the BBC, 35 and from a couple of longer works published in wartime England had to be supplemented by intermittent financial assistance from refugee agencies in Britain and the U.
In addition, she suffered greatly from poor health and a lack of regular medical attention. The English climate aggravated her respiratory problems; and in the last months of her life, she rarely left the modest dwelling she occupied with Klein in the small suburban town of Radlett, Hertfordshire, some twenty miles north of London. Klein died nine years later in nearby St.
They appear to have been intended as parts of a planned trilogy in which the social, political, and cultural history of Europe, and in particular of Austria and Central Europe, would be analyzed and represented by following the fortunes of the Herdegens, an old Austrian aristocratic family, through many generations and many individual fates, from the Congress of Vienna and the final defeat of Napoleon to the rise of Hitler and the end of Austrian independence. On their side, some Herdegens marry foreigners and go off to live in the land of their spouse; others marry out of their social class.
An English version, entitled We Poor Shadows , was published by Free Austrian Books in London in and again that same year by the London publisher Frederick Muller, with a second printing the following year. This is manifestly not the case.
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It is very likely, however, that she took an active part in translating it into English and in adapting it to the taste and interests of the English reading public. The English version is shorter than the German one and some of the detail that gives the rich and wide-ranging original, with its vast cast of characters, its historical vividness and density has been cut. Notwithstanding that in this case the English version — Came the Stranger London: Frederick Muller, — preceded the German version Vienna: At least one further novel, it is assumed, was intended to fill in the story of the Herdegens between and How far along she got with this novel is not known, and no trace of it has been found.
Equally, it is hoped that other publishers will be encouraged to follow the lead of openbookpublishers. Among many women writers of novels and short stories of her time in German — Anna Seghers, Princess Mechthilde Lichnowsky, Gina Kaus, to say nothing of the stupendously successful Vicki Baum — hers is a distinctive voice. Above all, she stands out as an insightful witness and portraitist of a crucially important period in modern history, as the creator of convincing and emancipating narratives of girls growing up, and as a fearlessly outspoken champion of human rights at a time when there were not a great many of these.
Aufbau Verlag, ; first published , p. All translations from German are by L. Pahl-Rugenstein, ; Brian Keith-Smith, ed. A great number of admirers showed respect for her literary achievement and testified to her stylistic sensitivity and personal courage. Greater still, however, has been the ignorance that caused the work of this important woman writer to be disregarded and the author herself abandoned to the oblivion into which she was cast by the cultural devastation of fascism.
Sisyphus Verlag, ], p. Peter Lang, , pp. Until the recently published monograph of Ailsa Wallace, the only studies of her work in English were the short but useful essay by Lynda J. University Press of America, , pp. Charmian Brinson et al. Iudicium, , pp. Ludwig Folliot de Crenneville. Erika, the heroine of this novel, hardly ever sees her mother, who plays no role in her life and whose early death simply makes her absence irremediable — and causes the heroine confusion over her failure to react to it appropriately with tears.
Countess von Wydenbruck is evoked again some years later in the powerful figure of Grandmaman Inez in Ewiges Schattenspiel first published in book form in English translation as We Poor Shadows in Harrison, , vol. Hof-und Staatsdruckerei, , vol. Justus Perthes, , pp. Hodges, Figgis, , p. I know that we are done for as a caste and as human beings.
That is to say, we were formerly that type of person. Nowadays we have lost even our culture. The little sums of money we gave artists and writers to keep them from starving did not really count for anything. We filled ourselves with beauty until there was no room left for anything else. And then, like people who have overeaten and who push aside the food they no longer enjoy, we said: Reise durch ein Leben [Bern and Leipzig: Am I a little Jew-boy that I have to get an education?
Anyway, Papa wants me to take over Zahirsan [the family estate]. What do I need Greek and Latin for on the estate? Papa says I am dumb [ But Papa has such strange ideas. She says that if nothing works out, I can always become a diplomat. Knopf, ], 2 vols. Longmans, Green, , p. An Autobiography , p. Countess von Wydenbruck seems to have exercised her influence on several members of her family.
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The two cousins both spent the war years in England. Ullstein Verlag, ], p. For me, noble birth always meant responsibility. We had privileges, but precisely for that reason we were doubly responsible.
Privately, I often felt that our time was over — as a class, but not as human beings. Argument Verlag, , pp. Traugott Bautz, reports that Petroleum occupied one of the top places in the bestseller list of the Literarische Welt in both and p. Piper Verlag, ; orig. Klein himself gives an example of this love of dogs in a letter to a friend. The only time in his life that he ever abandoned Hermynia, he relates, was one evening in Frankfurt, when the skies suddenly opened up and Hermynia, seeing a canine couple [ ein Hundeliebespaar ] standing miserably in the pouring rain, went over to the two dogs and held her umbrella over them.
Instead of joining her, Klein confesses, he took shelter in a doorway.
Peter Lang, ], p. Klinger , the expression of which is seen in the radical degree to which individuality need appeal to no outside authority save the self nor be tempered by rationalism. The most important contemporary document was the volume Von deutscher Art und Kunst. The protagonist in a typical Sturm und Drang stage work, poem , or novel is driven to action—often violent action—not by pursuit of noble means nor by true motives, but by revenge and greed.
Goethe 's unfinished Prometheus exemplifies this along with the common ambiguity provided by juxtaposing humanistic platitudes with outbursts of irrationality. The story of hopeless love and eventual suicide presented in Goethe 's sentimental novel Die Leiden des jungen Werthers is an example of the author's tempered introspection regarding his love and torment. The plot portrays a conflict between two aristocratic brothers, Franz and Karl Moor.
Franz is cast as a villain attempting to cheat Karl out of his inheritance, though the motives for his action are complex and initiate a thorough investigation of good and evil. Both of these works are seminal examples of Sturm und Drang in German literature. The Classical period music — associated with Sturm und Drang is predominantly written in a minor key to convey difficult or depressing sentiments.
The principal themes tend to be angular, with large leaps and unpredictable melodic contours. Tempos and dynamics change rapidly and unpredictably in order to reflect strong changes of emotion. Pulsing rhythms and syncopation are common, as are racing lines in the soprano or alto registers.
Writing for string instruments features tremolo and sudden, dramatic dynamic changes and accents. Musical theater became the meeting place of the literary and musical strands of Sturm und Drang , with the aim of increasing emotional expression in opera. The obligato recitative is a prime example. Here, orchestral accompaniment provides an intense underlay of vivid tone-painting to the solo recitative. Christoph Willibald Gluck 's ballet, Don Juan , heralded the emergence of Sturm und Drang in music; the program notes explicitly indicated that the D minor finale was to evoke fear in the listener.
Jean Jacques Rousseau 's play, Pygmalion first performed in is a similarly important bridge in its use of underlying instrumental music to convey the mood of the spoken drama.
The first example of melodrama , Pygmalion influenced Goethe and other important German literary figures. Nevertheless, relative to the influence of Sturm und Drang on literature, the influence on musical composition was limited, and many efforts to label music as conforming to this trend are tenuous at best. The clearest musical connections to the self-styled Sturm und Drang movement can be found in opera and the early predecessors of program music , such as Haydn's "Farewell" Symphony.
A Sturm und Drang period is often attributed to the works of the Austrian composer Joseph Haydn from the late s to early s. Works during this period often feature a newly impassioned or agitated element; however, Haydn never mentions Sturm und Drang as a motivation for his new compositional style,  and there remains an overarching adherence to classical form and motivic unity.
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Though Haydn may not have been consciously affirming the anti-rational ideals of Sturm und Drang , one can certainly perceive the influence of contemporary trends in musical theatre on his instrumental works during this period. Mozart 's Symphony No. Beyond the atypical key, the symphony features rhythmic syncopation along with the jagged themes associated with Sturm und Drang.
However, it is likely the influence of numerous minor-key works by the Czech composer Johann Baptist Wanhal a Viennese contemporary and acquaintance of Mozart , rather than a self-conscious adherence to a German literary movement, which is responsible for the harmonic and melodic experiments in the Symphony no.
The parallel movement in the visual arts can be witnessed in paintings of storms and shipwrecks showing the terror and irrational destruction wrought by nature. These pre- romantic works were fashionable in Germany from the s on through the s, illustrating a public audience for emotionally provocative artwork. Additionally, disturbing visions and portrayals of nightmares were gaining an audience in Germany as evidenced by Goethe 's possession and admiration of paintings by Fuseli capable of 'giving the viewer a good fright.
The Sturm und Drang movement did not last long; according to Betty Waterhouse it began in and ended in Waterhouse v.
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The rise of the middle class in the 18th century led to a change in the way society and social standings were looked at. Dramatists and writers saw the stage as a venue for critique and discussion of societal issues. The aristocracy gained power as the ruling class, furthering the divide and increasing tensions between the classes Liedner viii. With these new ideals came the sense that a new form of art capable of dethroning the extremely popular French neoclassicism was needed.
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Germany did not have a common nationality, and the nation broke up into hundreds of small states. The Sturm und Drang movement was a reaction to this lack of nationality and often dealt with the idea of living life on a smaller scale and the desire to become a part of something bigger. The Sturm und Drang movement also paid a lot of attention to the language of a piece of literature. It is no wonder that Shakespeare , with his brilliant use of language, originality with complex plot lines and subplots, and multifaceted characters from all social classes, was seen as a model for German writers Wilson and Goldfarb Many writers of the Sturm und Drang movement considered themselves to be challengers of the Enlightenment.
However, the movement is actually a continuation of the Enlightenment. Many Sturm und Drang plays showed interest in how society affects the individual, a common theme in many Enlightenment plays as well.
Far before its time, the divergent style of Sturm und Drang shrewdly explored depression and violence with an open plot structure Liedner ix. Writers such as Heinrich Leopold Wagner , Goethe , Lenz , Klinger , and Schiller used episodic structure, violence, and mixed genres to comment on societal rules and morals, while doubting that anything would change. The Sturm und Drang movement was brief, but it set a fire that still burns intensely today. Six main playwrights initiated and popularized the Sturm und Drang movement: The theatre director Abel Seyler , the owner of the Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft , had an important role in promoting the Sturm und Drang poets.
Johann Anton Leisewitz was born in Hanover in and studied law. He is remembered for his single complete play, Julius of Tarent , which is considered the forerunner of Schiller's work The Robbers Heinrich Leopold Wagner was born in Strasbourg on February 19, He studied law and was a member of the literary group surrounding Johann Daniel Salzmann.
He was a dramatist, producer, translator, and lawyer for the traveling Abel Seyler theatre company. Child murder was a very popular topic in the 18th century and all of the major Sturm und Drang writers used it as a subject in their writings Waterhouse Die Kindermorderin was one of the most traditional plays of the Sturm und Drang. Although sharing aspects of neoclassical plays, such as a fairly simple plot and very few changes in the setting, it breaks away from the neoclassical idea that the protagonist must be of noble descent.