Vinde, amor ardente (Portuguese Edition)
Rules for the Combination and Use of the different Parts of Speech. The, Syntax, in which are explained, after a more co- pious manner than hitherto attempted, the peculiar uses of the Portuguese Pat t'cles. SIR, THE best Historians and the greatest Poet my country has produced, have dedi- cated their talents to the subject which at present employs yours ; and as no one is more sensible than yourself of the Geo- graphical, Commercial, and Political Know- ledge, which may be derived from an ac- quaintance with their writings on Indian affairs, this work of mine can nowise be addressed with greater propriety than to yourself.
JS the usefulness of the Portuguese language is so well known to all English merchants who carry on a general trade with the different Parts of the known world, it will be needless to use any arguments here to prove it ; and I shall refer what I have to say on the copiousness and energy of this language, to the Preface to my English and Portuguese Dictionary.
The reader will find in the First Part of this Grammar, what is material as a foundation of the whole.
- Fractured Crystal: Sapphires and Submission (The Crystal Fragments Trilogy Book 1).
- Shakespeare and the Cultural Colonization of Ireland (Literary Criticism and Cultural Theory).
Having found a great difficulty in procuring Portuguese books in this Country, 1 have been commonly obliged to furnish with part of my private collection those Gentlemen whom I have had the honour of assisting in the study of this language, during my residence here ; therefore, in the Fourth Part I have given some passages selected from the best Portuguese Authors, and which will, at the same time, facilitate the read- ing of their most eminent writers. Advertisement to this New Edition. Vieyra's Gram- mar, has been not only accurately marked with the proper accents to facilitate the Pro- nunciation and the Intelligence of the Lan- guage, but even materially altered in the body of the Work.
This interesting part, in which all the former Editions have been so deficient, using only the acute has been scrupulously corrected in the present one. In that part which treats of the Pronunciation, some very necessary corrections have been introduced. New passages from the best Modern Wri- ters, have been substituted for some of the Ancient ones, to enable the learners to form a proper idea of the variations and progress of the Language, down to the present time. A new Vocabulary of the Military Words of.
Command and a fresh Translation of the Com- mercial Letters have also been inserted in this Edition. Such are the principal alterations made in this Work, which, it is hoped, will meet with the approbation of the public. And the manner of pronouncing each separate Letter. HPHE Portuguese alphabet contains twenty-four letters, viz. B is expressed by a sound like that of the be, in the first syllable of the English word Betty.
C is expressed by a sound like that of the first syllable of the English word celebrated. D is expressed by a sound like that of the first syllable of the English word declare: E is expressed by the same sound as in English. G is expressed by a sound like that of the first syllable of the English word generation.
H is expressed by a sound like that of the Eng- lish word aghast if you cut off the two last letters st, and keep the accent on the second a. I is expressed by the sound of our ee. J is called j consodnte, it. M, as in English. N r as in English. O has nearly the same sound as in the English word store.
P is expressed by a sound like that of pe in the English word penny. Q is expressed by a sound like that of the Eng- lish k. R is expressed by a sound like that of the English participle erred, if you can cut off the last letter d. S, as in English. T is expressed by a sound like that of tha in the English word Thames. U is expressed by a sound like that of oo in the English word poop.
V is expressed by a sound like that of oo ; they call it also oo consodnte, i. X is expressed by a sound like that of our pro- noun personal she, if you add an s to it, or asshees. Z is expressed by the sound of our English zed, leaving out tfye d, or zea. It is sometimes pronounced with less strength, and closely, as in dmbos, where the a is pronounced like a in the English word ambition. The letter e has two different sounds ; the one open like ai in daily; the other close, like that in the English word mellow.
In this consists a great part of the beauty of the Portuguese pronunciation, which however, cannot be learnt but by a long, use, not- withstanding all the rules that can be given. This vowel has two sounds ; one open, as in the word do, pity, where the is pronounced like our o in the word store; the other close, as in the Por- tuguese article do, of, and the word redondo, round, where the is pronounced like our u in turret or stumble.
The vowel u is pronounced like oo in English. Y has the same sound as the Portuguese vowel i. B Keeps always the same sound as in English. Double c is sounded only before e and i, the first with the sound of k, and the other with the hissing sound of s; as in aecidi nte, accident, pronounce aksidinte. D Is pronounced in Portuguese as in English. Is pronounced always as in English.
G Before the vowels a, o, u, and before consonants, is pronounced as in English: Gua sounds almost like owxwa: The letter h is never aspirated nor pronounced at the beginning of words, as hora, an hour ; homem, a man: H when preceded by a c, makes a sound with it like our sh. See the letter C, and also the letters L and N. J Is pronounced like our j consonant. The Portuguese have no such letter as k.
L Is pronounced in Portuguese as in English. N being before a vowel with which it forms a syl- lable, is pronounced as in English ; otherwise, it only gives a nasal sound to the vowel that precedes it. N before h has the same sound as gn in Italian, or in the French words Espagne, Alkmagm. P and ph are pronounced as in English. Q Is pronounced like k: R and double r are pronounced as hi English, S. S and ss are pronounced as in English. T Is pronounced as in English. V Is pronounced as in English.
X between two vowels is pronounced like gz in the words exact amente, exornar ; except Alexandre, Paixam, Puxo, baxo, and some other words, that may be learnt by use. You must take care to pronounce the g so smoothly as to render it almost impercepti- ble to the ear. The tittle, or little dash, which the Portuguese call til, is set by them over some letters instead of m ; as be instead of hem ; conve instead of corvoim ; hita instead of huma f and as it is then to be con- sidered as an m, see what we have said about the pronunciation of that letter.
See what we have said above of m at the end of words preceded by an a. Aa, as in magaa, an apple. Ay, as in pay, father. Ai, as in mals, more. Ao, as in pdo, wood. Au, as in causa, a cause. Ey, as in rSy, king. Ei, as in amei, I Wed. Eu, as oj, I, Jo, as vza, he saw. Oy, as in boy, an ox ; foy, he was. J7e, as azues 3 blue: Ai, as mpaiz, a country, pronounce pa4z. Ea, as in lamprea, a. Io, as in navio, a ship, pronounce, navi-o. Iu, as vifooa, a widow, pronounce, vi-uya. Oa, as Lisboa, Lisbon, proa, a prow, pronounce, Lisb6-a, Sec. Oe, as toem, soem, from the verbs, toar, and aoir, pronounce, id-em, Sec.
Oi, as rom, bad, pronounce, ro4m. Oo, as cooperagdm, co-operation, pronounce, co- operagao. Uiy as ruina, ruin, pronounce, ru-ina. II Of the Articles. These articles are definite or indefinite. The definite article marks the gender, number, and case of the nouns which it precedes. The Portuguese has two, viz. The definite article has five cases, the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative ; because the vocative in the nouns is designed and preceded merely by the particle 0.
The Declension of the Masculine Article o. Genitive, do, of the.mylistinggh.com/wp-content/marriages/jecef-funny-speed.php
Luís de Camões
Genitive, dos, of the. Dative, aos, or os, to the. Accusative, ao, or 0, the. Accusative, aos, or os, the. Ablative, do, from or by the. Ablative, dos y from or by the. The Declension of the Feminine Article a. Genitive, da, of the. Genitive, das, of the. Dative, a, to the. Dative, as, to the. Ablative, da, from the. Ablative, das, from or by the. Of tke Indefinite Article. The indefinite article may be put before the mas- culine as well as the feminine gender, before the plural as well as the singular number. The indefinite article has but four cases, the ge- nitive, dative, accusative, and ablative.
One may put de before a noun masculine as well as a feminine, as huma cor 6a de rey, a king's crown ; the word rey is masculine; hum chapeo de pdlha y a hat of straw ; the word pdlha is of the feminine gender. Declension of the Indefinite Article; Genitive, de, of. Whenever we meet with of and to in Eng- lish, followed by the, remember they are the indefi- nite articles, and then we must make use of the indefinite article de, or a, in Portuguese.
When the preposition in is followed by the article the or by a pronoun possessive, as in the, in my, in thy, in his, we must render it in Portuguese by em o or no, em os or nos, for the masculine ; and by em a orna, em as or nas, for the feminine: When after the preposition with, which in Portu- guese is expressed by com, we find the articles the, or a pronoun possessive, as with the, with my, Sec. Observe, that sometimes the dative and accusative of the indefinite article are not expressed in English, particularly before pronouns personal and proper names ; example, convem a nos, it behoves us ; An- tonio matou a JPidro, Anthony killed Peter.
They have but two genders, the masculine and feminine. The Portuguese nouns have no variation of cases, like the Latin, and the article only distinguishes the case. Of nouns ending in a ; and of their declension. Of the Gender of Nouns ending in a. Except also from this general rule some nouns that have the accent upon the last syllable ; as alva-. Observe, that the plural of nouns ending in a is formed by adding the letter s to the singular; as likewise the plural of all nouns that terminate in vowels.
Observe also, that nouns ending in aa are of the feminine gender, and form their plural as those ending in a. Of the Gender of Nouns ending in e. The exceptions zxtfe, faith ; fonte, a fountain ; chave, a key ; torre, a tower ; dve, a fowl ; came, flesh or meat ; gente, people ; morte, death ; neve, snow ; noite, night ; ponte, a bridge ; piste, plague ; parte, part; serpente, a serpent; Ubre, a hare. Of the Gender of the Nouns ending in i. Of Nouns ending in o. Except ndo, a ship ; Jilho, a fritter or pancake ; eiro, an eel. Of Nouns ending in u. Of Nouns ending in y.
Of the other Terminations of Nouns, or of those, ter- minating in consonants, 1. All nouns ending in al, are masculine ; as xndl, a sign or token; sal, salt. You must except cat, lime, which is feminine, and has no plural. Nouns ending in ar are of the masculine gen- der ; as ar, air.
The plural of these nouns is formed by adding es to the singular, as ares from ar. Nouns ending in az are of the masculine gen- der ; as rapaz, a boy ; except paz,. The plural is formed by the addition of ez to the singular. The plural of these nouns is formed by changing the I of the singular into is ; as anneis, from annel; pap e is, from pap el. Except colher, a spoon ; mulher, 2l woman. The plural of these nouns is formed by adding es to the singular, as colkeres, from colher. Nouns ending in ez are of the masculine gender; as freguez, a parishioner or a customer; mez, month; arnez, levez,?
Except aquatil, facil, pensil, See. Nouns ending in im are of the masculine gen- der, as espadim, a little sword. Nouns ending in ir or yr are of the mas- culine gender; but martir or martyr, a martyr, is common. All nouns ending in iz are of the mascu- line gender ; as apprendiz, an apprentice ; nariz, nose ; verniz, varnish ; matiz, a shadowing in paint- ing ; chqfariZy chamariz.
The plural of these nouns is formed by adding es to the singular, as perdizes from perdiz. The plural of these nouns is formed by adding es to the singular, as amores from amdr. Nouns ending in os are of the masculine gender; as Dios, God. The plural of these nouns is formed by changing the s into zes, as Deozes from DSos. Excepts, a walnut; voz, voice; foz, the mouth of a river. The plural of these nouns is formed by adding es to the singular. Nouns ending in ul or urn are of the mascu- line gender; as sul, the south ; Saul, Saul, a proper name of a man ; at urn, tunny-fish.
Except consults from consul, a consul. The plural of those ending in uln 3 is formed by changing the m of the singular into ns, as at 6ns from atum. Nouns ending in uz'are of the masculine gender ; as arcabuz, an arquebuss. Except pao, bread ; anad, a dwarf; ougao, a hand-worm ; trovao, thunder; es- quadrao, a squadron ; piao, a child's top ; borrao, a blot with ink , papelao, paste-board ; chad, the ground, quinhao, a share.
Some change the ao of the singular into oes ; as ep- quadroes, from tsquadrad, a squadron ; troxdes, from trwvao, thunder; conclusoes, from conclusao, a con- clusion ; oragde. That all nouns ending in any of the vowels have their plural formed by adding the letter s to the singular. That the plural of nouns ending in az, ez, iz, ozj uz y is formed by adding es to the singular. The diminutives lfcssen the signification of their primitives. You may see in the last example, that the diminutives serving for the femi- nine and ending in inha, are formed by changing the last syllable a of the primitive into inha.
Observe that many nouns appear to be diminu- tives without being so; as moinho, a mill; espinha, a fish-bone. Note, the diminutives in Portuguese convey some- times a bad meaning, and denote contempt. All adjectives ending in o make their feminine by changing o into a ; as dduta, from douto, learned ; but mho, bad, makes ma in the feminine. Those that end in ao have their feminine in an ; as, saa, from sad, healthy ; loucaa, from loucao, brisk, gay, beautiful ; meaa, from meao, middling, ordi- nary.
Those that end in u make their feminine by add- ing a to the masculine, as nua, from nu, naked ; crua, from cru, raw. Portuguese Espanhol, Spanish, makes Espanhola in the femi- nine: Of the Comparison of Adjectives. The comparison of adjectives is the way of in- creasing their signification by certain degrees, which are three, viz. The positive lays down the natural signification of the adjective; as, nobre, noble; grdnde, great. The comparative raises it to a higher degree, by comparing it to the positive, which in Portuguese is performed by the adverbs mdis, more; menos, less ; as, mdis nobre, more noble; menos bella, less hand- some.
There are 'four Portuguese comparatives which end in or: Pedr, worse, mais roim. Melhor, better, mais bum. To which may be added superidr, superior ; in- Jerior, inferior ; deteriur; and some others. Observe, that there can be no comparison made without the word than ; and that this word is ex- pressed in Portuguese by que.
Mais cldro que o sol, clearer than the sun ; mdis brdnco que a neve, more white than the snow. The particle que is sometimes preceded by the word do. The comparatives superidr, inferidr, and some others, do not require que before the second term but the dative of the articles, viz. O outro he superior a este, the other is superior to this.
When the Portuguese have a mind to heighten their comparisons, they make use of, muito mats, a great deal or much more ; as also of muito minos, a great deal, or much less. Casar he muito mais estimddo que PompSo, Caesar is much more esteemed than Pompey ; Pompiofoi muito mSnosfrliz que Cce- sar, Pompey was much less happy than Ccesar, Of the Superlative, The Portuguese superlative is formed from the noun adjective, by changing the last letter into - issimo for the masculine, and into issima for the femi- nine: The most is expressed also in Portuguese by o mais and a mais ; as the most fair, or fairest, o mais hel- lo, a mais bella.
But the positive adverbs are formed by adding minte to the feminine of the positive ; s, dout anient e, learnedly, from douta, the feminine of douto ; prudentemente, prudently, from prudent e, prudent. Of Numeral Nouns ; and first ; , of Cardinal. The plural, huns, humas, is taken sometimes in- stead of alguns, algumas, signifying some ; as hum reys, some kings ; humas rainhas, some queens. Cento loses to before a noun, either mascu- line or feminine, and the n is changed into m; there- fore you must say, cem soldddos, not cento soldados.
Sometimes cento is made a substantive; as hum cento de castdnhas, one hundred of chesnuts ; and so all the cardinal numbers, when preceded by an article, or by another noun of number, as o cinco de pdos, the five of clubs ; hum sete, a seven. A method for those who understand French to learn a great many Portuguese zvords in a short time. We must observe, that the French syllable cha is generally expressed in Portuguese by ca, rejecting the h. Charbon, charite, chastete, chapbn, chape lie, chapitre, Sec.
Ob- serve also the-following rules. French words ending in ance, or ence ; as, con- stance, vigilance, clemence, prudence, Sec. Here you Jean the accent upon the e, and not upon the i, as in French ; poesie, poesia. Oire makes bria ; gloire, gloria ; victoire, victoria. Ison makes zab ; raison, razao ; prison, prizao.
On makes ao; charbon, carvao ; baron, barao. French Terminations ending in Portuguese in e. Ant, ante; vigilant, vigilante-, amant, dmante. Ent, adjective, ente; prudent, prudinte ; diligent, diliginie. French Terminations ending in Portuguese in vel. Able, vel ; louable, louvdvel ; aimable, amavel. French Terminations ending in Portuguese in ez. French Terminations ending in Portuguese in o.
Ain 9 and ien, names of nations, dno; Romain, Romano: Italien, Italidno ; Napolitain, Napolitdno. Eau, eo, chapeau ; chapeo. Eux, oso ; genereux, generoso ; gracieux, gr arioso. C, co; pore, porco ; Turc, Turco. French 'Terminations ending in Portuguese in or. Eur 3 or ; terreur, terrdr ; humeur, humor ; cha- leur, caldr. Change of Terminations of the Verbs and Participles.
Er, in the infinitive mood of the first conjuga- tion, makes dr; aimer, amdr; chanter, cant dr. Ir makes ir, in the infinitive mood ; as, partir, partir , sentir, sentir. Oir makes er in the infinitive mood ; as, concevoir, conceber. The participles in i make ido: The participles in u make do; as, concu, concebido 3 entendu, entendido. There are a great many Portuguese words that have no manner of analogy with the French, which prevent these rules from being general.
Tu and vos for the second: E'lle, for the third person of the masculine gen- der ; and Hies in the plural. Ella, for the third person of the feminine gen- der, makes in the plural ellas. The pronouns personal are declined with the ar- ticle indefinite, de, a, a, da. The Declension of personal Pronouns. Abl, de mim, or por mim, AM. With us is rendered in Portuguese by com ndseo. In these examples us is not a pro- noun personal, but conjunctive, as you will see hereafter. You, or yourself, after imperatives are rendered by vos, and not vos ; as, be you contented, contentai vos ; show yourself, mostrai-vos: TVithyouis rendered in Portuguese by com vdsco.
The Portuguese have no particular pronoun, as our it, for things that are inanimate. Remember that the pronoun him, or to him, when joined to a verb, is always rendered in Portuguese, by Ihe, and them, or to them, by Ihes. There is another pronoun personal that serves indifferentlv for the masculine and feminine: It has no nominative.
Observe, that mSsmo with the article is also an adjective, signifying the same ; thus o mesmo, a misma, as mesmos, as mismas, the same, relating to some nouns expressed or understood. Note, That they also join the adjective 6u- tro, other, to the plural of the pronouns personal, I and thou ; so they say, nos outros, we ; vos out r as, you.
Comsigo may be rendered in English as we have said above by with him and with he? Elle or ella, nunca trhz dinheiro comsigo, he, or she, never has money about him, or about her. Of conjunctive Pronouns, The pronouns conjunctive are so called, because they always come immediately before or after the verb that governs them. The pronouns conjunctive bear a great resem- blance to the pronouns personal ; the pronouns per- sonal are, Eu, I; tu, thou; elle, he ; nos, we; vos, ye ; elles, they.
There are seven pronouns conjunctive, viz. Isto me agrdda, this pleases me ; he-me necessdrio, I want. Deos te ve, God sees thee. Ella se louva, she praises herself. Eu Ihes prometti, I promised them: The pronoun conjunctive, 7fo, is always put after the verb, when it is in the imperative mood ; as dizei-lhe, tell him ; cortai-lhe as azas, cut his wings ; but when the verb is in some other mood, it may be put either before or after it; as elk lhe cortdu, or ilk cortou-lhe a cabega, he has cut off his head. The same observation takes place in the other pronouns conjunctive.
Note, that the pronouns conjunctive are very often joined to a verb, preceded or followed by the verb haver. Lhe is sometimes rendered in English by you. What do you think of that? There are some pronouns in Portuguese which are composed of the pronouns personal and con- junctive, and which therefore are called mixed. To clear up this matter, you must express them as underneath, changing the letter e of the pronoun conjunctive into for the masculine, and a for the feminine; as to say, to me of it, instead of me 0, or me a, you must say, mo or ma.
In the like manner, instead of lhe or lhe a you must say, Iho or lha, Sec. Lit or frae of them, A , f r,mJ. Tit to himself, to herself, or to themselves. J it to herself, to himfelf, or to themfelves. J them to herself, to himself, or to themselves. J to them of it, to him of them, or to her of them. J them to us. Para dar-lho, to give it. Dai-mo, give it me. La selo haja, leave that to himself. Elk nolo disse, he told us of it. Eu volos mandarci, I'll fend to you. If the verbs are in the infinitive, the pronouns mixed may be put either before or after the verbs ; as, para dizermo, or pa?
SI mixed must be transposed; as, dizendomo, and not mo dlz6ndo, in telling me it. See the remarks hereafter. The English have no article in the nominative before the pronouns possessive; but the Portuguese have, as, rhy, o mbu, a minha, fern. The pronouns possessive in Portuguese are the following: Sing, me it, m. Nom, o mm livro, my book. Abl, do ou petto miu livro, from or by my book. Fossa magestdde, your majesty.
Meu pay, my father. From the above examples it appears that nouns declined by the indefinite article have no article in the nominative. Though the definite article is sometimes used be- fore nouns of kindred, yet we ought not to use it, according to the old proverb: Seu is sometimes made use of in room ofvosso and wdssa, in the polite way of speaking: The pronouns possessive absolute always come before the noun they belong to.
We have ex- pressed them above. They are the following: So you see that the pronoun masculine seu, in Portuguese, is sometimes rendered by her in English, and the feminine sua by his. The same observation is to be made upon the possessives relative, according to the gender of the noun that is understood ; therefore they say of a hat, for instance belonging to a lady, he o sen, it is hers ; because the noun understood, viz.
And from this example you may lea,rn, that the Por- tuguese have'no particular pronoun possessive for things that are inanimate, as we have the pronoun its. Hence at last it follows, that when the Portu- guese possessives seu and sua are relative, they are rendered into English by his, or hers, or theirs, ac- cording to the gender and number of the noun of the possessor that is understood.. When the pronouns possessive absolute are before nouns of different genders in the same sentence, and with which they are grammatically construed, they ought to be repeated ; as, seu pdi e sua??
The possessives minha, tua, sua, nossa, vossa, may be also relative, but with a different meaning. Of the Fronouns demonstrative. They are called pronouns demonstrative, because they serve to point out or demonstrate any thing or person ; as, this book,. There are three principal demonstratives in Por- tuguese, viz. These Pronouns are declined thus: Norn, esses, essas, those. The same observation you must make upon the pronoun aquelle, wherein you will see another elision besides, in the dative case. Note, That both the Portuguese and Spaniards have demonstratives of the neuter gender; though they do not agree with the substantives as in Latin, because they do not say isto homem,but iste homem, this man.
The w r ords outro, Sutra, are often joined to the pronouns demonstrative, taking off the last e ; as est outro, essoutro, aquelloutro. Example; Est outro homem, this other man ; estdutra mother, this other woman ; essoutro homem, that other man. They also join very often the pronoun mfamo, the same, to the demonstrative ; as este mismo homem, this very same man ; aquillo mesmo, that very same thing. Aqui, all, and la are sometimes added to the de- monstrative, or on the noun that comes after it, in 38 PORTUG UESE order to specify and particularize it still more ; as iste hbmem aqui, this man; aquella molher la, that woman: The pronouns aquelle, aquella, aquelles, aquellas, when they relate to persons, and are followed by the relative que, are rendered into English by he who, or he that, she who or that, they ivho or that ; as aquelle que dma a virtude he feliz, he who loves virtue is happy ; aquilles que desprezao a sciencia nao conhecem o valor delta, they who despise learning know not the value of it.
The pronoun possessive absolute his, her, their y construed iii English with a noun followed by the pronoun relative who or that before a veib, is made into Portuguese by the genitive of the pronouns aquelle, aquella, aquelles, followed by que, and the possessive is left out; as, all men blame his manners who. The English pronoun such followed by as or that but not governed of the verb substantive to be , is also rendered into Portuguese by aquelles que, or aquelles taes que, or aquelle que ; as, such as do not love virtue do not know it, aquelles or aquelles taes que nao dmab a virtude, nao a conhecem.
The pronouns isso, isio, aquillo, before que, are Englished by what ; as elk diz aquillo que sabe, he says what he knows. What does that man desire? Of the Pronouns interrogative. The pronouns interrogative serve to ask ques- tions, and are as follows; who, what, which, quern, que, qual Example. Quern vos disse isso? Com que se sustenta? Be que sefaz isto f from what is this done? Que livro he este? Quern or qual dos dous? These pronouns are thus declined. Qual is used in speaking both of persons and things, and is declined thus: Of the Pronouns relative.
Pronouns relative are those which shew the rela- tion, or reference, which a noun has to what follows it. They are the following ; qual, which ; que, that or which ; cujo, whose ; quern, who. Qual, in a sense of comparison, is followed by tal, and then qual is Englished by as, and tal bv of, N. When qual is only a relative, it is declined with the definite articles o or a.
The pronoun que may be relative both to persons and things, and is common to all numbers, gen- ders, and cases ; as o livro que, the book which ; os livros que, the books which ; a carta que, the let- ter which ; as cartas que, the letters which; o mestre que ensina, the master who teacheth ; a mother que tinho, the wife that I have ; o hSmem que eu dmo, the man whom I love ; and it is declined thus: Abl, de que, from which or from whom.
Observe, that quern is common to all numbers, o-enders, and cases: Quern is declined thus: Quern is sometimes a particle disjunctive, and then it signifies some; as, quern cdnia,e quern ri, some sing, and some laugh; and sometimes it serves to excla- mation; as quern me dera estar em casa!
Note, that cujo must be followed by the noun or term which it refers to, and with which it agrees in gender, number and case ; as, a pessda cuja reputa- gao vos admirals, the person whose reputation you wonder at ; o ceo cujo soccorro nunca jalta, heaven, whose assistance never fails ; cuja beUa cara, whose fair visage: Observe also that cujo is not to be repeated, though the terms which it refers to be of different number; as, cuja valia e bbras, whose value and deeds.
See the syn- tax, chap. Of the imfwoper Pronouns. These pronouns are called improper, because in- deed they are not properly pronouns, but have a great resemblance with pronouns, as well as with adjectives. Cadahum, every one, each. Qualquer dos dous, either of the two, or whethersoever of the two. Quemquer, whoever, or any person. Todo, all, or every. Hum has two terminations, viz. It is de- clinable with the indefinite article. Alguem has only one termination,, and it is only declinable in the singular with the indefinite article.
Algtim has two terminations, viz. It is declinable with the indefinite article. Ninguem has only one termination, and is only declinable in the singular with the indefinite arti- cle; ninguem cri, nobody believes it. Cadahum has two terminations, viz. Cdda has but one termination. It has no plural, and is only declinable with the indefinite article: It is declinable both with the definite and indefinite articles. Out rem has only one termination. It has no plu- ral, and takes the indefinite article. It makes quaesquer in the plural, and is declined with the indefinite article.
Qualquer is said both of -persons and things. Quemquer has but one termination. It has no plural, and is declined with the indefinite article. It is rendered in English by any body: Quemquer is used in speaking of a person; Tddo has two terminations, viz. It is sometimes taken substan- tively, and then it signifies the whole ; as o tddo he mayor que a sua parte, the whole is bigger than its part. Tal has only one termination. It makes taes in the plural, and it is declined with the indefinite ar- ticle. It is common to the masculine and to the feminine genders ; and sometimes it is joined to qual ; as, tal qual Ule he, such as it is.
Tal supplies sometimes the place of the person whose name is not specified ; as, hum tal velhdco deve sir castigado, such a rogue ought to be punished. TTHE verb is a part of speech which serves to ex- press that which is attributed to the subject in denoting the being or condition of the things and persons spoken of, the actions which they do, or the impressions they receive.
The first and the most general division of Verbs is into personal and impersonal. A verb personal is conjugated by three persons. A verb, considered in regard to the syntax, is of four sorts, viz. Some of the verbs are regular, and others irre- gular. Some are also called auxiliary verbs. We shall give their definitions in their proper places. Of the auxiliary Verbs. The auxiliary verbs are so called, because they help to the conjugation of other verbs. They are four in Portuguese, viz. The Conjugation of the auxiliary Verb ter, or haver? SingX tu tinhas, ou havias, ou hias, thou hadst. C eu te'nho tido ling.
Full text of "A new Portuguese grammar in four parts .."
Relies tern tido, they have-had. Hies tinhao tido, they had had. This tense may also be conjugated thus; tivera, titer as , tivera 3 tiveramos, tivereis, tiverao. I shall or will have. Cncs teremos,on haveremos, we shall or will have. C tenhdmos, ou hajdmos nos, let us have. I join them together, because their tenses are similar.
It is compounded of the first preterimperfect subjunctive and the participle. It is compounded of the second preterimperfect subjunctive and the participle. Cse nos tivermos, if we shall have.
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I, elles tiverem, they shall have. This tense may be conjugated also thus: See the synt, of the auxiliary Verbs. It is composed of the First Future and the Parti- ciple. It is supplied in Portuguese by the prepositions a or para, and the verb in the infinitive; as, para ter, to have. Remarks upon the auxiliary verb, ter, to have, The verb ter, to have, is an auxiliary or helping verb, which serves to conjugate other verbs: Of the auxiliary verb haver.
In which examples you may see that the verb havSr, when auxiliary, has generally the particle de and the verb of the infinitive mood after it; and E 50 PORTUGU ESE that then it denotes a firm resolution, possibility, or necessity of doing any thing, therefore it is not to be rendered into English by the verb to have ; as you may see by the second, third, and fourth future of the indicative mood. O principe ha de ser respeitado, the prince ought to be, or must be, re- spected.
Take notice, however, that in the foregoing examples the verb haver may be put before the other verb; but then it requires the particle de, and has a different meaning; as, in the first example, you may say, hfi d,e darvos, I must give to you. You must also observe that when the indicative present of the auxiliary verb haver is auxiliary to other verbs, as in the foregoing examples, you must cut off the last letters ei from the future of the verbs: Moreover, when the preterim perfect havia is to be auxiliary to any verb, and it is to be placed after it, you must make use of hia, hias, hia 9 hiamos, him, hiao ; and so you may.
Observe, that haver is sometimes Englished by to be; as, que ha de sir de mm? Relies sao or est do, they are. A eu era or estdva, I was. It is compounded of the pre terim perfect indica- tive, and the participle sido, or est ado. Ceu tinha sido or est ado, I had been. This tense may also be conjugated thus ; fbra, or estivira ; foras, or estiveras ; for a, or estroera ; fora- mos, or estiveramos ; fords, or estivereis ; forao, or estiverao. Csejamos or estejdmos nos, let us be. Cque eu seja or estcja, that I may be, or that I be. S3 sejamos or estejdmos, we may be.
It is compounded of the present conjunctive of the auxiliary verb? It is compounded of trie first preterimperfect sub- junctive of the verb tir, and its own participle. Ceu teria sido or estddo I should or would have been. C qudndo eu f8r or estiver, when I shall be. It is compounded of the future subjunctive of the verb tir, and its own participle. C qudndo eutiversidoQxestddo, when I shall have been. Undo sido or estddo, having been, Supine.
Remarks upon the verb ser and estar. There is a considerable difference between these verbs, ser and estar, both in Portuguese and Spanish, In English there is no word to distinguish them, since they are both rendered into English by to be. The three Conjugations of regular Active Verbs. A regular verb is such as is confined to general rules in its conjugation.
An easy Method of learning to conjugate the Portu- guese Verbs. The general tenses are, the future indicative, the first and second preterimperfect subjunctive, and the first future subjunctive. The future indicative is terminated in all the verbs, in The imperfect subjunctive, in ra or sse, ras or sses, ra or sse; ramos or ssemos, reis or sse is, rao or ssem. The second imperfect, in via, rias, ria ; riamos, rieis, riao. The first future subjunctive, in es, mos,. Note, that I have only put the termination of the second person singular of the future subjunctive, because the first and third of the same number are like their respective infinitives of the three conjuga- tions, which however keep both their last consonant GRAMMAR.
As to the future indicative, you have no- thing to do but add ei to the respective present infi- nitive of the three conjugations, in order to form the first person singular; and if you add to the same infinitive presents, you will form the second person singular of it, and so of all the rest, by adding to the infinitive present, a, emos, eis, ad. The imperfect subjunctive has two terminations for every person, both in the singular and plural ; but if you cut off the last consonant r of the infini- tive, and then add to it the terminations above- mentioned, you shall form the imperfect subjunc- tive, according to its two different terminations.
Lastly, if you cut off the last consonant of the infi- nitive, and add to it the terminations above-men- tioned, you will form the second imperfect subjunc- tive. The present indicative of the three conjugations is formed by changing the last letters of the infini- tive-, viz. The preterimperfect indicative is formed in the first conjugation, by changing the last consonant of the infinitive, viz. The perfect definite in the first conjugation is formed by changing the termination ar of the infi- nitive into ei, aste, 6u, amos, dstes, arad ; and in the second conjugation, it is formed by changing the termination er of the infinitive into ij fate, So, Smos, estes, erao.
The present subjunctive in the first conjugation is formed by changing the termination ar of the infinitive into e, es, e, emos, eis, em; and in the second conjugation, it is formed by changing the termination er of the infinitive into a, as, a, amos, his, ao. As to the imperative mood, you may only ob- serve, that the second person singular is always the same as the third person singular of the present in- dicative, in ail the conjugations. Thejirst Conjugation of the verbs in ar. This tense is composed of the participle amddo, and the imperfect of the auxiliary verb ter.
This tense may be conjugated thus, amdra 9 amdraSy amdra, amaramos, amdreis, amarao, or, tinha amddo, I had loved. When we find the conjunction if before the in- dicative imperfect, we must use the imperfect of the subjunctive or optative, when we speak by way of wish or desire ; as, If I did love, se eu amdsse, or amara, and not se eu amdva, if I had loved; if I had, se eu ivoera, twesse, and not se eu tiriha ; and so in all the verbs.
It is composed of the participle amado and the present subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle amado and the second preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle amado, and the future subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. The other tenses are conjugated like aindr. Regular verbs in ar. Abafdr, to choke, or to smo- Agarrdr, to lay hold of. Annular, to annul, or to Abastdr, to satiate.
Abaxdr, to bring or let down. Apressdr, to press, or hasten. Atdr t to tie. Avassaldr, to subdue, to con- Admoestdr, to admonish, quer. The second conjugation of the verbs in er. Meter, to put in. Comprehender, to perceive, or Offender, to offend. Come ter, o commit. Res ponder, to answer. The third conjugation of the verbs ending in ir. This tense is composed of the participle admittido, and the present indicative of the auxiliary verb, ter.
This tense is composed of the particle admittido, and the imperfect of the auxiliary verb ter. This tense is composed of the particle, admittido, and the present subjunctive of the verb tir. It is composed of the first future subjunctive of the verb tir and the participle admittido. Undo admittido, having admitted. Reduzir, to reduce, to bring Introduzir, to introduce. Of the irregular Verbs in ar.
There are in each conjugation some verbs which do not conform to the common rule, and on that account are called irregulars. There are but two of the first conjugation, which in some of their tenses depart from the rule of the verb amar, viz, estar and dar. We have already- conjugated the first, and the second is conjugated in the following manner. The preterperfect, preterpluperfect, and the se- cond pretei pluperfect, are composed of the participle dado, and the auxiliary verb tir, as in the regular verbs.
Of the irregular Verbs in er. I begin with fazer, podSr, and saber, because they occur oftenest in discourse. Fazir, to do or make. Jeito, made or done. After the same manner are conjugated desfazir, to undo ;. Of the irregular Verb trazer, to bring. Preterperfect definite; trouxe, I brought. The conjugation of the Irregular Verb ver, to see.
The verb provSr, when it signifies to provide for, or, to take care of is conjugated in the present indi- cative thus: But when it signifies to make provision, it is con- jugated thus: The conjugation of the auxiliary verb dizer, to say. The Conjugation of the irregular Verb querer, to be willing. I may be willing, 6? But when it is not repeated, and is joined to the particle se, it is sometimes rendered into English by at least ; as, hum se qiier, one at least; and some- times by hoicever, when joined in the particle que ; as cqmo quer que.
In all which cases, it is not to be confounded with the third per- son singular of the indicative of the verb querer. I shall put no other tenses of this verb than the present indicative, the imperative, and the present of the subjunctive, none but these being irregular. The verbs ending in eyo in the present indica- tive, change that termination into ia in the imper- fect, and into i in the preter-definite, and are so conjugated. You may observe that they lose the y through all the other moods and tenses. The verb crer, to be- lieve, is conjugated in the same manner.
I Of the irregular Verbs in ir. It is composed of the participle ido and the pre- sent subjunctive of the auxiliary verb ter. It is composed of the participle ido and the first preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb tSr. It is composed of the participle ido and the second preterimperfect subjunctive of the auxiliary verb tir. The compounds of vir ; as convir, to be conve- nient ; sobrevir, to come unlooked for, are con- jugated in the same manner.
Of the irregular Verbs, mentir, to lie, sentir, to feel; servir, to serve ; ferir, to wound. The compounds, desmentir, assentir, consentir, dis- sentir, presentir, are conjugated like mtntir and sen- tir ; and also the verbs ajferir, referir, coriferir, de- ferir, differir, inferir. These verbs change the g of the infinitive mood into j in those tenses where the g would otherwise meet with the vowels o, as in the first person singu- lar of the present indicative afflijo ; or a, as in the third person of the imperative in both numbers, in the first plural of the same tense, and in the present subjunctive.
Of the irregular Verb seguir, to follow. The compounds are ptrseguir, to persecute; con- seguir T to obtain ;. Of the irregular Verb ouvir, to hear. Of the irregular Verb dormir, to sleep. This verb changes the o of the infinitive mood into u in the first person singular of the present indicative, thus, eu durmo, tu dormes, elle dorme. Of the irregular Verb fugir, to fly away. It is also irregular in the imperative mood, where it is conjugated thus: The verb surgir, to arrive, or to come to an an- chor, has the same irregularity, and makes sicrto, in the participle passive.
Of the irregular Verb pedir, to ask. This verb is irregular in the first person singular of the present indicative and subjunctive, as well as in the imperative, in which it changes the a? In like manner is conjugated the verb medir 7 to , measure: Of the irregular Verb vestir, to dress. In all other tenses and moods it keeps the let- ter e ; and in like manner is conjugated the verb despir. Of the irregular Verb sortir, to furnish, or stock. Feyjo says, that the o of this verb is to be changed into u, in those tenses where the t is followed by e or a, and that it is to be kept, when the t is followed by i ; but in the Fabula dos planetas we.
Of the irregular Verb carpir, to weep. This verb is defective, and is only used in those tenses and persons where the p is followed by i; as carpimos, carpis, we weep, you weep. I did weep, fyc. Of the irregular Verb parir, to bring forth young as any female doth. Of the irregular Verb repetir, to repeat. This is the common way of writing the irregular tenses of the verb sahir as well as those of the verb cahir, viz. Feyjo says that this verb changes the o into u, in those persons where it would otherwise meet with the syllables da, de, do.
Of the irregular Verb advertir, to warn. A longing for nothing but to long, A loneliness in the midst of people , A never feeling pleased when pleased, A passion that gains when lost in thought. It's being enslaved of your own free will ; It's counting your defeat a victory ; It's staying loyal to your killer. But if it's so self- contradictory , How can Love , when Love chooses , Bring human hearts into sympathy?
Que pena sentirei que valha tanto, Que inda tenha por pouco viver triste? To this old song: Partridge lost his quill, there's no harm won't befall him. Partridge, whose winged fancy aspired to a high estate, lost a feather in his flight and won the pen of despondency. He finds in the breeze no buoyancy for his pennants to haul him: He wished to soar to a high tower but found his plumage clipped, and, observing himself plucked, pines away in despair.
If he cries out for succor, stoke the fire to forestall him: O glory of commanding! O vain thirst Of that same empty nothing we call fame! Com um tom de voz nos fala horrendo e grosso, Que pareceu sair do mar profundo: The greatest poet of the sixteenth century, as of all others in Portuguese poetry, is he who sang of.
Luis de Camoens, author of the national epic, "Os Lusiadas," who lived in poverty and wretchedness, died in the Lisbon hospital, and, after death, was surnamed the Great,—a title never given before, save to popes and emperors. The life of no poet is so full of vicissitude and romantic adventure as that of Camoens.