Haben Sie Wien schon bei Nacht gesehen ?: Eine persönliche Wien-Betrachtung (German Edition)

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Der Text des Tur orach chajjim selbst bietet auch Lesarten, die von den Standardausgaben abweichen. Jahrhunderts und Autor des Buches Terumat ha-deschen. Daran wird deutlich, dass auch ein vergleichsweise schmaler Band wie der vorliegende einen Einblick in den kontinuierlichen Prozess des rabbinischen Studiums und Lehrens zu bieten vermag.

Arabic scholars translated these from Greek into Arabic in the eighth and ninth centuries; the Arabic translations were then translated into Latin in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Hebrew translations can be based on both Arabic and Latin versions. The only distinctive feature of medieval Jewish medical texts, therefore, is their language: Among medieval Jewish scholars of medicine the seven chapters of the medical aphorisms of Hippocrates of Cos fifth century BCE were particularly popular; a number of Hebrew translations and commentaries exist.

Unlike most other extant Hebrew translations, it is based on the Latin translation of Constantinus Africanus ca. The text is accompanied by the commentary of Moses ben Isaac da Rieti —after His father, Isaac ben Mordecai, or Maestro Gaio, is known to have been friendly with the translator Hillel ben Samuel, while the latter was in Rome. He was also a poet. His commentary is based largely on the commentaries of Moses Maimonides — and on the renowned Greco-Roman medical author Galen of Pergamum second century CE.

A later inscription on folio 6v documents the doctorate of a Jewish physician in Rome in After the expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian peninsula at the end of the fifteenth century, the small city of Safed, Upper Galilee, soon became the new center of the kabbalistic movement; it was from there that Kabbalah conquered both the Jewish and non-Jewish worlds. One of the most important concepts among the kabbalists of Safed was that of mystical prayer.

Tefillah le-Moshe contains kavvanot for weekdays and the Shabbat. Its text was published in Przemysl in , based in part, perhaps, on this manuscript. The round Hebrew cursive, semi-cursive, and square scripts used in the manuscript are enhanced by a variety of pen-work foliage designs.

It is tempting to identify this copyist with the well-known writer Judah Aryeh Leone Modena — , who was at the height of his activity in At the bottom of a dedication page he signed his name: Aryeh ben Judah Leib is the first recorded scribe to have written his manuscripts "with Amsterdam letters. Aryeh ben Judah Leib transposed this custom to manuscripts. As a number of his manuscripts contain images that were printed on parchment, he may have been involved in the printing industry, although there was no Hebrew printing in Vienna at the time.

On the basis of certain scribal features unique to him, this mohel book can be attributed to Aryeh ben Judah Leib with certainty. Its title page appropriately depicts a circumcision in a synagogue. The image inspired by the apocryphal book of Tobit on folio 2r, however, is highly unusual. It depicts Tobias, the son of Tobit, who is traveling with his guardian angel Raphael and a small dog. Although quite well known in Christian art, the inclusion of this theme in a Hebrew circumcision book, or even in a Jewish object of art, is unexpected. The idea that Raphael was the guardian angel of children, prevalent especially among Catholics, seems likely to have been borrowed as an apt symbol of filial protection for this circumcision book.

It seems likely that Aryeh ben Judah Leib took this image from an unknown Christian, perhaps printed, source. Auf einer Widmungsseite trug der Schreiber seinen Namen ein: Bemerkenswerterweise sind dabei auch Frauen anwesend. This combination of blessings and prayers was common during the eighteenth century. The inclusion of the three commandments incumbent upon women, hallah the obligation to separate dough , niddah the obligation to immerse in a ritual bath , and hadlakah the obligation to kindle Shabbat and Festival lights , indicates that the book was done for a woman, perhaps as a wedding present.

The manuscript contains an architectural title page with Moses and Aaron, twenty-two smaller, color illustrations for the various blessings, which often rely on Christian iconographic sources, and three decorated initial word panels. Seen here are seven miniatures belonging to the Birkhot ha-Nehenin: In Hebrew the name of the town appearing on the title page reads: Tzilem Adam , a name often used to refer to the eastern Austrian town of Deutschkreutz.

Although the manuscript is not signed, it may be attributed to the well-known scribe-artist Aaron Wolf Herlingen see cat. This attribution rests on an analysis of certain scribal and artistic characteristics of this manuscript and on the similarity between this work and a number of signed manuscripts by him with similar content and decoration. Von ihm sind insgesamt zehn Birkat ha-mason -Handschriften bekannt.

Eine davon ist undatiert, die anderen entstanden zwischen und Besonders eindrucksvoll ist das Bild zu Beginn des ersten Psalms. He was born in the Moravian town of Trebitsch now Trebic, Czech Republic , where the first scribe of the eighteenth-century school, Aryeh ben Judah Leib, originated as well. Including the Braginksy psalter a total of seven manuscripts by Moses Judah Leib are known, produced between and The manuscript has an architectural title page with Moses and Aaron standing in arches.

The psalms are subdivided according to the days of the week on which they are to be read and, with the exception of the psalms for Friday, these daily sections have decorated monochrome or multicolored initial word panels. Following the first word of Psalms 1, ashre, on folio 6r, is a depiction of King David sitting outside on the terrace of a palace. He plays the harp while looking at an open volume, possibly his psalms.

Moses Judah Leib was perhaps the most accomplished painter among his contemporaries. The binding of the manuscript has the emblem of the De Pinto family of Amsterdam tooled in gold on the front and back covers. In the catalogue of the auction at which this manuscript was acquired for the Braginsky Collection, mention is made of a De Pinto family legend in which the artist was invited to Amsterdam to come and write the psalms for the family.

This may indicate that one of the most accomplished eighteenth-century scribe-artists attracted an international clientele. The prohibition against work was lifted in Talmudic times; since then Rosh Hodesh has been considered a minor festival. At the end of the sixteenth century a custom developed among the mystics of Safed, in the Land of Israel, to fast on the day preceding Rosh Hodesh.

A new liturgy was developed, based on penitential prayers for Yom Kippur. In the course of the seventeenth century the custom spread to Italy and on to Northern Europe. Manuscripts for Yom Kippur Katan , in vogue in the eighteenth century, included few illustrations. The Braginsky manuscript has only a baroque architectural title page with depictions of Moses and Aaron. The name of the owner was intended to be added to the empty shield at the top. No other manuscripts by him are known. The script in this manuscript is similar to that of the famous scribe-artist Aaron Wolf Herlingen of Gewitsch.

Moreover, the title page is strongly reminiscent of his works. It is possible that Judah Leib bought an illustrated title page from Herlingen that was devoid of text. This would explain the presence of the empty shield and the fact that the title page is bound into the manuscript as a separate leaf.

Another explanation may be considered as well. If this is true, existing attributions of unsigned works to Herlingen based only on images that appear in the manuscripts should be carefully reconsidered, as this evidence may be insufficient. Seither gilt Rosch chodesch als sogenannter Halbfeiertag. It was the site of the rabbinic and scholarly activities of many great Jewish leaders, first and foremost among them Rashi. The scholarship and ancient traditions characteristic of the Jewish community in Worms are reflected in the minhagim customs that Juspa, the author of this volume, and others recorded and preserved.

These customs reflect Jewish life in the synagogue and the home throughout the entire year. Juspa was born in Fulda in and died in Worms in As shammes, Juspa served the Worms community in many capacities, including those of scribe, notary, trustee, mohel, and cantor. He was a talented writer and compiler; he paid special attention to the music of the synagogue and also composed poems. In addition he authored Sefer Likkutei Yosef , displayed here. Previously in the Schocken Library in Jerusalem, this autograph manuscript contains later ownership entries, including testimony that the manuscript served as a pledge that was redeemed in by Rabbi Michael Scheyer.

The original text includes commentaries on the prayer book, the Grace after Meals, the Passover Haggadah, and the Sayings of the Fathers, interspersed with records of prayer-related customs and autobiographical remarks. The comments on minhagim were incorporated into the printed edition of the Wormser Minhagbuch , but the bulk of the manuscript remains unpublished. This carefully written codex therefore serves as a primary source for the religious history of one of the most significant Jewish communities in Europe.

After that library was sacked by Napoleonic forces, the manuscript may have been in the Vatican Library for a short while; the only source for this information is an English auction catalogue of in which the manuscript appeared. It remained in England until it was acquired from the library of the bibliophile Beriah Botfield for the Braginsky Collection. Although the manuscript was bound into four volumes in England during the nineteenth century, the original consisted of two parts, each with its own colophon.

The first part comprised the Pentateuch and the Hagiographa, while the second contained all the books of the Prophets. At the end of the original first volume, now the second volume, he wrote a colophon with another year of completion, page This appears within a detailed interlaced frame with pen flourishes along the outer and part of the inner borders. He finished this part, however, in Evora, in the Kingdom of Portugal. With his fellow Jews Isaac had been expelled from Spain in and forced to flee to Portugal, where he copied the Pentateuch and Hagiographa. In the latter colophon the scribe even indicated that it had been two years since the expulsion from Castile.

Whether he did indeed copy the manuscript in this unusual order, first Prophets, then Pentateuch and Hagiographa, or whether an original first part got lost as a result of the expulsion, necessitating its replacement, cannot be known. According to tradition, the text of the Song of Moses, Ha'azinu Deuteronomy Paolo dei Carmelitani Scalzi in Florenz. Heightened awareness of calendars caused by this action, and the resultant feelings of superiority by Jews regarding their own, stimulated the production of separate books on the calculation of the Jewish calendar in the Ashkenazic world.

Sifrei Evronot , or Books of Intercalations, exist, among others, in illustrated Ashkenazic manuscripts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The understanding of the relationship between the texts and images of these owes a great deal to a recent study on the topic by Elisheva Carlebach. A common image in Sifrei Evronot manuscripts is that of a man on a ladder, or near it, who reaches to heaven to obtain the secrets of the calendar. His presence may be explained by I Chronicles His appearance in each is different, but in both he holds an hourglass in his hand and stands on a ladder that rests on an unusual structure that contains letters of the Hebrew alphabet between its columns.

Whereas the text facing the first image refers to Issachar, that facing the second contains no mention of him or any other figure. The first image incorporates another common element found in Sifrei Evronot illustrations, the moon with a human face, here, again, in two variant forms. The manuscript begins with a panel containing only the word tzivvah He [God] commanded. The page contains a portal, intended as a gateway to the celestial spheres, but which is also typical of the architectural motifs commonly used on title pages to signify a symbolic entry into the text.

By writing on the construction of the calendar, scribes believed they fulfilled a religious commandment. In this manuscript, there are numerous other decorative elements, but only one additional illustration; it portrays Moses seated at a table holding the Tablets of the Law. Depictions of Moses appear in other Sifrei Evronot manuscripts as well. The three illustrations in the Braginsky manuscript are all flat line drawings, filled in with watercolor. Denn in 1 Chronik Auch dieses Moses-Motiv ist aus anderen Handschriften der Sifre ewronot bekannt.

He studied in Germany with famous halakhic scholars such as Jacob of Wuerzburg 13th century and Meir ben Baruch of Rothenburg d. It encompasses a systematic overview and discussion of the rules concerning the liturgy and laws of Shabbat, holidays, and fasts, interspersed with other halakhic material. It has a strong Ashkenazic tone and makes no mention of the works of the great Sephardic codifier Moses Maimonides — Shibbolei ha-Leket has twelve sections, subdivided into a total of numbered paragraphs.

Zedekiah ben Abraham was a member of the well-known Italian Anav, or Anau, family, most of whose members lived in Rome during the Middle Ages. Famous members of the family included the lexicographer Nathan ben Jehiel ca. Other family members were important halakhists and poets. The Braginsky manuscript, although undated, may have been copied during the lifetime or shortly after the death of the author; it is among the earliest surviving copies of the text. Andere waren bedeutende Halachisten oder Dichter.

The first seeks to limit the study and practice of Jewish mysticism to a limited circle of students as an esoteric system, while the second wants to reach out to larger Jewish audiences. In medieval Spain one of the most important kabbalists was Abraham Abulafia —after Abulafia did not consider Kabbalah to be a form of gnosis, or a theosophical theory; his conceptions of Kabbalah have little or nothing to do with the well-known kabbalistic schools that concentrate on the Sefirot , or the structure of the Divine being.

Instead, through certain mystical techniques and experiences, Abulafia attempted to achieve a state of prophetic-mystical ecstasy, inspired by his conviction that the experience of the prophets was an ecstatic one and that all true mystics are prophets. Abulafia met with fierce opposition, but that did not prevent his doctrine from becoming extremely popular.

Particularly important among his many works are his kabbalistic manuals, the best known of which is Hayyei ha-Olam ha-Ba Life of the World to Come. This work contains ten circles executed in red and black ink and slightly different circles executed in black, which are, in fact, detailed instructions for mystical meditation.

Einer der bedeutendsten Kabbalisten im mittelalterlichen Spanien war Abraham Abulafia —nach Er betrachtete die Kabbala weder als eine Form der Gnosis noch als eine Art theosophischer Philosophie. Das Manuskript zeigt zehn in konzentrischen Kreisen verlaufende Inschriften in Schwarz und Rot sowie nur in Schwarz. Its teachings rely on the insights of Jacob Moellin — of Mainz, one of the major halakhic codifiers in the Ashkenazic world. The Braginsky manuscript contains seven fine, red ink drawings. These are part of a tradition of scribal decoration that flourished in northern Italy in the last third of the fifteenth century.

The most important representative of that tradition was Joel ben Simeon, the scribe-artist of such famous medieval Haggadot as the Ashkenazi Haggadah London, British Library, Add. Particularly striking in the manuscript are the human heads, usually depicted in profile. Suspended from an initial word panel, on folio 31, the bearded head of a man with a long bumpy nose and heavy eyelids appears in many works associated with Joel ben Simeon.

Some of his most frequently rendered motifs, such as hares and large architectural structures with round towers, appear in this manuscript as well. Although the art clearly is similar to that found in manuscripts by the hand of Joel ben Simeon, it cannot be determined with certainty that he decorated this work. This is also a recurring motif in works by Joel ben Simeon. In the bottom margin a man, viewed in profile, wears what is known as a cappuccio a foggia.

This contemporary head covering also appears in other manuscripts associated with Joel ben Simeon. Standing near a lectern on which an open book rests, the man holds a lulav palm branch and an oversize etrog citron. Delicate red pen work embellishes the inner margin of this page. Sie stehen in der Illustrationstradition Norditaliens im letzten Drittel des Beide liegen in Faksimileausgaben vor. This is especially true of prayer books, which tended to be used intensively.

The overall condition of this medieval prayer book, therefore, is noteworthy. The graceful Ashkenazic square and semi-cursive hands and the fine parchment used resulted in an elegant volume. It contains daily prayers, selected piyyutim for festivals and certain special occasions, a variety of special prayers, and the full text of the Passover Haggadah, the first page of which folio 54v is reproduced here. The Haggadah, which had grown within the daily prayer book from the days of the Geonim onward, was already considered to be a separate book when this prayer book was copied; its inclusion in a prayer book, however, was not yet uncommon.

The manuscript presents an interesting example of the impact of censorship. During the Middle Ages the Alenu le-shabbeah prayer, which is recited at the end of the statutory services, was believed to contain an implied insult to Christianity. In this manuscript fol. He left an open space, however, perhaps for a later owner to add the omitted passage. In hindsight this common case of medieval Jewish self-censorship was only a prelude to the active inquisitional censorship that the Jews of Italy would have to deal with later.

From the second half of the sixteenth century onward, Christian censors in Italy, many of whom were converted Jews, inspected Hebrew books, signed them, and often expurgated controversial passages also see cat. He did not expurgate any passages, but only signed the last page of the manuscript. Signatures and entries by censors are proof, of course, of Italian ownership at the time of censorship. Known since the first half of the tenth century, it consists of hymnal sayings by all creatures: The sayings are mostly biblical verses, usually from the Psalms.

There is hardly any connection between the texts and the creatures singing praise. On account of its unusual content, many rabbis disapproved of the work, but this did not prevent it from becoming popular. More than a hundred manuscripts, as well as some hundred printed editions, survive from the late Middle Ages on.

Often published as a separate volume, the text appeared in daily prayer books as well. Perek Shirah was illustrated by almost all important artists of the eighteenth-century Central European School, including Meshullam Zimmel ben Moses, the scribe-artist of this manuscript. Although Meshullam Zimmel is known to have worked in Prague, as well as in his native Polna Bohemia , most of his manuscripts were executed in Vienna. He was most likely a copper engraver by profession, which explains his unparalleled drawing skills.

To date sixteen signed manuscripts by Meshullam Zimmel, produced between and , are known to exist. Another dozen manuscripts, including this unsigned manuscript, can be attributed to him with certainty. Among his works are two other manuscripts of Perek Shirah , both in private hands. The manuscript contains an architectural title page and eight initial word panels executed in the same ink as the text. Folios 19 and 20 were added later in black ink. A small initial word panel appears on folio 19r.

The initial word panel on folio 8r, illustrating the song of creeping animals, depicts ten frogs set within abundant foliage, while the one on folio 15r illustrates the song of domestic animals, represented by a horse, a cow, a sheep, and two species of goat. Die Lobpreisungen sind biblischen Versen entnommen, zumeist den Psalmen. Jahrhunderts illustrierten das Perek schira.

Meschullam Simmel ben Moses verfertigte die vorliegende Handschrift aus der Braginsky Collection und versah sie mit Federzeichnungen. Soweit bekannt, existieren von ihm 16 signierte Manuskripte aus dem Zeitraum von bis It is quite likely that the manuscript was produced as a wedding gift. The bride wears a horned headdress, a light veil, a pleated, full-skirted gown, with sleeves of a different material, a fashion that originated in Ferrara. The groom wears a pleated, short cloak cinched with a gold belt, a jerkin, and hose. The floral border that frames the two pages includes a half-length figure of a man at either side.

Possibly intended as the witnesses, the one on the right holds a book with a red velvet cover, while the man on the left points to the couple. As noted in the catalogue of the auction in which the manuscript was acquired for the Braginsky Collection, this type of illumination is consistent with that found in fifteenth-century Ferrara.

Leon ben Joschua, der alles, was oben steht, dementiert. Most of the manuscripts of Nathan ben Simson of Mezeritsch do not mention a place of production; this Haggadah is no exception.

Although it is not known if personal or political reasons motivated his movements, it is obvious that he traveled. He may well have spent a number of years in Rotterdam, or have visited that city regularly; at least four of his manuscripts can be linked to Rotterdam patrons. The Haggadah in the Braginsky Collection contains a decorated title page, a cycle depicting ceremo- nial rituals performed during the seder, nine text illustrations, one decorated initial word panel, three historiated initial letters, and two pages with a cycle of illustrations for the concluding hymn Had Gadya 23r—v.

These illustrations were an invention of the scribes of the eighteenth century and do not occur in printed Haggadot of the period, such as the Amsterdam Haggadot of and , which otherwise were sources of inspiration for most of the handwritten, illustrated eighteenth-century Haggadot. Whereas most of his colleagues were draughtsmen, Nathan ben Simson was a talented painter. As such, his work is strongly reminiscent of another Moravian artist of the period, Moses ben Judah Leib Wolf Broda, the scribe-artist of the famous Von Geldern Haggadah also see cat.

It is possible that the manuscript was written in Sierre Valais , Switzerland. More than two centuries after the writing of the manuscript, in , Joseph ben Kalonymos acquired it in Posen from someone called Ezekiel, and completed the few leaves that were missing by that time. In the twentieth century the manuscript was one of the proud possessions of the famous Schocken Collection.

In addition to being a leading rabbinic scholar, Moses of Coucy was also an interesting public figure. In he traveled from his native France to Spain, where he delivered fiery speeches to wide audiences and urged them to observe the commandments more strictly, particularly those pertaining to tefillin, mezuzah, and tzitzit. He also admonished the people to be more ethical in their behavior toward Gentiles, both in the realms of business and personal relations.

In Moses took part in the disputation on the Talmud held in Paris. His magnum opus, the SeMaG, is arranged according to the negative and positive commandments, with rich material related to them under each. He was deeply influenced by the legal code of Maimonides, the Mishneh Torah. The writings of Moses of Coucy, therefore, were one of the channels through which the Maimonidean code gained wide recognition in Ashkenaz.

Haben Sie Wien schon bei Nacht gesehen ?: Eine persönliche Wien-Betrachtung (German Edition)

The SeMaG became a major and accepted source for halakhic rulings. It was frequently quoted and abridged; many commentaries were composed on it. Surviving in a relatively large number of manuscripts, it was one of the earliest Hebrew books ever printed. Other practices associated with the holiday include dressing in costume, participating in satirical plays or parodies, sending gifts of food to friends and neighbors shlakhmones in Yiddish , giving charity to the poor, and partaking in a festive meal.

The celebration reenacts the rejoicing of Jews saved from destruction in Persia, mentioned at the end of the book of Esther. Born in in Arles, he was living in Rome when he wrote this work in the early s. Massekhet Purim , which humorously imitates the style and idiom of the Talmud, deals with eating, drinking, and drunkenness during Purim.

The scarce historical documents available indicate that the Ashkenazic Jews of Amsterdam were active revelers who immersed themselves in carnivalesque festivities, including masquerades and pageants in which music was played and torches were carried. These celebrations, which extended outside the borders of the Jewish quarter, often continued after the festival.

Consequently, in addition to fearing the desecration of the Sabbath, which often occurred, the Ashkenazic authorities were concerned about the effect these public festivities had on their relationships with the non-Jewish authorities. In the Amsterdam Ashkenazim even issued a statement that when Purim occurred on a Sunday Jews had to respect the Sunday rest and could not celebrate outside the Jewish quarter.

Angesichts ihrer problematischen Beziehung zum Judentum blieb dieses davon nicht ausgenommen. Dort verbrannte man auf der Piazza San Marco am Die Dokumente entstammen vermutlich den Akten eines venezianischen Inquisitors. This interest increased after the invention of printing, which enabled a much wider dissemination of presumed heretical ideas. Jews were under particular scrutiny, for obvious religious and historical reasons.

These public events were part of a strategy that developed in the s and s and resulted in the banning and burning of larger groups of Jewish and non-Jewish eretical books. On 12 September another papal decree was issued, demanding that all copies of the Talmud throughout the Catholic world be gathered and destroyed. In Venice — then the world center of Hebrew printing, largely through the efforts of Daniel Bomberg — the order was interpreted to include other Jewish books as well.

This collection of eleven documents in Italian, which relate to this dark period in the history of the Hebrew book, was probably part of a file that belonged to a Venetian Inquisitor. They constitute a more or less chronological account of the events in Venice. Die Abbildung auf fol. Today over forty manuscripts signed by Herlingen are extant, while approximately a dozen more are attributed to him. The Braginsky Collection contains one attributed and three signed works; this Haggadah of ; a book of Psalms from Braginsky Collection 63, not in this catalogue ; a sheet with Latin micrography dated cat.

This Haggadah has sixty painted illustrations and three decorated initial word panels. The title page portrays Moses and Aaron, who flank the arch that frames the title. The Hebrew text between the panels is from the Babylonian Talmud Sota 11b ; it recounts that the Israelites were delivered from Egypt as a reward for the righteous women who lived in that generation. It is possible that the Haggadah was produced for a woman named Miriam. On folio 3v the five Talmudic sages of Bene-Berak are shown seated at a table.

The text recounts that they discussed the Exodus from Egypt through the night until their students came to tell them that the time for the Morning Prayer had arrived. In the Haggadot from Amsterdam printed in and the illustration accompanying this text was modeled after a biblical scene depicting the banquet Joseph gave for his brothers, in which more than five figures are present. The handwritten eighteenth-century copies based on these printed editions usually portray anywhere from six to over a dozen men in this scene.

This Haggadah is one of the few exceptions in which only the five sages mentioned in the text are depicted. He also copied numerous single-leaf manuscripts of contemporary poetry, mostly for family occasions, which are now housed in various collections worldwide. Binger began his career as a bookkeeper, but later worked primarily in a clothing rental business; he also may have been active in international trading. In he inherited a lending library from his brother, Meijer Binger, to which he devoted most of his time.

Both the above-mentioned prayer book and the Hijman Binger Haggadah typify Hebrew manuscript decoration in Central and Northern Europe at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. The previous flowering of Hebrew manuscript ornamentation and illustration started to decline around the middle of the eighteenth century. With few exceptions, notably a number of late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century examples from Hungary such as cat. As a result, the later manuscripts lack the internal consistency and relative unity of style of the earlier examples.

In light of similarities between the illustrations in the Hijman Binger Haggadah and those in some of the later Haggadot executed by Joseph ben David of Leipnik, for example, the Rosenthaliana Leipnik Haggadah of and a Leipnik Haggadah from cat. The inclusion of a Hebrew map of the Holy Land, printed in the Amsterdam Haggadah of , though not unique to eighteenth-century manuscripts, may well be considered a rarity. PDF-version of the catalogue: Zwar ist nicht belegt, dass dieses Manuskript in Nitra entstand. Von ihm stammen rund ein Dutzend Manuskripte sowie eine gravierte Estherrolle.

Die obere Randinschrift lautet: An inscription on the title page states that it was a gift from Mendel Rosenbaum to his brother-in-law Joseph Elsas of Nyitra, Hungary now Nitra in Slovakia. Although it cannot be known with certainty where the scribe copied the manuscript, Nyitra is the likeliest option for two reasons. First, it is not likely that the scribe would have signed his name with his city of birth if he were still residing there. Second, the manuscript is reminiscent of the work of the most important Hungarian scribe of the early nineteenth century, Mordecai ben Josl, also known as Marcus Donath, who worked in Nyitra.

Donath is known to have produced around a dozen manuscripts, as well as an engraved megillah. The artistic school of Nyitra is known for its use of Hebrew micrography. Using this technique, Moses is depicted here as a calligram, holding the Tablets of the Law and pointing to the five volumes of the Pentateuch.

The text above reads: The letters marked with a dot have a total numerical value of , i. Within the frame in the right-hand bottom corner is a paraphrase of Exodus I made the designs for the subjects, and she carried them out in the style of old missals. For this she procured. She included a German dedication and wrote her initials on the back of a chair in the scene of a contemporary seder.

This Haggadah, the only Hebrew manuscript known to have been illuminated by a woman, contains ten full-length and eight smaller text illustrations, in addition to decorated and historiated initials, and smaller ornamental devices. Framed within foliate designs and placed in a columnar arrangement within the text space, to the left on pages 92 and 94 or right 96 and 98 of the writing, a small vignette illustrates each of the references in the two songs.

The inclusion of these scenes reflects the familiarity of Rothschild and Oppenheim with manuscripts of the eighteenth century, which included such cycles created in that period for handwritten, rather than printed, versions of the Haggadah. Instead, original compositions and images based on previous sources were combined to create a masterpiece of nineteenth-century book art. Die Szene mit Abraham, der vor den drei Engeln kniet, scheint ebenfalls auf diese Bildquelle des Die Sederszene des Pessachfests verbindet auf einzigartige Weise zwei unterschiedliche Herangehensweisen, dessen Inhalt darzustellen: Lapislazuli und Gold beherrschen die Farbskala.

Die Textfelder sind mit winzigen Goldsprengseln bedeckt. Allerdings fehlen auf dem Tisch die traditionellen symbolischen Speisen der Pessachtafel. Perfektion, erlesener Geschmack und Luxus sind die eindringlichsten Signale, die von dieser Haggada ausgehen. Das Werk ist nicht signiert.

Every page is illuminated with geometrical designs executed in lapis lazuli and gold; subtle, multicolored floral elements with separate designs surround individual lines of text, while delicate blue pen-work extends into the outer margins. Tiny sprinkles of gold embellish the pages. The manuscript emulates closely works from a school of Arabic manuscript illumination of Shiraz, Persia, of the period between and The designs also appear in later Arabic manuscripts, especially from Turkey and Afghanistan.

The sole illustration depicts a seder scene in which five men and two women, most of whom are dressed in orientalized clothing, sit at a table. The central male figure is reciting the benediction over wine. It is striking that the table is devoid of anything related specifically to Passover, including the ceremonial foods eaten at the seder. The Haggadah was decorated by Victor Bouton, who is best known as a heraldic painter.

It was commissioned by Edmond James de Rothschild — for his mother Betty — Notably, Bouton signed his name in Hebrew there, followed by the Hebrew words Sofer mahir skilled scribe , a common designation of professional Jewish scribes.

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Bouton, therefore, may also be identified as the scribe of both masterpieces. Heili reports that Bouton received the enormous sum of 32, gold francs for a Haggadah he executed for a wealthy Israelite. It is likely that Heili was referring to the Braginsky manuscript, which may have been another Rothschild commission. Sie formen hier in mikrografischen Minuskeln die Figur Davids. Am Ende der letzten Kalligramm-Zeile ist nochmals vermerkt: Herlingen war im Ausserdem werden ihm zwei unsignierte mikrografische Estherrollen zugeschrieben.

It comprises the Latin texts of what is known as the Seven Penitential Psalms 6, 31, 37, 50, , , and and of Psalm The grouping of these psalms is in the Roman Catholic, not Jewish, tradition. The seven psalms are sung during the days of Lent, the forty days before Easter. The artist used micrography, a technique in which text is written in miniscule letters. In order to produce a clear image he first painted the figure of David using faint gray washes for modeling and then varied the intensity of the ink used for the text.

Year in the framing element at the bottom. Herlingen was a gifted calligrapher and one of two Jewish scribes of the eighteenth century who wrote not only Hebrew, but also Latin. Among his most interesting works are five calligraphic single-sheet manuscripts of sizes smaller than a modern letter-size sheet of paper on which he combined the texts of the Five Scrolls in five different Semitic and European languages and types of script.

Two unsigned illustrated micrographic Esther scrolls are also attributed to him. Other calligraphic works by Herlingen and by his contemporary Meshullam Zimmel of Polna, who also worked in Vienna, were dedicated to the Imperial family as well. It is not known how these works were presented, if at all. Die Forschung hatte keine Kenntnis von ihr. Andere seiner Werke waren jedoch wohlbekannt und eine ganze Reihe von ihnen erschien in den er-Jahren als Faksimileausgaben. Jahrhunderts bezeichnet wird, war er bei Weitem nicht der produktivste.

Zwischen und signierte er lediglich 16 Werke, die er wahrscheinlich bis auf eines auch selber illustrierte. Other works of Joseph ben David of Leipnik are well known; a number of his works appeared in facsimile editions in the s. Although he is often considered the most influential scribe-artist of the eighteenth century, Joseph ben David was not the most productive one.

Sixteen manuscripts signed by him are known. Copied between and , all but one were illustrated by him as well. Fifteen of these are Passover Haggadot. He then went to Darmstadt, where he produced manuscripts in , , and , and settled in Altona not later than The names of some of his patrons are known through his colophons. He probably earned his living primarily as a teacher. His name does not appear in the archives of the Hamburg or Altona Jewish communities. The illustrations of Joseph ben David were innovative; he introduced new themes and a completely different palette.

The iconographic program of the Braginsky Haggadah is similar to his other manuscripts of the same period and largely dependent on the printed Amsterdam Haggadot of and The colorful title page with the figures of Moses and Aaron is strongly reminiscent of a Haggadah recently discovered in the library of Blickling Hall in Norfolk, England, and of a number of other Haggadot from his hand.

Its design is inspired by printed architectural title pages. These illustrations were usually based on models older than the Amsterdam printed editions. Zwischen und schuf er mindestens 23 solcher Werke. Im Zentrum seiner Produktion stehen Pessach-Haggadot, doch deckt sein Gesamtwerk auch ein breites Spektrum unterschiedlicher Gebetsgattungen ab. Vor allem im Jahrhundert waren Omer-Kalender in unterschiedlicher Ausgestaltungsehr beliebt.

Die im Katalog abgebildeten Illustrationen zeigen: Von ihm kennt man an die zwanzig Werke, wovon die meisten unsigniert sind. In den signierten bezeichnet er sich immer als Kopist und Illustrator. Nur drei der biblischen Motive sind nicht von Vorlagen bekannt. Einige Illustrationen bedienen sich christlicher Vorlagen. Dieses Bild war seit dem Jahrhundert durch die Reproduktionsgrafik weithin bekannt. Aaron Wolf Herlingen schrieb und illustrierte die Titelseite.

Verschiedene Anmerkungen und Zitate deuten darauf hin, dass bedeutende aschkenasische Rabbiner Zugang zu ihr hatten, so etwa Jakob Weil, ein bekannter Gelehrter und Rabbiner des Durch die Verwendung unterschiedlicher Schrifttypen setzte er drei verschiedene Textsorten deutlich voneinander ab: Ob er nur die Texte schrieb oder auch die Illustrationen schuf, muss noch genauer untersucht werden. Hier steht jeder Sohn als Knabe vor einem Tisch, hinter dem der Vater sitzt oder steht. Diese Szene symbolisiert eine entscheidende Wegmarke in der Entwicklung des Kindes. Ausser dem Titelblatt mit Architekturrahmen und den Figuren von Moses und Aaron gibt es sechs weitere Abbildungen im Text, darunter eine sehr seltene Darstellung einer nur teilweise im Ritualbad untergetauchten Frau oder auch die eher konventionelle Darstellung einer Frau beim Lesen des Schema-Gebets vor dem Schlafengehen.

Der Vertragstext ist im Wesentlichen in einer sefardischen Kursive geschrieben. Contracts were written on large pieces of parchment and ornamented in bright colors. By the second half of the nineteenth century Gibraltar developed its own characteristic and readily identifiable type of decoration. The present Gibraltar contract belongs to an early period of local ketubbah decoration, though some of its features foretell later developments. The upper section depicts a pair of lions crouched back-to-back, overlaid with circles containing the abbreviated Ten Commandments. The composition is reminiscent of the top of Torah arks and indeed it is topped with a crown, intended as a Torah Crown.

This motif, typical of later Gibraltar ketubbot, was often modeled on the British royal crown. The crouching lions are flanked by vases of flowers. In the side borders, beneath theatrical drapery and trumpets suspended from ribbons, fanciful column bases are surmounted by urns. Several elements in the marriage contract are characteristic of Gibraltar ketubbot. The initial word of the wedding day, Wednesday, as was common, is enlarged and ornamented.

The sum of the dowry and increment is a factor of eighteen, the number that is also the propitious word hai, written here in monumental letters amid small cursive script. Also typical of Gibraltar is the ornamental Latin monogram at bottom center. This feature is also found in Moroccan ketubbot, as are the section with Sephardic conditions, and the request that God take revenge for the expulsion of the Jews from Castile cat. As the holiday marks the Giving of the Law, mystical traditions asserted that on this day Moses, as the matchmaker, brought the Jewish people the bridegroom to Mount Sinai the wedding place to marry God or the Torah the bride.

To commemorate this mystical union, among European Sephardim and in some communities in Islamic lands the custom has been to prepare a special ketubbah for Shavuot and to recite it in the synagogue prior to the reading of the Torah on the first day of the holiday. While several versions of ketubbot for Shavuot are known, the most popular in Sephardic communities has been the poetic text composed by the renowned mystic of Safed, Rabbi Israel Najara ?

He will never take a second wife namely, another religion , and neither abandon nor neglect her. Their dwelling will be in the Land of Israel, as Heaven and Earth witness the union. Divided into three sections, this special text appears within an imposing wooden architectural setting, comprising three arches and a broken pediment, within which is a crowned Decalogue.

The upper story employs a dynamic rhythm of decorative architectural elements. The entire structure resembles a typical Sephardic Torah ark ehal from the synagogues of Gibraltar. Indeed the name of one of these synagogues, Nefutzot Yehudah, founded , appears at the top. Certainly this sumptuous ketubbah was once chanted there. Many other features associate the contract with the Gibraltar community and its ketubbot. Am beliebtesten war wohl ein Poem von Rabbi Israel ben Moses Najara um — aus Safed, von dem in diesem Exemplar eine modifizierte Fassung wiedergegeben ist.

Blumenfestons und Draperien unterstreichen den festlichen Charakter. Dabei stehen die Worte aus dem entsprechenden Bibelvers: Distinctive types of richly decorated ketubbot developed locally. In fact, the prominent Jewish families of Ancona invested so much effort and money in commissioning sumptuous ketubbot for the weddings of their offspring that community authorities were forced to limit the amount that could be spent on the decoration of the contract.

This large piece of parchment is decoratively trimmed at the top. Its captivating border, highlighted by designs in strikingly bright tones of gold and green, closely follows popular frames of the time. Within the colorful floral and ornamental patterns that frame the text are three vibrant biblical episodes. Supported by a pair of classical hybrid figures at top center, the main episode depicts the prophet Elijah ascending to heaven, riding in his fiery horse-drawn chariot, while his amazed disciple, Elisha, watches below.

The identification of the scene is confirmed by a biblical quote from II Kings 2: Typical of Italian ketubbot, the depiction of biblical heroes in their finest hour alludes to the names of the bridal couple. The other two biblical episodes appear in the cartouches at the center of each of the side borders. At right, the scene of the Triumph of Mordecai, inscribed with the text of Esther 6: Depicted at left is another triumph — that of David over Goliath, accompanied by a quote from I Samuel The practice of decorating marriage contracts was revived in early seventeenth- century Amsterdam under the influence of Italian ketubbah artists.

In Amsterdam in the late s the noted Italian Jewish engraver Shalom Italia created a copper engraving used as the border for the ketubbot of the Portuguese community. The new border, of which this example is one of the earliest, became the most widespread framing device for marriage contracts of Dutch Sephardim.

The popular border consists of an arch supported by two columns entwined with floral wreaths. Two images appear in the top corners. The one on the left portrays a young, bare-breasted woman who holds a baby, while a second child stands next to her. The two images symbolize the ideals of marriage and motherhood. The large ornamental cartouche at the bottom contains the special conditions common among Western Sephardim. The calligraphic text commemo- rates the marriage of a known Sephardic physician, Daniel Tzemah Aboab, who was active in his commu- nity as the head of the local Talmud Torah and as a fund raiser for the Bikkur Holim Society from to Sie verweisen auf die Vorstellung, dass das Brautpaar bei der Trauung symbolisch durch ein himmlisches Tor einen geheiligten Raum betritt, der ihr Leben fortan bestimmen soll.

While the art of ketubbah decoration declined in northern Italy during the last decades of the eighteenth century, in central Italy, most prominently in the papal states of Rome and Ancona, it continued to flourish well into the nineteenth century, especially among affluent families. In fact, the bridegroom in this marriage contract is evidently the grandson of his namesake, the noted physician Shabettai Isaac Fiani, who served as rabbi and head of the rabbinical court in Ancona from to The ornamental border is dominated by large red spaces, upon which floral designs in sparedground technique appear.

The emphasis on large areas of red and blue are typical of ketubbot and megillot from Ancona. The text is centered under an arch supported by a pair of ornamental gilt columns. While arches were commonly used as framing devices in ketubbah decoration since the earliest known ketubbot from the Cairo Genizah, the gold letters inscribed here against the blue spandrels provide an additional meaning. The six square Hebrew letters, an acronym for Psalms The standard Jewish word for marriage, kiddushim, literally means sanctification.

A depiction of the Sacrifice of Isaac, an allusion to the bridegroom whose second name is Isaac, is located in a cartouche at the top center. This scene, a symbol of faithfulness and messianic promise that appears on many Italian ketubbot, has been the most popular biblical story in Jewish art over the ages.

Die Toscano — wie der Name nahelegt, wohl aus Florenz zugewandert — hatten im Die Gestaltung ist ganz auf die kalligrafischen Elemente, die Verzierungen mit Blumenmotiven und die feinen Farbabstimmungen konzentriert. The members of the former were leading bankers who had become the wealthiest Jews in the ghetto in the seventeenth century. Their arrival from Florence in Tuscany is reflected in their name. In keeping with their exalted status, the ketubbot of the daughters of this family document exceptionally high dowries for this period. Although the wealth of the family members had declined by the time the present ketubbah was created, they continued to invest in the production of attractively decorated contracts.

The ornamentation of this contract reflects the golden age of ketubbah decoration in Rome. Rather than concentrating on visual motifs, the design focused on elaborate Hebrew calligraphy. The work of a skillful scribe, the many texts that fill the page are written in square Hebrew letters of varying sizes. The decorative frame is divided into inner and outer borders. Panels adorned with flowers on painted gold fields flank the sides of the text. In the outer frames, crisscrossed micrographic inscriptions form diamond-shaped spaces, each of which contains a large flower.

The designs in the inner and outer frames are surrounded by minuscule, square Hebrew letters, presenting the entire four chapters of the book of Ruth. Micrography, the technique of utilizing minute Hebrew letters to form representational or geometric designs, is found in the earliest extant decorated Hebrew manuscripts of the ninth century. While in other eighteenth-century Roman ketubbot brief sections of the Five Scrolls were sometimes included, inscribing the entire text of one of them, as was done here, was uncommon. Perhaps the book of Ruth was selected because the wedding took place in the month of Sivan, when this book is read in the synagogue during the Shavuot holiday.

Another reason may be related to its contents with the central wedding story of Ruth and Boaz, which is quoted on many ketubbot, including this one. Moreover, the scribe planned the micography of the book of Ruth so that the wedding section appears directly above the column of the ketubbah text.

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While living in the overcrowded and noisy ghetto, Jews sponsored the creation of attractive pieces of Judaica that are admired to this day. One focus of local creativity was the illustrated ketubbah. Roman ketubbot are distinguished by their elegant Hebrew calligraphy, decorative designs, and attractive appearance. Customarily the bottoms taper to points because the parchment sheets were rolled from top to bottom and then tied with a ribbon attached at the end. The most popular decorative themes include biblical episodes, allegorical representations, and delicate micrographic designs.

Surrounding the text of this contract is an architectural frame featuring a pair of marble columns entwined by gold leaves and topped with Corinthian capitals. A large cartouche rests on the arch supported by the columns. In it is a pastoral landscape in which stand a man and a bare-breasted woman joined around their necks by a chain with a heartshaped pendant. This visual metaphor of concordia maritale harmonious marriage was the most popular allegorical representation used in Roman ketubbot, despite the obvious Christian connotation of the chain, a Catholic symbol of the indissoluble bond of marriage.

Enhancing the allusion to matrimonial harmony are family emblems of the bridal couple that appear next to each other in a cartouche above the central allegorical image. Additional semi-nude figures appear at the sides. Finally, the influence of Italian culture is demonstrated in the cartouche at the bottom, with the depiction of Cupid lying next to his bow and quiver. While the Bible has shaped how they perform the commandments and conduct their religious life, constant contacts with Rabbinite Judaism influenced their traditions.

One primary example is the use of a ketubbah. Although it is a rabbinical institution, the marriage contract has been an essential component of the Karaite wedding ceremony from the early Middle Ages to this day. The Karaite ketubbah, unlike the traditional Rabbinite contract, is written entirely in Hebrew. Also, it invariably comprises two parts: The former section occupies the upper part of the page, and the latter, the bottom.

This interest increased after the invention of printing, which enabled a much wider dissemination of presumed heretical ideas. Jews were under particular scrutiny, for obvious religious and historical reasons. These public events were part of a strategy that developed in the s and s and resulted in the banning and burning of larger groups of Jewish and non-Jewish eretical books.

On 12 September another papal decree was issued, demanding that all copies of the Talmud throughout the Catholic world be gathered and destroyed. In Venice — then the world center of Hebrew printing, largely through the efforts of Daniel Bomberg — the order was interpreted to include other Jewish books as well. This collection of eleven documents in Italian, which relate to this dark period in the history of the Hebrew book, was probably part of a file that belonged to a Venetian Inquisitor.

They constitute a more or less chronological account of the events in Venice. Die Abbildung auf fol. Today over forty manuscripts signed by Herlingen are extant, while approximately a dozen more are attributed to him. The Braginsky Collection contains one attributed and three signed works; this Haggadah of ; a book of Psalms from Braginsky Collection 63, not in this catalogue ; a sheet with Latin micrography dated cat.

This Haggadah has sixty painted illustrations and three decorated initial word panels. The title page portrays Moses and Aaron, who flank the arch that frames the title. The Hebrew text between the panels is from the Babylonian Talmud Sota 11b ; it recounts that the Israelites were delivered from Egypt as a reward for the righteous women who lived in that generation. It is possible that the Haggadah was produced for a woman named Miriam. On folio 3v the five Talmudic sages of Bene-Berak are shown seated at a table.

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The text recounts that they discussed the Exodus from Egypt through the night until their students came to tell them that the time for the Morning Prayer had arrived. In the Haggadot from Amsterdam printed in and the illustration accompanying this text was modeled after a biblical scene depicting the banquet Joseph gave for his brothers, in which more than five figures are present.

The handwritten eighteenth-century copies based on these printed editions usually portray anywhere from six to over a dozen men in this scene. This Haggadah is one of the few exceptions in which only the five sages mentioned in the text are depicted. The prohibition against work was lifted in Talmudic times; since then Rosh Hodesh has been considered a minor festival. At the end of the sixteenth century a custom developed among the mystics of Safed, in the Land of Israel, to fast on the day preceding Rosh Hodesh.

A new liturgy was developed, based on penitential prayers for Yom Kippur. In the course of the seventeenth century the custom spread to Italy and on to Northern Europe. Manuscripts for Yom Kippur Katan , in vogue in the eighteenth century, included few illustrations. The Braginsky manuscript has only a baroque architectural title page with depictions of Moses and Aaron.

The name of the owner was intended to be added to the empty shield at the top. No other manuscripts by him are known. The script in this manuscript is similar to that of the famous scribe-artist Aaron Wolf Herlingen of Gewitsch. Moreover, the title page is strongly reminiscent of his works. It is possible that Judah Leib bought an illustrated title page from Herlingen that was devoid of text. This would explain the presence of the empty shield and the fact that the title page is bound into the manuscript as a separate leaf.

Another explanation may be considered as well. If this is true, existing attributions of unsigned works to Herlingen based only on images that appear in the manuscripts should be carefully reconsidered, as this evidence may be insufficient.

He also copied numerous single-leaf manuscripts of contemporary poetry, mostly for family occasions, which are now housed in various collections worldwide. Binger began his career as a bookkeeper, but later worked primarily in a clothing rental business; he also may have been active in international trading.

In he inherited a lending library from his brother, Meijer Binger, to which he devoted most of his time. Both the above-mentioned prayer book and the Hijman Binger Haggadah typify Hebrew manuscript decoration in Central and Northern Europe at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries.

The previous flowering of Hebrew manuscript ornamentation and illustration started to decline around the middle of the eighteenth century. With few exceptions, notably a number of late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth century examples from Hungary such as cat. As a result, the later manuscripts lack the internal consistency and relative unity of style of the earlier examples. In light of similarities between the illustrations in the Hijman Binger Haggadah and those in some of the later Haggadot executed by Joseph ben David of Leipnik, for example, the Rosenthaliana Leipnik Haggadah of and a Leipnik Haggadah from cat.

The inclusion of a Hebrew map of the Holy Land, printed in the Amsterdam Haggadah of , though not unique to eighteenth-century manuscripts, may well be considered a rarity. PDF-version of the catalogue: Zwar ist nicht belegt, dass dieses Manuskript in Nitra entstand. Von ihm stammen rund ein Dutzend Manuskripte sowie eine gravierte Estherrolle. Die obere Randinschrift lautet: An inscription on the title page states that it was a gift from Mendel Rosenbaum to his brother-in-law Joseph Elsas of Nyitra, Hungary now Nitra in Slovakia.

Although it cannot be known with certainty where the scribe copied the manuscript, Nyitra is the likeliest option for two reasons. First, it is not likely that the scribe would have signed his name with his city of birth if he were still residing there. Second, the manuscript is reminiscent of the work of the most important Hungarian scribe of the early nineteenth century, Mordecai ben Josl, also known as Marcus Donath, who worked in Nyitra.

Donath is known to have produced around a dozen manuscripts, as well as an engraved megillah. The artistic school of Nyitra is known for its use of Hebrew micrography. Using this technique, Moses is depicted here as a calligram, holding the Tablets of the Law and pointing to the five volumes of the Pentateuch. The text above reads: The letters marked with a dot have a total numerical value of , i. Within the frame in the right-hand bottom corner is a paraphrase of Exodus I made the designs for the subjects, and she carried them out in the style of old missals.

For this she procured. She included a German dedication and wrote her initials on the back of a chair in the scene of a contemporary seder. This Haggadah, the only Hebrew manuscript known to have been illuminated by a woman, contains ten full-length and eight smaller text illustrations, in addition to decorated and historiated initials, and smaller ornamental devices. Framed within foliate designs and placed in a columnar arrangement within the text space, to the left on pages 92 and 94 or right 96 and 98 of the writing, a small vignette illustrates each of the references in the two songs.

The inclusion of these scenes reflects the familiarity of Rothschild and Oppenheim with manuscripts of the eighteenth century, which included such cycles created in that period for handwritten, rather than printed, versions of the Haggadah. Instead, original compositions and images based on previous sources were combined to create a masterpiece of nineteenth-century book art.

Die Szene mit Abraham, der vor den drei Engeln kniet, scheint ebenfalls auf diese Bildquelle des Die Sederszene des Pessachfests verbindet auf einzigartige Weise zwei unterschiedliche Herangehensweisen, dessen Inhalt darzustellen: Lapislazuli und Gold beherrschen die Farbskala. Die Textfelder sind mit winzigen Goldsprengseln bedeckt. Allerdings fehlen auf dem Tisch die traditionellen symbolischen Speisen der Pessachtafel. Perfektion, erlesener Geschmack und Luxus sind die eindringlichsten Signale, die von dieser Haggada ausgehen. Das Werk ist nicht signiert. Every page is illuminated with geometrical designs executed in lapis lazuli and gold; subtle, multicolored floral elements with separate designs surround individual lines of text, while delicate blue pen-work extends into the outer margins.

Tiny sprinkles of gold embellish the pages. The manuscript emulates closely works from a school of Arabic manuscript illumination of Shiraz, Persia, of the period between and The designs also appear in later Arabic manuscripts, especially from Turkey and Afghanistan. The sole illustration depicts a seder scene in which five men and two women, most of whom are dressed in orientalized clothing, sit at a table. The central male figure is reciting the benediction over wine. It is striking that the table is devoid of anything related specifically to Passover, including the ceremonial foods eaten at the seder.

The Haggadah was decorated by Victor Bouton, who is best known as a heraldic painter. It was commissioned by Edmond James de Rothschild — for his mother Betty — Notably, Bouton signed his name in Hebrew there, followed by the Hebrew words Sofer mahir skilled scribe , a common designation of professional Jewish scribes. Bouton, therefore, may also be identified as the scribe of both masterpieces. Heili reports that Bouton received the enormous sum of 32, gold francs for a Haggadah he executed for a wealthy Israelite. It is likely that Heili was referring to the Braginsky manuscript, which may have been another Rothschild commission.

Sie formen hier in mikrografischen Minuskeln die Figur Davids. Am Ende der letzten Kalligramm-Zeile ist nochmals vermerkt: Herlingen war im Ausserdem werden ihm zwei unsignierte mikrografische Estherrollen zugeschrieben. It comprises the Latin texts of what is known as the Seven Penitential Psalms 6, 31, 37, 50, , , and and of Psalm The grouping of these psalms is in the Roman Catholic, not Jewish, tradition. The seven psalms are sung during the days of Lent, the forty days before Easter.

The artist used micrography, a technique in which text is written in miniscule letters. In order to produce a clear image he first painted the figure of David using faint gray washes for modeling and then varied the intensity of the ink used for the text. Year in the framing element at the bottom. Herlingen was a gifted calligrapher and one of two Jewish scribes of the eighteenth century who wrote not only Hebrew, but also Latin.

Among his most interesting works are five calligraphic single-sheet manuscripts of sizes smaller than a modern letter-size sheet of paper on which he combined the texts of the Five Scrolls in five different Semitic and European languages and types of script. Two unsigned illustrated micrographic Esther scrolls are also attributed to him. Other calligraphic works by Herlingen and by his contemporary Meshullam Zimmel of Polna, who also worked in Vienna, were dedicated to the Imperial family as well.

It is not known how these works were presented, if at all. Die Forschung hatte keine Kenntnis von ihr. Andere seiner Werke waren jedoch wohlbekannt und eine ganze Reihe von ihnen erschien in den er-Jahren als Faksimileausgaben. Jahrhunderts bezeichnet wird, war er bei Weitem nicht der produktivste. Zwischen und signierte er lediglich 16 Werke, die er wahrscheinlich bis auf eines auch selber illustrierte. Other works of Joseph ben David of Leipnik are well known; a number of his works appeared in facsimile editions in the s. Although he is often considered the most influential scribe-artist of the eighteenth century, Joseph ben David was not the most productive one.

Sixteen manuscripts signed by him are known. Copied between and , all but one were illustrated by him as well. Fifteen of these are Passover Haggadot. He then went to Darmstadt, where he produced manuscripts in , , and , and settled in Altona not later than The names of some of his patrons are known through his colophons.


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He probably earned his living primarily as a teacher. His name does not appear in the archives of the Hamburg or Altona Jewish communities. The illustrations of Joseph ben David were innovative; he introduced new themes and a completely different palette. The iconographic program of the Braginsky Haggadah is similar to his other manuscripts of the same period and largely dependent on the printed Amsterdam Haggadot of and The colorful title page with the figures of Moses and Aaron is strongly reminiscent of a Haggadah recently discovered in the library of Blickling Hall in Norfolk, England, and of a number of other Haggadot from his hand.

Its design is inspired by printed architectural title pages. These illustrations were usually based on models older than the Amsterdam printed editions. Zwischen und schuf er mindestens 23 solcher Werke. Im Zentrum seiner Produktion stehen Pessach-Haggadot, doch deckt sein Gesamtwerk auch ein breites Spektrum unterschiedlicher Gebetsgattungen ab. Vor allem im Jahrhundert waren Omer-Kalender in unterschiedlicher Ausgestaltungsehr beliebt. Die im Katalog abgebildeten Illustrationen zeigen: Von ihm kennt man an die zwanzig Werke, wovon die meisten unsigniert sind.

In den signierten bezeichnet er sich immer als Kopist und Illustrator. Nur drei der biblischen Motive sind nicht von Vorlagen bekannt. Einige Illustrationen bedienen sich christlicher Vorlagen. Dieses Bild war seit dem Jahrhundert durch die Reproduktionsgrafik weithin bekannt. Aaron Wolf Herlingen schrieb und illustrierte die Titelseite. Verschiedene Anmerkungen und Zitate deuten darauf hin, dass bedeutende aschkenasische Rabbiner Zugang zu ihr hatten, so etwa Jakob Weil, ein bekannter Gelehrter und Rabbiner des Durch die Verwendung unterschiedlicher Schrifttypen setzte er drei verschiedene Textsorten deutlich voneinander ab: Ob er nur die Texte schrieb oder auch die Illustrationen schuf, muss noch genauer untersucht werden.

Hier steht jeder Sohn als Knabe vor einem Tisch, hinter dem der Vater sitzt oder steht. Diese Szene symbolisiert eine entscheidende Wegmarke in der Entwicklung des Kindes. Ausser dem Titelblatt mit Architekturrahmen und den Figuren von Moses und Aaron gibt es sechs weitere Abbildungen im Text, darunter eine sehr seltene Darstellung einer nur teilweise im Ritualbad untergetauchten Frau oder auch die eher konventionelle Darstellung einer Frau beim Lesen des Schema-Gebets vor dem Schlafengehen.

Der Vertragstext ist im Wesentlichen in einer sefardischen Kursive geschrieben. Contracts were written on large pieces of parchment and ornamented in bright colors. By the second half of the nineteenth century Gibraltar developed its own characteristic and readily identifiable type of decoration. The present Gibraltar contract belongs to an early period of local ketubbah decoration, though some of its features foretell later developments.

The upper section depicts a pair of lions crouched back-to-back, overlaid with circles containing the abbreviated Ten Commandments. The composition is reminiscent of the top of Torah arks and indeed it is topped with a crown, intended as a Torah Crown. This motif, typical of later Gibraltar ketubbot, was often modeled on the British royal crown. The crouching lions are flanked by vases of flowers. In the side borders, beneath theatrical drapery and trumpets suspended from ribbons, fanciful column bases are surmounted by urns. Several elements in the marriage contract are characteristic of Gibraltar ketubbot.

The initial word of the wedding day, Wednesday, as was common, is enlarged and ornamented. The sum of the dowry and increment is a factor of eighteen, the number that is also the propitious word hai, written here in monumental letters amid small cursive script. Also typical of Gibraltar is the ornamental Latin monogram at bottom center. This feature is also found in Moroccan ketubbot, as are the section with Sephardic conditions, and the request that God take revenge for the expulsion of the Jews from Castile cat. As the holiday marks the Giving of the Law, mystical traditions asserted that on this day Moses, as the matchmaker, brought the Jewish people the bridegroom to Mount Sinai the wedding place to marry God or the Torah the bride.

To commemorate this mystical union, among European Sephardim and in some communities in Islamic lands the custom has been to prepare a special ketubbah for Shavuot and to recite it in the synagogue prior to the reading of the Torah on the first day of the holiday. While several versions of ketubbot for Shavuot are known, the most popular in Sephardic communities has been the poetic text composed by the renowned mystic of Safed, Rabbi Israel Najara ?

He will never take a second wife namely, another religion , and neither abandon nor neglect her. Their dwelling will be in the Land of Israel, as Heaven and Earth witness the union.