Turkey in the United Nations Security Council (SETA Policy Briefs Book 28)
It appears to have a policy of running about every four to six years. Brazil has had a long history in UN peacekeeping operations. It was part of the peacekeeping force that was dispatched in to the Suez Canal. In Brazil was part of the observer force that guaranteed the October elections in Mozambique, and in it joined the UN force in Bosnia. Overall, Brazil is presently involved in eight UN peacekeeping missions and is ranked 20 th among UN troop contributors supplying 1, personnel.
It has also indicated interest in issues related to the Middle East particularly Israel-Palestine relations, and Africa. Among the thematic issues that may be a focus are peace and security and post-conflict issues. Possible Issues Involving New Members during The election of some of the group of new members of the Council may give rise to some interesting and complex issues in the coming two years. The UN Charter foresaw the possibility of conflicts of interest arising as a result of membership of the Council and it established a rule that members directly involved in an issue should abstain.
Decisions of the Security Council on all other matters shall be made by an affirmative vote of nine members including the concurring votes of the permanent members; provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI, and under paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to the dispute shall abstain from voting. But beyond this strictly legal dimension there is also a wider political question of how a Council member handles its participation in decisions which are sensitive because they relate directly to its national interests.
Council members will recall the case of Rwanda which was elected to the Council in while also on the agenda and the problems that arose in during the genocide when Rwanda continued to participate in decision making much to the concern of many Council members who lamented their failure to address the implications of that in advance of the crisis.
Of course, it is possible that the Council will not have to address these issues directly.
It was notable, for instance, that in June Turkey, which was president of the Council that month, requested that the issue of the renewal of the UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus be moved to the previous month so that it would not be seen to be presiding over the discussion. By quietly and informally taking the initiative in this regard Turkey avoided any sensitive discussion of a procedural practice.
It remains to be seen how Bosnia and Herzegovina and Lebanon will play these issues.
However, given the direct Council involvement with both countries, there is some possibility of discussion over whether or not obligatory abstention is appropriate. There is no reason to assume that this will be the case in but some possible risks could be noted. Again, there is no reason for assuming that serious problems will arise. But there are precedents for dealing with the consequences of a Council member being effectively without a workable government. From 14 July to 7 September Rwanda, although an elected member, did not sit in the Council.
Council members prevailed on the sitting ambassador to absent his delegation on the basis that it was unclear who was entitled to represent the country. During this period the Council adopted statements and at least four resolutions with only 14 members. On the other hand history also shows that pure clean slate elections are also not the norm.
There have been periods when the Council elections have been largely uncontested. Most recently from there were full clean slates, i. Similarly from to and then in Council elections were non-competitive. The longest period of non-competitive elections appears to have taken place following the reorganisation of the electoral groups in For almost ten years from to the number of candidates equaled the number of seats allocated to each region every year. This was followed by a period of highly competitive elections from the mids to the mids.
Some observers argue that clean slate elections do not give the larger UN body a real choice and that they undermine article 23 of the UN Charter which establishes criteria for elections based on contribution to international peace and security and to equitable geographical distribution. Eliminating competition by rotation or other similar practices is seen as meaning that there is no real scrutiny of the candidates.
Other observers have argued non-competitive elections result in more complacent and less invigorated Council members. It is true that competitive elections require very active campaigning, stimulating candidates to clearly define their priorities early and to better resource their UN related capacity in their governments. Moreover, the substantive work done during the campaign period is an advantage in helping new members when they become a Council member. Furthermore, in some electoral cycles in the past, candidates have made specific commitments to the membership at large for example, candidates pledged to regularly brief their non-Council colleagues about developments in closed meetings of the Council.
A clean slate eliminates that feature. However, it is also a fact that some regional groups have consistently preferred clean slate candidates because of a desire to avoid enhancing regional divisiveness and other tensions. Also some groups see political value in taking their own decisions their own way rather than exposing decisions to the wider international community. Some see political risks in long drawn-out elections, as well as diversion of scarce financial resources.
Moreover, a system of rotation can encourage members who might not otherwise compete because of the lack of capacity to campaign or not wanting to risk the embarrassment associated with losing. It also has to be acknowledged that there are cases where an uncontested election has produced very effective Council members. When a candidate does not have to spend time and money on campaigning and knows that they will be on the Council, this leaves space for energetic candidates to start preparations for being on the Council much earlier.
Intensely competitive elections have resulted in a deadlocked situation where a third candidate, which is given very little time to prepare, is brought in, as happened in It is noted, however, that clean slates can lead to a situation where regional groups rather than the General Assembly become the key determinant in selecting the elected composition of the Council.
All three have asserted bids to become permanent members in an expanded Security Council.
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Japan and Brazil are part of the Group of Four G4 formed in to push for expansion of the Council. Moreover, the other two G4 members, India and Germany, are both running for seats in the election for the term. It remains to be seen whether having Japan, Brazil and Nigeria on the Council for the next few years will result in a particularly active dynamic. Under that resolution the seats available to the African and Asian states were combined.
However, in reality the candidates for elections for the African and Asian seats operate separately and this Special Research Report follows that customary practice. The UN Charter provides that non-permanent members would be elected according to equitable, geographic distribution. It does not stipulate how that should be achieved. Nevertheless, the idea of equitable geographic distribution gave rise to electoral groups being established as a vehicle for achieving that goal. The regional groups, as they now operate, are as follows:. Currently only Kiribati does not participate in any regional grouping within the UN.
The US is not a member of any group but attends meetings of WEOG as an observer and is considered a member of this group for electoral purposes. Israel, which was without any group for many years, was given temporary membership in WEOG in May , which is subject to renewal every four years. In general these are not codified into actual rules. However, the African Group is an exception to this.
As a result, subregional groups within the African Group tend to follow a disciplined rotation system. Theoretically, under this system every country in Africa could hope to eventually get a turn to be a candidate for a seat on the Council. Of the 53 members of the African Group only 11 have never been a member of the Council. The rotation follows a systematic cycle based on the following principle:. However, the picture becomes complicated at times because countries within a subregional group can change their affiliation. Also, some countries that can claim to straddle more than one geographic region have at times indeed chosen to shift from one subgroup to another.
While in theory under the African Group rotation system the nine members of the Central Africa subgroup could all have a turn in the Council over a year period, in practice other factors tend to override this established practice. In fact, from the evidence of the last few years it appears to be common for challengers to emerge within the same subregional grouping upsetting the order.
As illustrated above, candidates are often persuaded to drop out to avoid a competitive election. But there are some occasions when challengers persist and continue all the way through the election. Since , when the current regional groupings were established, there have been four competitive elections for the African seats. Nigeria prevailed over Niger after five rounds in It also challenged Guinea-Bissau in and won. In Ghana and Liberia went to four rounds before Ghana won. Another example was when Sudan lost to Mauritius in The OAU summit did not endorse any candidate that year.
Also, in practice within a subgroup some countries may choose to run more often, while others are not ready to run at all. In the Central Africa group the seat has generally rotated among four main countries: The process for selecting a candidate in the African Group has a defined path. First, the subregional groups select their candidates whose names will be forwarded to the African Group of ambassadors for endorsement. In spite of having these written Rules of Procedure for candidate selection, candidates have in the past submitted their candidature directly to the AU Ministerial Committee on Candidatures bypassing the process in New York.
The practice of rotation tends to favour clean slate elections. However, there are times when mechanistic application results in candidates being elected that would have struggled in a contested election and adds little to resolving problems. However, a regional group may choose to persuade a candidate to defer its candidacy as the Africa Group did with Libya in and An emerging factor is the growing desire by the larger countries which have played a major role in contributing to peacekeeping, such as Nigeria, to be elected more often than strict adherence to rotation would allow.
It remains to be seen how this will play out in the future, but it appears that smaller countries often give way to a larger regional power as happened this year with Nigeria. The Asian group as a whole generally only endorses a year ahead if there is a clean slate. However, subgroups such as the ten Southeast Asian countries or the Arab subgroup which has 21 members may choose to endorse a candidate earlier. The Arab League, for example, endorsed Lebanon in Still some informal patterns have emerged. Until the mids there was an almost continuous South Asian presence on the Council with India, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh regularly occupying seats on the Council.
These countries do not appear to have a policy of not running against each other. In India and Pakistan fought for the same seat going to eight rounds with Pakistan finally winning. India and Pakistan also overlapped for a year in However, since India has not been on the Council. It ran in but lost to Japan. It has announced that it plans to run in the election. Pakistan is a candidate together with the Kyrgyz Republic and Fiji for the election so it is possible that both India and Pakistan could be on the Council in Japan also has had a regular presence on the Council from onwards.
By the end of , when its current term ends it, Japan would have accumulated a record twenty years on the Council. Its distorted form of representation stands between us and the multilateral world to which we aspire. Therefore I am much encouraged by the General Assembly's decision to launch negotiations in the near future on the reform of the Security Council.mdvorakphd.com/wp-content/13/copiare-rubrica-da-samsung-ad-iphone.php
Reform of the United Nations Security Council - Wikipedia
We reiterate that the reform of the UNSC is urgent and would go a long way in rectifying inequitable power relations within the Security Council. The member Security Council must be enlarged so that it is more representative, transparent and efficient. In our view it is illogical that countries like Brazil or India that have today an irreplaceable economic and political role are still not permanent members of the Security Council. Africa also deserves consideration to take due account of the remarkable political and economic progresses that we have witnessed in that vast continent.
The Security Council must be able to take leadership in maintaining international peace and security. Thus Lithuania supports substantial reform for the better, equitable representation in both categories, permanent or non-permanent, through the inclusion of Germany and Japan, as well as certain other leading countries from other regions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Brazil and the United Nations. Germany and the United Nations. India and the United Nations. Support by UN Members. Japan and the United Nations. This section's representation of one or more viewpoints about a controversial issue may be unbalanced or inaccurate. Please improve the article or discuss the issue on the talk page. This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.
United Nations Security Council veto power. Retrieved 21 May Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 30 September Archived from the original on 15 April Archived from the original on 3 April Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 22 November Mingst and Margaret P. Westview Press, , Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 3 November Roma con voti sfida Berlino" in Italian. Retrieved 19 September Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 9 March Ministry of Foreign Relations of Brazil.
Retrieved 28 June Retrieved 18 January Ateneo De Manila University Press. Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 25 July Al Jazeera English 27 January Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 28 July Zee News 13 October Retrieved 13 June India will have Security Council reform by end beginning ". Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 22 May The New York Times. Daily News and Analysis. Archived from the original on 14 June Archived from the original on 16 June The Times of India. Archived from the original on 26 April Archived from the original on 7 May Retrieved 11 September Archived from the original on 23 March Ministry of External Affairs.
Archived from the original on 12 January Retrieved 9 September Archived from the original on 16 October Archived from the original on 25 November Archived from the original PDF on 3 April Archived from the original on 23 November Retrieved 13 December Lithuania backs India's claim for U. Archived from the original PDF on 16 October Maldives official website — Maldives News Bulletin".
Mauritius to back India's bid". Archived from the original PDF on 13 March Archived from the original on 12 June Archived from the original on 2 June Archived from the original on 19 March The original Members of the United Nations shall be the states which, having participated in the United Nations Conference on International Organization at San Francisco, or having previously signed the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January , sign the present Charter and ratify it in accordance with Article A Member of the United Nations against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
The exercise of these rights and privileges may be restored by the Security Council. A Member of the United Nations which has persistently violated the Principles contained in the present Charter may be expelled from the Organization by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council. The United Nations shall place no restrictions on the eligibility of men and women to participate in any capacity and under conditions of equality in its principal and subsidiary organs.
The General Assembly may discuss any questions or any matters within the scope of the present Charter or relating to the powers and functions of any organs provided for in the present Charter, and, except as provided in Article 12, may make recommendations to the Members of the United Nations or to the Security Council or to both on any such questions or matters. Subject to the provisions of Article 12, the General Assembly may recommend measures for the peaceful adjustment of any situation, regardless of origin, which it deems likely to impair the general welfare or friendly relations among nations, including situations resulting from a violation of the provisions of the present Charter setting forth the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.
The General Assembly shall perform such functions with respect to the international trusteeship system as are assigned to it under Chapters XII and XIII, including the approval of the trusteeship agreements for areas not designated as strategic.
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A Member of the United Nations which is in arrears in the payment of its financial contributions to the Organization shall have no vote in the General Assembly if the amount of its arrears equals or exceeds the amount of the contributions due from it for the preceding two full years. The General Assembly may, nevertheless, permit such a Member to vote if it is satisfied that the failure to pay is due to conditions beyond the control of the Member. The General Assembly shall meet in regular annual sessions and in such special sessions as occasion may require.
Special sessions shall be convoked by the Secretary-General at the request of the Security Council or of a majority of the Members of the United Nations. The General Assembly shall adopt its own rules of procedure. It shall elect its President for each session. The General Assembly may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions. The Members of the United Nations agree to accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council in accordance with the present Charter.
In order to promote the establishment and maintenance of international peace and security with the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources, the Security Council shall be responsible for formulating, with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee referred to in Article 47, plans to be submitted to the Members of the United Nations for the establishment of a system for the regulation of armaments.
The Security Council may establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary for the performance of its functions. The Security Council shall adopt its own rules of procedure, including the method of selecting its President. Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council may participate, without vote, in the discussion of any question brought before the Security Council whenever the latter considers that the interests of that Member are specially affected.
Any Member of the United Nations which is not a member of the Security Council or any state which is not a Member of the United Nations, if it is a party to a dispute under consideration by the Security Council, shall be invited to participate, without vote, in the discussion relating to the dispute. The Security Council shall lay down such conditions as it deems just for the participation of a state which is not a Member of the United Nations.
The Security Council may investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to international friction or give rise to a dispute, in order to determine whether the continuance of the dispute or situation is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security. Without prejudice to the provisions of Articles 33 to 37, the Security Council may, if all the parties to any dispute so request, make recommendations to the parties with a view to a pacific settlement of the dispute. The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security.
In order to prevent an aggravation of the situation, the Security Council may, before making the recommendations or deciding upon the measures provided for in Article 39, call upon the parties concerned to comply with such provisional measures as it deems necessary or desirable. Such provisional measures shall be without prejudice to the rights, claims, or position of the parties concerned. The Security Council shall duly take account of failure to comply with such provisional measures. The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures.
These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations. Should the Security Council consider that measures provided for in Article 41 would be inadequate or have proved to be inadequate, it may take such action by air, sea, or land forces as may be necessary to maintain or restore international peace and security. Such action may include demonstrations, blockade, and other operations by air, sea, or land forces of Members of the United Nations.
When the Security Council has decided to use force it shall, before calling upon a Member not represented on it to provide armed forces in fulfilment of the obligations assumed under Article 43, invite that Member, if the Member so desires, to participate in the decisions of the Security Council concerning the employment of contingents of that Member's armed forces. In order to enable the United Nations to take urgent military measures, Members shall hold immediately available national air-force contingents for combined international enforcement action.
The strength and degree of readiness of these contingents and plans for their combined action shall be determined within the limits laid down in the special agreement or agreements referred to in Article 43, by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee.
Plans for the application of armed force shall be made by the Security Council with the assistance of the Military Staff Committee. The Members of the United Nations shall join in affording mutual assistance in carrying out the measures decided upon by the Security Council. If preventive or enforcement measures against any state are taken by the Security Council, any other state, whether a Member of the United Nations or not, which finds itself confronted with special economic problems arising from the carrying out of those measures shall have the right to consult the Security Council with regard to a solution of those problems.
Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defence shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security.
The Security Council shall at all times be kept fully informed of activities undertaken or in contemplation under regional arrangements or by regional agencies for the maintenance of international peace and security. With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly relations among nations based on respect for the principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the United Nations shall promote:.
All Members pledge themselves to take joint and separate action in co-operation with the Organization for the achievement of the purposes set forth in Article The Organization shall make recommendations for the co-ordination of the policies and activities of the specialized agencies. The Organization shall, where appropriate, initiate negotiations among the states concerned for the creation of any new specialized agencies required for the accomplishment of the purposes set forth in Article Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the Organization set forth in this Chapter shall be vested in the General Assembly and, under the authority of the General Assembly, in the Economic and Social Council, which shall have for this purpose the powers set forth in Chapter X.
The Economic and Social Council may furnish information to the Security Council and shall assist the Security Council upon its request. The Economic and Social Council shall set up commissions in economic and social fields and for the promotion of human rights, and such other commissions as may be required for the performance of its functions. The Economic and Social Council shall invite any Member of the United Nations to participate, without vote, in its deliberations on any matter of particular concern to that Member.
The Economic and Social Council may make arrangements for representatives of the specialized agencies to participate, without vote, in its deliberations and in those of the commissions established by it, and for its representatives to participate in the deliberations of the specialized agencies. The Economic and Social Council may make suitable arrangements for consultation with non-governmental organizations which are concerned with matters within its competence. Such arrangements may be made with international organizations and, where appropriate, with national organizations after consultation with the Member of the United Nations concerned.
Members of the United Nations which have or assume responsibilities for the administration of territories whose peoples have not yet attained a full measure of self-government recognize the principle that the interests of the inhabitants of these territories are paramount, and accept as a sacred trust the obligation to promote to the utmost, within the system of international peace and security established by the present Charter, the well-being of the inhabitants of these territories, and, to this end:.
Members of the United Nations also agree that their policy in respect of the territories to which this Chapter applies, no less than in respect of their metropolitan areas, must be based on the general principle of good-neighbourliness, due account being taken of the interests and well-being of the rest of the world, in social, economic, and commercial matters. The United Nations shall establish under its authority an international trusteeship system for the administration and supervision of such territories as may be placed thereunder by subsequent individual agreements.
These territories are hereinafter referred to as trust territories. The basic objectives of the trusteeship system, in accordance with the Purposes of the United Nations laid down in Article 1 of the present Charter, shall be:. The trusteeship system shall not apply to territories which have become Members of the United Nations, relationship among which shall be based on respect for the principle of sovereign equality. The terms of trusteeship for each territory to be placed under the trusteeship system, including any alteration or amendment, shall be agreed upon by the states directly concerned, including the mandatory power in the case of territories held under mandate by a Member of the United Nations, and shall be approved as provided for in Articles 83 and The trusteeship agreement shall in each case include the terms under which the trust territory will be administered and designate the authority which will exercise the administration of the trust territory.
Such authority, hereinafter called the administering authority, may be one or more states or the Organization itself. There may be designated, in any trusteeship agreement, a strategic area or areas which may include part or all of the trust territory to which the agreement applies, without prejudice to any special agreement or agreements made under Article It shall be the duty of the administering authority to ensure that the trust territory shall play its part in the maintenance of international peace and security. To this end the administering authority may make use of volunteer forces, facilities, and assistance from the trust territory in carrying out the obligations towards the Security Council undertaken in this regard by the administering authority, as well as for local defence and the maintenance of law and order within the trust territory.
The General Assembly and, under its authority, the Trusteeship Council, in carrying out their functions, may:. The Trusteeship Council shall formulate a questionnaire on the political, economic, social, and educational advancement of the inhabitants of each trust territory, and the administering authority for each trust territory within the competence of the General Assembly shall make an annual report to the General Assembly upon the basis of such questionnaire. The Trusteeship Council shall, when appropriate, avail itself of the assistance of the Economic and Social Council and of the specialized agencies in regard to matters with which they are respectively concerned.
It shall function in accordance with the annexed Statute, which is based upon the Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice and forms an integral part of the present Charter. Nothing in the present Charter shall prevent Members of the United Nations from entrusting the solution of their differences to other tribunals by virtue of agreements already in existence or which may be concluded in the future.
The General Assembly or the Security Council may request the International Court of Justice to give an advisory opinion on any legal question. Other organs of the United Nations and specialized agencies, which may at any time be so authorized by the General Assembly, may also request advisory opinions of the Court on legal questions arising within the scope of their activities. The Secretariat shall comprise a Secretary-General and such staff as the Organization may require. He shall be the chief administrative officer of the Organization.
The Secretary-General shall act in that capacity in all meetings of the General Assembly, of the Security Council, of the Economic and Social Council, and of the Trusteeship Council, and shall perform such other functions as are entrusted to him by these organs. The Secretary-General shall make an annual report to the General Assembly on the work of the Organization. The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter which in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.
In the event of a conflict between the obligations of the Members of the United Nations under the present Charter and their obligations under any other international agreement, their obligations under the present Charter shall prevail. The Organization shall enjoy in the territory of each of its Members such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes.
Pending the coming into force of such special agreements referred to in Article 43 as in the opinion of the Security Council enable it to begin the exercise of its responsibilities under Article 42, the parties to the Four-Nation Declaration, signed at Moscow, 30 October , and France, shall, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 5 of that Declaration, consult with one another and as occasion requires with other Members of the United Nations with a view to such joint action on behalf of the Organization as may be necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security.
Nothing in the present Charter shall invalidate or preclude action, in relation to any state which during the Second World War has been an enemy of any signatory to the present Charter, taken or authorized as a result of that war by the Governments having responsibility for such action. Amendments to the present Charter shall come into force for all Members of the United Nations when they have been adopted by a vote of two thirds of the members of the General Assembly and ratified in accordance with their respective constitutional processes by two thirds of the Members of the United Nations, including all the permanent members of the Security Council.
The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America.
Reform of the United Nations Security Council
Duly certified copies thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the Governments of the other signatory states. Welcome to the United Nations. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: