Timeline: Eine Reise in die Mitte der Zeit - Roman (Allemand) (German Edition)

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It is only with the beginning of the first chapter proper of the Violinschule that the reader finally leaves the realm of fables and mythology and finds himself on the firm grounds of enlightened cognition: This focus on cognition and on reason is only one side of the Violinschule. The work proper starts with an explanation of musical notation and only after these theoretical foundations are laid, the book proceeds to the practical aspects of holding the instrument and the bow. In this section, intervals and the rudiments of harmony are introduced to the student. Only after all this, bowing patterns and left hand positions are explained and finally the tasteful performance of melodies and the correct execution of ornaments come into focus.

The systematic overall structure is mirrored on the level of the individual chapters. Leopold regularly opens a chapter by charting an imaginary graph of its subject. The importance that Leopold attaches to a thorough rational theory, is most apparent in an instance in the Violinschule, where he laments the lack of such fundaments. Leopold indicates from the outset that rational cognition and sensual experience belong together and he validates this approach by referring back to classical antiquity.

In his short history of music he reports of a quarrel between Pythagoras and Aristotle, whether it is reasoning or hearing that governed music. According to Leopold, this question is solved by a compromise that cognition and the ear should both be equal judges. Violinschule, 20, 30, 32 or Every melodious piece has at least one sentence, in which one can recognise the kind of movement, which is fitting for the piece, without doubt. Indeed, often a piece drives itself forcefully into its natural movement, if one takes extra care looking at it. This theory sparks a lively debate in the German speaking countries, of which Leopold probably Violinschule, —8.

The engraving of figure 1 was bound in opposite the title page. The engraving of figure 2 was bound in opposite page Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, i, — While language and words engage the intellect and therefore will reach the heart only via the detour of the head, music could affect the heart and stir the emotions directly. Leopold integrates human experience, sentiment and nature within the highly systematic structure and clear rational reasoning of his treatise.

These are the same things that entertain myself. In the letter, Leopold continued to characterise his life in Salzburg, how he mostly confined himself to his home and only went to court, when he was obliged to do so. She repeatedly asked her father to send books out to St. Gilgen together with the newest music from her brother.

Moreover, sixteen actual volumes from their possessions containing fifteen different publications survive today in archives and libraries mostly in Salzburg. A transcript is published in LM Licitation. In all likelihood, the missing pages of the Licitations-Protocoll include a more substantial section on books and possibly also on sheet music. Furthermore, I would like to suggest that Leopold systematically used and had access to the libraries at the court, at the university and at St. Peter, when writing his violin treatise.

For a large number of titles, which Leopold cites specifically by giving chapters or page numbers as references, a copy in the exact edition used by Leopold could be located in one of the three collections. A complete list of books, which the Mozarts knew, is given in Appendix I. The relationship between Leopold and Marpurg is marked by mutual esteem, even though they probably never met in person.

Furthermore, he recommended it sight unseen to Wolfgang, as it would be helpful for his teaching. The whole orchestra from top to bottom dislikes him. Possibly, this advertisement was reprinted in other journals. Wolfgang wrote the letter in question less than a week after the shock of the passing of his mother in Paris.

In an attempt to placate his father, Wolfgang remembered all the requests, which his father expressed during the preceding months,34 and promised to fulfil them. Possibly, this 30 For other attacks on Vogler, see e. Leopold requests the French translation of the Violinschule, some melodious piano pieces for his pupils and, if available, some new music by Wolfgang. The first five chapters were published between and , two more followed posthumously in and the remaining three chapters never got into print and survive only in manuscript copies.

They exchanged letters in the s and one letter by Leopold from 39 See Briefe, ii, ; Letters, For an image of the titlepage and the ownership inscription, see DeutschBilder, Thomas Emmerig, 2 vols. Evidence that the Mozarts owned the book exists only because Leopold lent it to a colleague at the Hofkapelle, the oboist Christoph Burg. Perhaps Leopold and Wolfgang met Sacchi personally during their stay in Milan in —1, where Sacchi was professor at the Collegio dei Nobili.

Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum, Salzburg: I am grateful to Dr. Anja Morgenstern of the ISM, who brought this document to my attention. The Dutch translation was published in Haarlem in under the title Grondig onderwys in het behandelen der viool. In a letter he proudly announced to Hagenauer: I will have the honour of showing you my violin school in the Dutch language. This book these Dutch gentlemen translated and produced in the same format as the original. Wolfgang came across the book, when he went into a music shop in Paris in with the intention to buy a set of sonatas by Schobert for a piano pupil of his.

In any case, a copy of the French version of the Violinschule appears in the Licitations- Protocoll. For some of the titles, we can assume that he owned them, others were 53 Briefe, iii, ; not in Letters. In many cases, copies of these books can be documented as part of the libraries at St.

Peter, the university or the court, sometimes in the exact edition, which Leopold specifies in the Violinschule. Thus, it seems that Leopold had access to these libraries and consulted them during the writing of his treatise in particular for the older writings from the fifteenth and sixteenth century.

For other books cited in the Violinschule Leopold only knew the author and the title. Apart from these ancient Greek texts and the alleged writings by the legendary musician father Orpheus, the earliest musical writings that Leopold mentions in his treatise are two works by the Renaissance theorist Franchinus Gaffurius.

Leopold specifies this particular edition. The leather cover of the volume is stamped with a rosette and a banner, which identify the book as part of the library of St. Peter and which feature on book covers bound between and see stamp number and number in: Though the earlier editions published in Milan and Brixen have the same layout. Leopold does not specify an edition. Leopold also refers to the seminal encyclopaedia of Medieval thought, Margarita philosophica, in the Violinschule.

The Margarita philosophica was mostly written by Gregor Reisch and Leopold specifies the edition printed in Basel in I am grateful to Mag. Beatrix Koll for her help in identifying the provenance of this volume. Peter holds a copy of this rare edition, which belonged to the court organist Carl van der Hoeven, who served at the Salzburg court from until There are two seventeenth-century treatises that Leopold cites more specifically in the course of the Violinschule: This applies to Mattheson, Neidhardt and Scheibe, as all three were prolific writers.

The other authors only published one work 81 Leopold knew the book by November See Briefe, i, 19; not in Letters. Johann Mattheson, i Hamburg, Wiering, , 52—3. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Berlin, Papen, , — Two French authors on music also turn up in this letter, which Leopold did not mention in the Violinschule: It is unclear which of the many writings by Rameau Leopold was thinking of.

The Mozarts owned a history and a geography book for children by Anselm Desing, whose lectures Leopold followed as student at university. The work deals not only with biblical and ecclesiastical history, but also has parts devoted to political and social history historia politica , natural history historia naturalis , the history of ideas and science historia litteraria , and the history of the arts and crafts historia technica. It then gives a short introduction on measuring the earth and reading maps.

A description of the different European countries follows, before the focus moves to regions beyond Europe: Turkey and Asia, Africa and finally America. Each account of a country contains facts and figures, such as the local religion, important towns, ruling dynasties and number and wealth of the inhabitants. In addition it sketches national characteristics in behaviour, manners, looks and morals. You would be amazed if you saw the way children are brought up here; not to mention other matters connected with religion.

This opens the speculation, whether Maria Anna was particularly fond of the moral value of the stories and in how far it was her, who was responsible for this side of the education of their children. It remains open, how many of the four volumes of the work the Mozarts owned, as the letter only speaks of the first part. In May Leopold reported to Hagenauer, how the family paid tribute to the writer on their Western European tour: Johann Joachim Schwabe, i Leipzig, Weidmann, , titlepage. He has made himself immortal by his Telemach, his book on the education of girls, his dialogues of the dead, his fables, and other sacred and secular works.

At the very least, the book was well known in the family. Leopold mentioned an entirely different kind of educational literature in a letter to Hagenauer in Hans Zingerle Innsbruck, , 21—4. Der seinen Vater Ulysses, suchende Telemach, trans. Benjamin Neukirch, 3 vols. Though the authenticity of this postscript is not beyond doubt.

It is written in French and quite possibly the Mozart family acquired it or it was presented to them during their Western European tour in the s. If he was looking for a geography book for his own son Carl Thomas in Vienna around , another Viennese or at least German publication would seem a far more sensible choice than this Amsterdam publication from Expectably, they made use of guide books for the planning and execution of the travels and quite a few of these books got mentioned in the family letters.


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When they came to Paris for the first time in November , Leopold felt incapable to give Hagenauer an accurate report of his impressions of the city, See Briefe, i, 84; not in Letters. Manuel Alvares, Principia seu rudimenta grammatices Augsburg, Wolff, , Frankfurt and Leipzig It will give you plenty of amusement. On all three occasions, the references are strikingly precise and therefore I assume that he had the book at hand when writing the letters from Italy. Written in fictitious letters, Keyssler reports on the landscape and the nature of his destinations, as well as on the political and economic history.

To this he adds detailed accounts of artefacts and famous sights including historical and scientific information on them. Keyssler intersperses these serious and practical sections of his guide book with entertaining stories on remarkable incidents and people. Franckfurt und Leipzig See Keyssler, Neueste Reisen, ii, —4. The amount of information, which Biancolini details for the bishops, varies greatly, but in general it includes the year of election, significant events and details about important decrees during the tenure. If the bishop is beatified or canonised, Biancolini also tells the reader, where the relics of the saint can be found.

It starts with a hand-coloured drawing of the antique city of Verona see Figure 6 and a detailed map of the city as it was in see Figure 7. See Biancolini, Notizie storiche delle chiese di Verona, ii , — Both, the drawing and the map, are carefully annotated and marked with figures and letters locating antique monuments, churches and other significant buildings, squares and streets of the town. The following text provides explanations about the history, the function and the design of the marked places and buildings.

For some outstanding monuments of the city Biancolini adds separate structural drawings and engravings of details. Thus the book features a table with the layout, front and side view of the Arco dei Gavi, which was built during the first century by a noble Roman family called Gavia. Maria Anna and Nannerl would have loved to join in the journey to Italy, but Leopold left them behind in Salzburg for practical and financial reasons.

Instead of giving a detailed account of Venice in his letter, Leopold promised an oral report: Briefe, i, ; Letters, —9; or Briefe, i, ; Letters, Briefe, i, ; Letters, Or Briefe, i, ; not in Letters. Meanwhile I shall content myself with saying that beautiful and unusual things are to be seen here. He quotes several statistical figures about the city, in order to give Hagenauer an idea of the vast dimensions of the city and its populace.

The first issue of the Reisegeschichten was published in We have no record whether Leopold actually owned this journal or subscribed to it, but at the time of writing the Violinschule Leopold apparently knew and valued it. According to Vergil, Mercury invented the lyre and the instrument came into the hands of Apollo and Orpheus only afterwards. Quote from Johann Michael von Loen, ed. Two volumes published in contain the psalms with commentary. It remains an open question whether Leopold actually owned a copy of the book.

Leopold was keenly interested in European politics during all his life, but only a few books are identifiable as being known to him. As mentioned above, Leopold sent a booklet titled Resultat des Emserbad to Nannerl, which reported on the agreement struck between the German archbishops, the pope and the secular German rulers at a convention in Bad Ems.

Many reports and pamphlets were published on this occasion and it is not clear which one Leopold owned. Leopold told his wife from Bologna about the impending dissolution of the Jesuit order and he mentions two recent Italian publications on the subject: This does not exclude the possibility of another print having the same pagination. It provides rules for English pronunciation, grammar, a large vocabulary, stock phrases and dialogues, exemplary letters and fables by Jean de la Fontaine and others.

Quite exceptionally, it also contains some Choice songs with melodies at the end: Back in Salzburg in , Leopold apparently bought another comprehensive English dictionary in two parts for the astounding sum of 15 florins from the Augsburg book trader Klett. As is generally known, the second volume Mancal, Leopold Mozart und seine Familie auf Europareise, In both cases it is not verifiable whether Wolfgang gave away or sold the books before his death or if Constanze withdrew the volumes from the estate valuation and kept them for herself.

Philipp Jakob Flathe, 2 vols. Leipzig, Weidmann, [D-W, We The first part of the book contains a basic introduction to the French language: The central section of the book is a dictionary, which sorts the entries according to subject categories and not alphabetically, including a short paragraph on musical instruments.

A separate section with adjectives concludes the dictionary proper. A collection of stock dialogues, phrases for specific situations, exemplary speeches and letters, historical narrations, fables, moral reflections and a bilingual overview of aristocratic titles complement the volume. On the half title page of the volume, which was printed in , stands a crossed out ownership marking by a certain Viennese count Michael Rabatta, dated see Figure Thus Leopold probably bought the dictionary thereafter.

In addition, the Licitations-Protocoll lists some foreign language books in the same section as these dictionaries: Leopold used the book extensively when preparing the publication of his Violinschule and he referred to it several times in his correspondence with his LM Licitation, In the aforementioned order, Leopold also asked for two Latin books from Lotter: In fact, if the scribe of the auction protocol was faithful, then the title suggests an edition in four volumes published by Novelli in Venice —7: Friedrich Samuel Bierling, 4 vols. See Dokumente, ; Documentary Biography, Le opere di G.

Turin, Stamperia Reale, In the eighteenth century, textbooks were commonly sold for performances at court or in public theatres and Leopold himself dealt with librettos printed or distributed by Lotter in Did feign that Orpheus drew trees, stones and floods, Since nought so stockish, hard and full of rage, But musick for the time doth change his nature. Let no such man be trusted. According to the working materials of Georg Nikolaus Nissen for his biography, the sheet with the Shakespeare excerpt was given to him by Maria Anna von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg together with the travel notes in I am very grateful to Dr.

Anja Morgenstern for the information on the transmission of this excerpt. Born in , Bose matriculated at Leipzig university on 22 December Reynolds, i Berlin, , Curiously, Gellert recommends to Leopold the French translation of the novel, made by the Berlin professor of philosophy Johann Heinrich Samuel Formey in The correct dates for Friedrich Carl von Bose are — 28 April It includes a handwritten dedication by the author, which praises the wise parents and the talented children and assures them of his lifelong friendship.

The major bucolic poem Daphnis and the prose painting Die Nacht make up the second volume of his Schriften. For an image of the dedication, see DeutschBilder, It verifies that the books at hand were given to the Mozart family by Gessner in Zurich, but it does not mention them belonging to Wolfgang at any point. Thus the two volumes of the edition were passed on from Leopold to Nannerl and then further on to Leopold Berchtold zu Sonnenburg. Heidegger inscribed the half title page of the book with a little dedication, which is crossed out probably by a later owner of the volume, but which is still legible: Gessners Schriften, 4 vols.

Die Abderiten is the title of another book by Wieland that Leopold and apparently also Wolfgang knew. Wieland published this satire of provincialism in instalments in his journal Der Teutsche Merkur between and and also as a book in Leopold did not have the book at his home at that point or he did not want to part from it and so he tried in vain to obtain it in Salzburg.

Butler Fribourg, , 21—7.

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In November Leopold writes to Nannerl: You probably thought of these. I can only send you one year: It contained short novels, little dramas and poems as well as reviews of theatrical plays. He also worked as author and arranger of theatre plays and published several librettos in the s. Although no documentation survives, the Mozarts possibly met him in Vienna in the s. I could not verify, if Stephanie was still involved as editor of this publication.

The numbering of the volumes is kept continuous across the differently titled journals: For further particulars about this series, see the relevant entries in Helmut W. The first German translation of the work appeared —5: Then the volumes got sent back to St. Gilgen one by one with thanks from Heinrich. The newly discovered volume at the Salzburg Museum contains three different publications bound together: Johann Martin Miller's Siegwart.

The text of An die Freude K53 is a typical example of this style, laden with references to antiquity and untainted nature. Wolfgang composed three more songs before The day before yesterday, a declamateur was scheduled to appear in the town hall, in order to show himself in the art of high declamation etc.

The dependence on Klopstock is pointed out in the commentary to this letter, see Briefe, v, For a complete listing of the editions of Edone, see Christiane Boghardt, ed. Briefe, iii, ; not in Letters. Another prayer book of the Mozarts was part of the collections at the Salzburg Museum, but could not be found any more. It is documented in an old, disused card index: This is the only instance that Leopold mentions the Lesegesellschaft in Salzburg: I am grateful to Peter Schneeberger and Dr.

Gerhard Plasser in the library of the Salzburg Museum, who pointed my attention to this book within their collection. Manzador, Predigen, ii, title page. It also includes very practical information, such as conversion tables for different currencies. Gilgen each owned a copy of it. Pascal sur la religion. It is not documented whether Leopold owned either version of the book, but considering that it was his favourite book in the early s, we can safely assume this to be the case.

Anja Morgenstern, who drew my attention to this document. The current location of the original is unknown. The passage begins with the dream of Enlightenment that the light of reason will supplant the darkness of superstition: To this excerpt Leopold added his own comment: Viktor Keldorfer owned this volume until the late s and he made photocopies of all three notes for the ISM. Alexander Altmann Stuttgart, , —3. It signifies the excellent and tender state of the mind, the heart and the senses, by which a person discerns quickly and strongly his duties and by which he feels a potent drive to do good deeds.

Danuta Mirka Oxford, , —4. While Empfindsamkeit as such was seen as a valuable capacity, which should be encouraged and cultivated,8 the dangers of a too radical, an excessive sensibility were articulated by theorists throughout the second half of the eighteenth century, too.

Intellectual reasoning and also bodily exercise should balance a too sensitive nervous system. On the contrary, reason and sensibility were both capabilities of the human soul that were central to an enlightenment of mankind. While thoughts and reason were clear and distinct impressions on the soul, Empfindung could be obscure and multifarious. There is a historical reason, as the focus on sensibility as a positive faculty of the soul was a fairly short-lived one. These words only came into common use during the later half of the eighteenth century.


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Hansen Passau, , The idea of sensibility never quite recovered from this downturn in our perception. This is linked to the confusion of the personal, enlightened use of reason with blind intellectualism which was attacked by enlightenment philosophers. Enlightenment thinkers turned against intellectualism and abstract deduction by appealing to the personal cognition and to personal sensibility.

Thus cognition and sensibility were both perceived as means to overcome the old school of dogmatism. It is only with the gradual denigration of sensibility in our perception and the confusion of intellectualism and personal reasoning that a polarity between sensibility and the rational Enlightenment came into existence, but in the eighteenth century sensibility was a means to attack blind intellectualism and not enlightened reason.

For most philosophers in the eighteenth century, reason and sensibility had to go hand in hand in the quest to improve mankind. Since reason and sensibility were both seen as capacities which helped moral conduct, they both had to be taught and refined by education. Yet, the word has been in use before, even though not as widespread. While these philosophical and educational treatises possibly only reached a relatively small audience in Salzburg, the broad currency of popular novels and educational literature for the youth written in this style documents a general acceptance or at least interest in the two-fold education of the mind and the heart by the Salzburg public.

In the following, the currency of Empfindsamkeit as social and aesthetic ideal within Salzburg society will be looked upon from three angles. The Mozart family and their links with and attitudes to some of the people and phenomena described in this chapter come into focus in Chapter 4. Acute, excitable senses and a lively, fiery phantasy constitute sensibility.

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It is the foundation for a good character, it makes great minds, soft, kind-hearted, noble souls, which are happy in themselves and which make [others] happy, as long as reason keeps reign on their senses and phantasy. Therefore the study of aesthetics, or of the general theory of the fine arts, is one of the most important studies, by which the sensuous man will be educated and by which he will be enabled to feel warmly true beauty. Feine, reizbare Sinne, und eine lebhafte, feurige Phantasie erzeugen die Empfindsamkeit.

Presumably, this pupil was Maria Anna Mayr von Mayrn, called Nannerl, who was born around and who took piano lessons with her namesake Nannerl Mozart in the s. Apparently, demand for this work was high enough to merit a local reprint, or the book was even part of the official school curriculum in the s: The Anleitung zur Tugend und Rechtschaffenheit was another local educational publication that appeared anonymously in Salzburg at the Waisenhaus printing press in The fine arts are of the utmost importance in improving the mind and the effort put into their study will not remain without manifold rewards.

Good taste is also a high value. It teaches us to sense the beautiful in all arts and sciences. Yet, never mind the inconsistencies of the argument, these sentences prove the importance put on the fine arts in the education of the capacities of the soul. In addition, the Anleitung zur Tugend und Rechtschaffenheit names some more recent musical authors of importance, as Scheibe, Marpurg, Agricola and Christian Gottfried Krause.

For the author, good company does not only apply to people, whom one mixes with, but also to books: The company of writings does also count as part of the [good] company, which all people can have. By this I understand such writings, which affect our heart, which teach us the beauty of nature […], such writings, in which the duties of man are presented beautifully.

It flows not only for these short times, but will be a rivulet for all eternity that refreshingly pours forth into your soul. Letter writing, and as a literary genre the epistolary novel, were means to act out true friendships undisturbed by geographical distances, a pristine meeting of kindred souls. Gleim did not only glorify friendship in his writings, but he also cultivated this ideal of friendship in his life. Neither was it dependent on personal encounters or the physical presence of the friend.

I am grateful to Ms. Veronika Klepper, who provided valuable assistance with the translation of these verses. Figures from classical mythology gathered in his music room included Apollo, Juno and Jove, pictured as the father of the Graces. Salzburg composers were present, too: The museum has around portraits from that time and the sitters for two thirds of these portraits are identifiable. The bookshop Mayr sold a concise treatise on cutting silhouettes 58 For an introduction to and descriptions of portraits in this collection, see Albin Rohrmoser, ed.

For reproductions of these silhouettes, see DeutschBilder, Franz Lactanz Firmian, the Obersthofmeister at the court, owned the most important portrait collection in eighteenth-century Salzburg. This report from Salzburg is actually written by Karl Ehrenbert von Moll. One of the walls of this chamber was devoted to portraits of famous Salzburg inhabitants from the fifteenth until the late eighteenth century, some of them were oil paintings others copper engravings.

Such English gardens promised the perfect illusion of untouched nature enhanced in its beauty by human landscaping. Martin Scheutz Bochum, , — In the eighteenth century two picturesque gardens were built at the village of Aigen outside Salzburg upstream to the South, which later were united into a single site. The garden consisted of an array of orchards and fields, of meadows and flowerbeds. A hermitage and a grave- mound were situated within the garden, as well as a little green house and a vineyard. In the middle of the plan lies the castle with some smaller houses and a formal garden laid out in geometrical shapes.

At the back of the castle there is a forest landscaped into an English garden. A large circular walk leads around the garden and several paths crisscrossing the forest are visible, too see Figure Pray often, reveal in a quiet place to God your sorrow without despair. He draws the words from your heart, not your heart from the words. Not your bended knee, not tears, not words, sighs, psalms or chants, neither do your vows move God; but your longing, your faith in him and his Son. The most Freundschaftsaltare Amicitiae sacrum zu einem der wonnereichsten Lusthaine umgeschaffen haben.

The translation by Pamela Dellal is available online, see Darrell M. Three of these friends are known by name, Joseph Ernst Gilowsky von Urazowa, Friedrich Franz Joseph von Spaur and Count Wolfegg, but others might have been involved in the garden design, too. For general information on masonic gardens in Europe, see Jan A. Snoek, Monika Scholl and Andrea A. When the theatre opened in , there was finally an adequate public venue to satisfy the theatre-fever of the citizens.

The first extensive account of the plays and operas performed at the Salzburg theatre was published by Karl Wagner in Thus the repertoire performed during the first three seasons from and are now known. Although this information has been available for some time, it has never been collated in one place. Miss Sara Sampson and Emilia Galotti. Yet, Schidenhofen in his diary as well as the Theaterwochenblatt report an entirely unfavourable reception of the play in Salzburg.

Three adaptations of plays by Shakespeare were performed during the first season in Salzburg: The latter exclusively performed Italian operas and Italian comedies, most of which were by Carlo Goldoni. Johann Christian Brandes featured most prominently on the list as the author of four plays performed during that season. The Theaterwochenblatt was a journal published anonymously, which appeared twice a week during the opening season of the theatre at the Hannibalplatz in —6. The paper provided a playlist of the inaugural season, some extended reviews of the plays and of their performances 19 July The editorial content of the Theaterwochenblatt was rounded off with systematic listings of original German stage works and newly published books on the theatre and with brief descriptions of different theatres in Germany.

These reviews were detailed examinations of the merits and faults of a play and its performance and they provided a critical foundation for the reader, on which to build his or her own opinion. The Theaterwochenblatt was also an obvious marketing strategy for the local theatre enterprise, trying to spark interest and participation from the local public in this new venture. Therefore much space in the journal was accorded to anecdotes from the international theatre scene and to contributions by the readership in the form of questions, opinions and eulogistic poems in admiration of the actors.

Right from the start, ideas of Empfindsamkeit feature highly in this paper: Johann Joachim Christoph Bode, 3 vols. Jochen Schulte- Sasse Munich, , The performances were very popular among all ranks of Salzburg society and the auditorium occasionally was so overcrowded that even members of the nobility had to stand during the plays or were turned away. In it was given in its Latin form as Pietas in patriam, while in it was translated into German now titled Hermann, ein Beyspiel der Liebe zum Vaterlande.

In November an official regulation was issued that German literature and poetry should be presented at the end of the school year instead of fully staged theatrical performances. See Boberski, Das Theater der Benediktiner, —8. While the subject is clearly within the realm of traditional religious education, the author is a Lutheran theologian, who lived in Hamburg. Nothing is documented about the reception of this performance that presented excerpts of enlightenment literature in such a radically new format.

For the first time the textbook of the end-of-year performance was not written by a Benedictine professor from the university, but was a foreign product. Der Tod Abels was premiered in in Magdeburg, where Rolle was the city music director, and the work quickly gained prominence in the German-speaking lands. Buchdruckerey, [A-Su, I], abstract [unpaginated]. The printed textbook gives an explanation for the additional music by Haydn in the preface: Herr Patzke is the author of this Singspiel and Herr Rolle, music director in Berlin, set it to music.

At the end, something seemed to be missing in the music that we got. And this conjecture was strengthened by the exemplar of Herr Klopstock regarding the [figure of] Thirza: Peter Wollny Beeskow, , — A copy of the edition by Fleischhauer survives at the Bibliothek der Erzabtei St. The setting shows a charming plain in the Garden of Eden, in the middle of which is an arbour beautified by nature rather than by art.

Further back, the thicket gradually increases and only some bits of meadow appear in between. Sideways at the front is a waterfall and a bench of grass. Based on the accompanied recitative, the style is marked by sudden changes in dynamics, in instrumentation and in the figuration, by abrupt changes of metre and harmony and by a declamatory freedom of the melodies. The music mirrors the emotional torment of the protagonists, sometimes simultaneously depicting their words, sometimes anticipating or following up emotions expressed in the text.

Sie gab mit Aug und Hand mir gar kein einz-ges? Gott steh ihr bey! Starting with a b-flat the first violin falls down a minor sixth to d in the middle of the bar, before meandering up to an a-flat at the end. Thus the melody in bar 1 outlines two typical intervals of anguish and distress: The rhythmical values of this melody add to an undercurrent of restlessness, which is enhanced by the abrupt stop of the melody on the first quaver on the fourth beat. The middle voices and the bass provide a transitional motif in semi-quavers to bar 2, but this transition is far from a smooth one: The first violin repeats the melodic figuration of the second half of bar 1 in bar 2, but now in a sudden and forceful forte.

The melodic line whizzes up the octave from d to d1, reaching the ninth e-flat in the middle of the bar and extending in range to the eleventh during the second half of bar 2. This second half is marked by the melodic intervals of two slurred couples of semiquavers marking a falling fourth and a diminished falling fourth, before the final desperate descend of a falling seventh from g1 to a-natural in bar 3, all this marked forte.

Harmonically, these introductory two bars remain instable throughout. They start on an E-flat major chord in first inversion, which slips down to a d-minor harmony in first inversion on the middle of the first bar. With the forte marking on beat one of bar 2, the bass finally provides the fundamental note of the chord, b-flat, but the minor seventh in the second violin keeps the harmony unstable. A fleeting suggestion of stability is touched upon towards the end of bar 2, but the melodic figuration of the first violin thwarts any sense of harmonic ease, no matter how insistently the fundamental note is repeated in the bass.

These opening bars end on an inverted F-major seventh chord on E-flat in the bass, which is hold out as a minim opening the curtain for Hanniel to sing his first words. The distress and anguish of the scene to come is already audible in this short introduction, which is repeated as an interlude in an even more agitated version in bar 4, abruptly cut off in the middle of bar 5. She did not give me a sign with her eyes or hands, when weeping I asked her and cried Mother! This passage is exactly the textually much-chided duet for Hanniel and Surinam, the two bereaved sons, and it elicits some absolutely wonderful music from Haydn.

Sie gab mit Aug und Hand mir gar kein einzges Zeichen; da ich doch weinend bath, und Mutter! The winds and the bass only come in after the first beat with two quavers, gently nudging the melody on, which pauses right after the first motif. With bar 3 a steady movement is established in this section and the calmness is brought about by regular quavers in the bass and by the relatively slow harmonic progression, now working again in more normal relations of dominant and tonic in contrast to the haphazard harmonic ruptures in the recitative style of the opening passage of the last scene.

The subdivision of the quavers into triplets adds to a sense of airiness amidst the grief, which burdens all persons on stage at this point of the plot. The ten[uto] marking for the crotchets in the bass line from bar 9 onwards keeps the bass players from shortening their notes, as would be customary in such accompanying lines. The long, possibly even singing, notes in the bass line further emphasise the gently singing quality of the duet.

Into this instrumental setting, the orphaned Hanniel and Sunam sing their plaintive words: Oh anguish, my father has faded! Oh torment, the mother has gone! Now we are father-motherless Alas! Only you, oh Adam! Only you, oh Eve! Mein Vater ist erblichen! A scribe working from the keyboard reduction before the music was edited and augmented by Haydn would not have any reason to name him on the title.

He assumes an Augsburg provenance of the score. Firstly, the manuscript A-Ssp, Hay Thirdly, a printed textbook for the Salzburg performance survives under the shelfmark A-Ssp, Hay While these three items probably stand in direct connection with the performance of Der Tod Abels in , two further manuscripts document the continued esteem of the work in the decades afterwards. The original version of the work by Rolle and Patzke was given on the school theatre. Apparently, the university theatre was totally overcrowded for the Salzburg performance of Der Tod Abels on 3 September Peter, could not find a seat in the theatre.

We can only assume that Leopold at least was aware of what happened at the university theatre, as musicians of the court music and singers from the Kapellhaus, where Leopold taught, were involved in the performance. He left Salzburg the year before with high hopes of securing an employment at one of the courts abroad or at least of earning a decent sum touring, but neither came true and the trip turned out to be a financial disaster.

Furthermore, Wolfgang started out on this journey in company of his mother, whose passing in Paris in July , far away from home, was a shock to the entire family. With this personal bereavement and the financial failure in the background, Wolfgang dreaded the return to Salzburg See Boberski, Das Theater der Benediktiner, Yet, I would like to suggest that the tears might also be read in the larger cultural context of Empfindsamkeit, in which compassion and the display of a compassionate heart were regarded as a high value.

Musicological interest in the cultural dimension of eighteenth-century music and music making increased considerably during the last decades and thus Empfindsamkeit came into focus. Matthew Head, Sovereign Feminine: Simon Keefe Cambridge, , 74— For example, Wolfgang asked Nannerl to keep him informed about repertory and performers at the Salzburg theatre, when he was in Munich preparing Idomeneo in , and she diligently sent him a detailed listing of all plays performed.

Presumably, Nannerl also followed the events at the theatre opposite their home during the months before, attending rehearsals, performances or eying up the theatregoers, just as she did in The commentary to this letter does not identify the piece, see Briefe, vi, Being offered all the money of Perthold they plan to spend it on the education of their children and on buying a bakery, which is the trade the cousin originally trained for. Several side plots add to the sentimental character of the piece: Walter marries the stepdaughter of Perthold and both are portrayed as morally unadulterated young persons.

While this story might seem entirely trivial to us nowadays, it was lauded for its depiction of feelings and of Empfindsamkeit, as human capacity, which ultimately lead to good deeds.


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Often it is a sorrowful farewell that brought the tears about and those tears are the proof of sincere friendship. Compassion and being moved, Empfindsamkeit, were obviously a valued capacity and understood as such within the Mozart family. He has taken a great fancy to me. He has a daughter who plays the clavier quite nicely; and in order to properly make a friend of him I am now working at a sonata for her, which is almost finished save for the Rondo.

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Niemöller, origin of famous quotation "First they came for the Communists"

In Mannheim, Wolfgang planned or at least purported to use the same policy in order to attain the favour of the Elector and Leopold clearly approved of this. In addition, Leopold admonished his son also to befriend the governess, presumably because her influence on the children and the parents was crucially important in such a plot. For this reason Leopold gave them a letter of recommendation to Hagenauer and also wrote the following lines to his landlord separately: And now it is time to tell you something about my two friends from Saxony, Baron von Hopfgarten and Baron von Bose.

Bose died in Rome on 28 April , a couple of months after his departure from Paris. Menschen sehen, die alles haben, was ein ehrlicher Mann auf dieser Welt haben soll: Perhaps this hope came true in , when Leopold visited Wolfgang in Vienna and attended several concerts of his son. Thus the full context of the words above reads: I know that you love me, not merely as your father, but also as your truest and surest friend; that you understand and realise that our happiness and unhappiness, and, what is more, my long life or my speedy death are, if I may say so, apart from God, in your hands.

Writing to Ignaz Joseph Spaur, archbishop of Brixen, in order to congratulate him on his name day, Leopold told him about the passing of his wife and laments: Such visits provided a way to establish personal emotional ties with luminaries of the past, just as hanging their pictures on walls at home. In Antwerp, the family visited the tomb of the painter Rubens, which included a portrait of the painter and his family, as Leopold noted specifically.

Friendships made on journeys often evolved during a very short time and one hoped to conserve such fleeting encounters of true friendship by exchanging a keepsake upon departure. For a description of the tomb, its attraction and its meaning for travellers in the eighteenth century, see Constanze Baum, Ruinenlandschaften Heidelberg, , — Leopold used the engraving of it for merchandising purposes on this tour, as well as selling it as a souvenir for years to come. A facsimile of the dedication letter is included in DeutschBilder, Though Leopold was at first deeply sceptical about the new castrato Francesco Ceccarelli, who arrived in Salzburg in autumn , they Dokumente, —9; Documentary Biography, — Robbins Landon London, , 8.

When Leopold, Wolfgang and Nannerl Mozart permanently lived in different places, the exchange of portraits also played a role within the family: Gilgen from January Perhaps Nannerl had a particular interest in collecting silhouettes. Maria Margaretha Marchand stayed with Leopold and Nannerl in Salzburg between and and Leopold taught her keyboard playing, singing and composition. Before she returned to Munich in summer , she wrote a letter to Nannerl, who had just married Johann Baptist Berchthold von Sonnenburg and moved to St.

See Briefe, vi, Now farewell, my dearest and best, — remember that I talk to your portrait every night before I go to bed for a long half an hour, and the same I do when I wake up. The cultural transfer of books, plays and ideas from the northern part of Germany clearly played a considerable role within the intellectual, artistic and academic life in Salzburg during the second half of the eighteenth century. The current chapter will describe how the musical links between North Germany and Salzburg were much stronger than commonly assumed, too.

It is in the realm of domestic music making that the influence of North German musical culture is most clearly visible. This part of Salzburg music culture hardly received any attention until now within musicological or historical research beyond the bare facts that Leopold, Wolfgang and Nannerl Mozart tutored some noble children in piano or violin playing. Regarding domestic music making he states that it is beyond our knowledge and assumes that it only became widespread during the nineteenth century. Johann Andreas Schachtner, preface [unpaginated].

See Violinschule, preface [unpaginated]. Wilhelm Rausch Linz, , The first part of this chapter will investigate the music trade in Salzburg and provide an overview on the sales channels Chapter 5. This is followed by a detailed documentation of North German publications available in town Chapter 5. For example in October , Mayr advertised three music treatises published by Lotter: Very often these church compositions allowed expressly for flexible or small performance forces, so as to increase their commercial viability. Other voices and instruments can be added to make up a four-part chorus and an ensemble of two violins and two horns in addition to the continuo.

These were mainly music treatises, piano pieces and songs, a repertory clearly aimed at a bourgeois market of amateur music lovers, which I will detail below. All the itinerant book traders coming to the Salzburg fairs also dealt with sheet music and their sales catalogues prove the general availability of a wide range of music publications in Salzburg. It is impossible to determine which of the advertised volumes of sheet music the traders Lotter, Wolff, Schwarzkopf and Klett brought to Salzburg in physical copies for the fairs. In addition to these general book traders, who also dealt with some music, there were two specialist music dealers and publishers active on the Salzburg market: Lotter was the music publisher with the strongest presence in Salzburg during the second half of the eighteenth century.

Lotter published music catalogues fairly regularly and the surviving catalogues prove his repeated presence at the Salzburg fairs between and The extant catalogues from this period all state on the title pages that Lotter visited both of the Salzburg fairs. Missae rurales, quibus accedunt II. Missae de requiem Augsburg, Lotter, The agents were mostly book traders, such as Lotter in Augsburg, and some musicians.

Cited in Rheinfurth, Der Musikverlag Lotter, See Rheinfurth, Der Musikverlag Lotter, 49— To my knowledge, the catalogue of is the only one by Haffner extant today and therefore it is impossible to verify, since when Leopold Mozart acted as agent for Haffner. Reciprocally, Haffner distributed publications of the Mozarts: Haffner mainly printed music for domestic music making. Yet, the catalogue might date from , as several publications advertised seem to postdate yet, the dating of the plate numbers by Hoffmann-Erbrecht is not beyond doubt. Yet, a comprehensive selection of books on music and music treatises by north German authors or published in North Germany was also available in town.

In particular the writings of Johann Mattheson, Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg and Georg Andreas Sorge featured frequently in the sales catalogues of the book traders. The large amount of music literature and music treatises reflected the trend to a more structured and scientific music education, as opposed to the purely oral tradition of teaching music. It also shows how music education and musical knowledge became part of the general culture of educated citizens. Some highly specialised books on organ building or mathematical calculations of tunings were advertised by the book traders, too, even though these books probably did not appeal to a wide audience.

The asterisks specify editions by other publishers.

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The two volumes of this work were sold by Schwarzkopf in Some of the epoch-making musical journals from Berlin and Leipzig were also available in Salzburg: A biography and an engraved portrait of Georg Philipp Telemann within J. A wide array of works by the multifaceted musician, theorist and scholar Johann Mattheson was advertised by the Lotter brothers: The interested reader in Salzburg could also acquire some of the more speculative late works by Mattheson: In his book Buttstett tried to reassure the eternal validity of traditional music theory against the newfangled writings by Mattheson.

It included sections on figured bass, on playing the most common instruments keyboard, strings and flute and also on instrument building. The composition and ground bass treatises available on the Salzburg market encompass the full range from highly complex treatises to simple introductions for the amateur Liebhaber. In Marpurg started an educational anthology of fugues, titled Fugen-Sammlung, which he planned to continue annually, but only the first volume got published and was distributed in Salzburg. Another compositional treatise edited by Marpurg was available in Salzburg: Figured bass still was the foundation of any compositional training.

A diverse range of instrumental treatises from North Germany could also be purchased in Salzburg. Lotter also distributed the two works on keyboard playing published by Marpurg: In , the book trader Klett stocked a piano treatise written particularly for children by Georg Friedrich Merbach, published in Leipzig in You do not currently have access to this article.

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