Verwaltungsgerichtsordnung (German Edition)

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Withoutabox Submit to Film Festivals. It may order that several claims lodged in one set of proceedings are deliberated and ruled on in separate sets of proceedings. The court may introduce evidence in model proceedings that has been taken; it may at its discretion order the repeated questioning of a witness or a new expert report by the same or different expert witnesses.

The court may refuse motions for the taking of evidence on facts on which evidence has already been taken in the model proceedings if its admission in its free conviction would not contribute to proof of new facts that are material to the ruling and would delay the settling of the dispute. Rejection may take place in the ruling in accordance with the first sentence. Those concerned shall have recourse to the appeal against the order in accordance with the first sentence that would be permissible if the court had ruled by judgment. Those concerned shall be notified of this appeal.

If the ruling on the dispute depends completely or partly on the existence or non-existence of a legal relationship which forms the subject-matter of another pending dispute or is to be established by an administrative authority, the court may order that the hearing is to be suspended until the other dispute has been settled, or until the decision by the administrative authority.

In the event of non-attendance, it may threaten an administrative fine just as against a witness who did not appear at the questioning hearing.

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In the event of culpable non-attendance, the court shall establish the threatened administrative fine by order. Threat and establishment of the administrative fine may be repeated. It may in particular inspect evidence and question witnesses, expert witnesses and those concerned, and consult certificates. Those concerned shall be informed of all evidence-taking dates and can attend the taking of evidence. They may address expedient questions to witnesses and to expert witnesses. If a question is objected to, the court shall decide. Unless this Act contains any derogatory provisions, sections to and to the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply mutatis mutandis to the taking of evidence.

If the knowledge of the content of these certificates, files, electronic documents or this information would prove disadvantageous to the interests of the Federation or of a Land , or if the events must be kept strictly secret in accordance with a statute or due to their essence, the competent supreme supervisory authority may refuse the submission of certificates or files, the transmission of the electronic documents and the provision of information.

If a supreme federal authority refuses the submission, transmission or information on grounds that the interests of the Federation would be impaired were the content of the certificates or files, of the electronic documents and the information to become known, the Federal Administrative Court shall decide; the same shall apply if the Federal Administrative Court has jurisdiction for the main case in accordance with section The application shall be filed with the court which has jurisdiction for the main case.

The latter shall assign the application and the main case files to the adjudication bodies with jurisdiction in accordance with section The supreme supervisory authority shall submit the certificates or files refused in accordance with subsection 1, second sentence on request by this panel of judges, transmit the electronic documents or provide the refused information. It shall be subpoenaed to these proceedings. The proceedings shall be subject to the provisions of substantive classification of information. If these cannot be complied with, or if the competent supervisory authority claims that special reasons of confidentiality or classification of information oppose the submission of the certificates or files or the transmission of the electronic documents to the court, the submission or transmission shall be effected in accordance with the fifth sentence by the certificates, files or electronic documents being made available to the court on premises designated by the supreme supervisory authority.

Section shall not apply to the files and electronic documents submitted in accordance with the fifth sentence, and to the special reasons claimed in accordance with the eighth sentence. The members of the court shall be obliged to maintain confidentiality; the grounds for the decision may not provide an indication of the nature and content of the secret certificates, files, electronic documents and information.

The regulations of the classification of information for staff shall apply to the non-judicial staff. Unless the Federal Administrative Court has ruled, the order may be independently challenged with a complaint. The fourth and eleventh sentences shall apply mutatis mutandis to the complaint proceedings. At the discretion of the presiding judge, the person holding a proxy in accordance with section 67, subsection 2, first and second sentences, Nos.

English-German Dictionary

Section 87a, subsection 3, shall apply mutatis mutandis. With electronic access to the content of the files it shall be ensured that access only takes place by the person holding a proxy in accordance with section 67, subsection 2, first and second sentences, Nos. For the transmission of electronic documents, the entirety of the documents shall be equipped with a qualified electronic signature in accordance with section 2 No.

The presiding judge may shorten the period in urgent cases. The court may decide on reopening. Sections to of the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply mutatis mutandis to the minutes. In order to completely or partly deal with the legal dispute, those concerned may reach a settlement for the record of the court or of the commissioned or requested judge insofar as they are able to dispose of the subject-matter of the settlement.

The judgment shall state the grounds which were decisive for the judicial conviction.

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If only part of the subject-matter of the dispute is ready for a ruling, the court may hand down a partial judgment. If with an application for an injunction a claim is contentious in terms of its reason and amount, the court may rule in advance on the reason by means of an interim judgment. If the claim has been declared to be well-founded, the court can order that the amount is to be deliberated on.

The judgment may only be made by the judges and honorary judges who have attended the hearing on which the judgment is based. If the administrative act has already been executed, the court may also state on request that and how the administrative authority has to countermand execution. This statement shall only be permissible if the authority is able to do so and this question is mature for adjudication.

If the administrative act has been settled previously by withdrawal or otherwise, the court shall declare on request by judgment that the administrative act was unlawful if the plaintiff has a justified interest in this finding. If the ascertainment of the amount to be established or declared entails a not inconsiderable effort, the court may determine the alteration of the administrative act by stating the factual or legal circumstances which were wrongly considered or not considered such that the authority is able to calculate the amount on the basis of the ruling.

The authority shall inform the party concerned of the outcome of the recalculation promptly without requirement as to form; once the ruling has become final, the administrative act shall be newly announced with its altered content. On request, the court may reach an interim regulation until issuance of the new administrative act, and may in particular determine that securities are provided or remain in force entirely or partly and payments initially do not need to be repaid. The order may be amended or rescinded at any time. A ruling in accordance with the first sentence may only be handed down within six months of receipt of the files of the authority by the court.

Otherwise, it shall hand down the obligation to notify the plaintiff, taking the legal view of the court into consideration. Insofar as the administrative authority is empowered to act in its discretion, the court shall also examine whether the administrative act or the refusal or omission of the administrative act is unlawful because the statutory limits of discretion have been overstepped or discretion has been used in a manner not corresponding to the purpose of the empowerment. The administrative authority may also supplement its discretionary considerations as to the administrative act in the proceedings before the administrative courts.

Sections and shall apply mutatis mutandis if in accordance with section 79, subsection 1, No. The judgment shall be served on those concerned. It shall be drawn up in writing and signed by the judges who were involved in the ruling. The honorary judges shall not be required to sign. In respect of the details, reference should be made to written statements, minutes and other documents insofar as the state of the facts and of the dispute emerges from them sufficiently.

If this cannot take place exceptionally, within these two weeks the judgment signed by the judges shall be conveyed to the registry without facts, reasoning of the ruling and notification of appeals; the facts, reasoning of the ruling and notification of appeals shall be set down subsequently as soon as possible, signed individually by the judges and conveyed to the registry.

If the files are kept in electronic form, the clerk of the registry shall record the note in a separate document. The document shall be inseparably bound together with the judgment. The correction order shall be noted on the judgment and on the duplicates. If the judgment is drafted in electronic form, the order shall also be drafted in electronic form and inseparably linked with the judgment. The ruling shall only be contributed to by the judges who have worked on the judgment.

If a judge is unable to attend, the presiding judge shall have the casting vote. Final judgments shall be binding insofar as a ruling has been handed down on the subject-matter of the dispute. Orders on the suspension of execution sections 80 and 80a and on interim orders section , as well as orders after the legal dispute had been settled in the main case section , subsection 2 shall always be reasoned. Orders ruling on an appeal shall not require further reasoning insofar as the court rejects the appeal as ill-founded for the reasons of the impugned ruling. Interim orders shall also be admissible to settle an interim condition in relation to a contentious legal relationship if this regulation appears necessary, above all with ongoing legal relationships, in order to avert major disadvantages or prevent immanent force or for other reasons.

This shall be the court of first instance and, if the main case is pending in the proceedings for an appeal on points of fact and law, the court of appeal on points of fact and law. Section 80, subsection 8, shall apply mutatis mutandis. The Higher Administrative Court shall be bound by the admission. The administrative court shall not be empowered to not admit the appeal on points of fact and law. The appeal on points of fact and law must designate the impugned judgment.

Unless it takes place at the same time as the lodging of the appeal on points of fact and law, the reasoning shall be lodged with the Higher Administrative Court. The deadline for the reasoning may be extended in response to a request made prior to its expiry by the presiding judge of the senate. The reasoning must contain a specific motion, as well as the reasoning for the challenge reasoning for the appeal on points of fact and law to be listed in detail. The application shall be lodged with the administrative court.

It must designate the impugned judgment. Within two months after service of the complete judgment, the reasoning shall be explained for which the appeal on points of fact and law is to be admitted. Insofar as it has not already been submitted with the application, the reasoning shall be submitted to the Higher Administrative Court. The lodging of the application shall stay the legal force of the judgment.

The appeal on points of fact and law shall be admitted if one of the reasons of section , subsection 2, is explained and applies. The order should be briefly reasoned. The judgment shall become final on rejection of the application. If the Higher Administrative Court admits the appeal on points of fact and law, the application proceedings shall be continued as proceedings for an appeal on points of fact and law; the lodging of an appeal on points of fact and law shall not be required.

The reasoning shall be submitted to the Higher Administrative Court. Subsection 3, third to fifth sentences, shall apply mutatis mutandis. Section 84 shall not apply. The ruling may be handed down by means of an order. Those concerned shall be entitled to such appeal against the order which would be admissible if the court had ruled by judgment. Subsection 1, second sentence, shall apply mutatis mutandis. The plaintiff of the appeal on points of fact and law shall be informed in the call of the legal consequences emerging from the first sentence and section , subsection 2.

The court shall find by an order that the appeal on points of fact and law is deemed to have been withdrawn. The court shall rule by order on the costs consequence. The subsequent appeal on points of fact and law shall be lodged with the Higher Administrative Court. It shall be admissible after one month has passed since the written reasoning for the appeal on points of fact and law has been served.

Section a, subsection 3, second, fourth and fifth sentences, shall apply mutatis mutandis. The Higher Administrative Court shall review the dispute within the appeal on points of fact and law application to the same degree as the administrative court.

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It shall also consider newly-submitted facts and items of evidence. The excuse shall be credibly demonstrated at the request of the court. The first sentence shall not apply if the party concerned at first instance has not been informed of the consequences of missing a deadline in accordance with section 87b, subsection 3 No.

The judgment of the administrative court may only be altered insofar as an alteration has been applied for. The insurer shall also be liable for that loss incurred by the policyholder as a result of a collision between ships or a collision with fixed or floating objects on account of having to replace loss incurred by a third party. The Higher Administrative Court may rule on the appeal on points of fact and law by means of an order if it unanimously considers it to be well-founded or ill-founded and does not consider an oral hearing to be necessary.

Section , subsection 2, third to fifth sentences, shall apply mutatis mutandis. The Higher Administrative Court may refer to the elements of the impugned ruling in the judgment on the appeal on points of fact and law if it fully adopts the findings of the administrative court. It may refrain from a further depiction of the reasoning for the ruling insofar as it rejects the appeal on points of fact and law as ill-founded for the reasons of the impugned ruling. The complaint must designate the impugned judgment. The reasoning shall be submitted to the court against whose judgment an appeal on points of law is to be lodged.

In the reasoning, the fundamental significance of the case must be explained or the ruling from which the judgment deviates, or the procedural shortcoming, must be designated. The order should be briefly reasoned; it shall be possible to dispense with reasoning if it is not suited to help clarify the prerequisites under which an appeal on points of law is to be admitted. The judgment shall become final when the complaint is rejected by the Federal Administrative Court. The request shall be made in writing within one month of service of the complete judgment.

Consent to the submission of the appeal on points of law in lieu of an appeal on fact and law shall be enclosed with the application or, if the appeal on points of law is admitted in the judgment, with the written appeal on points of law. The Federal Administrative Court shall be bound by admission. The rejection of admission shall be incontestable. If the administrative court admits the appeal on points of law by an order, the period for the appeal on points of law shall be initiated on service of this ruling. Those concerned shall have recourse to an appeal on points of law to the Federal Administrative Court against the judgment of an administrative court section 49 No.

The appeal on points of law can only be lodged if the administrative court has admitted it, or if the Federal Administrative Court has admitted it in response to a complaint against non-admission. Sections and shall apply mutatis mutandis to admission.

In other respects, the Federal Administrative Court shall not be bound by the asserted grounds for the appeal on points of law. The deadline period for the appeal on points of law shall also be deemed to have been complied with if the appeal on points of law is lodged within the deadline to the Federal Administrative Court.

The appeal on points of law must designate the impugned judgment. This shall be referred to in the order. The reasoning shall be submitted to the Federal Administrative Court. The reasoning deadline may be extended by the presiding judge in response to an application lodged prior to its expiry. The reasoning must contain a definite motion, the violated legal provision and, insofar as the complaint relates to procedural shortcomings, must state the facts from which the shortcomings emerge.

The Court shall rule by order on the costs consequence. The provisions on the appeal on points of fact and law shall apply mutatis mutandis to the appeal on points of law unless this chapter states otherwise. Sections 87a, a and b shall not apply. This shall not apply to subpoenas in accordance with section 65, subsection 2. The deadline may be extended by the presiding judge in response to an application made before its expiry. The Federal Administrative Court shall examine whether the appeal on points of law is admissible and whether it has been submitted and reasoned within the statutory form and deadline.

If one of these requirements has not been met, the appeal on points of law shall be inadmissible. The Federal Administrative Court shall remit the dispute if the party subpoenaed in the proceedings on appeal on points of law in accordance with section , subsection 1, second sentence, has a justified interest in this.

The same principles shall then apply to the proceedings before the Higher Administrative Court as if the dispute had become pending on a properly-lodged appeal on points of fact and law at the Higher Administrative Court. This shall not apply to complaints in accordance with section and, if the appeal on points of law exclusively asserts procedural shortcomings, to complaints on which the admission of the appeal on points of law is based. Unless already submitted with the complaint, the reasoning shall be submitted to the Higher Administrative Court.

It must contain a definite motion, set out the reasoning from which the ruling is to be altered or rescinded, and deal with the impugned ruling. If one of these requirements is not met, the complaint shall be dismissed as inadmissible. The administrative court shall submit the complaint without delay; section , subsection 1, shall not apply. The Higher Administrative Court shall only review the reasoning submitted. Section 67, subsection 4, shall remain unaffected. The court, the presiding judge or the reporting judge whose ruling is being impugned may also otherwise determine that the execution of the impugned ruling is to be temporarily suspended.

The ruling of the court against the decisions of the commissioned or requested judge or of the clerk can be applied for within two weeks after announcement,. The application shall be lodged in writing or for the record of the clerk of the court registry. Sections to shall apply mutatis mutandis. After one year after announcement of the impugned ruling, the complaint may no longer be lodged. Rulings announced without requirement as to form shall be deemed to have been communicated on the third day after being taken to the post.

The complaint shall be made in writing or for the record of the clerk of the registry at the court whose ruling is being impugned. The complaint must designate the impugned ruling and document that the prerequisites named in subsection 1, first sentence, No. If the complaint is ill-founded, the court shall reject it. The ruling shall be handed down by incontestable order. The order should contain brief reasoning. The proceedings shall be restored to the state in which they were prior to the conclusion of the oral hearing. In written proceedings, the time until when the written pleadings may be submitted shall replace the conclusion of the oral hearing.

Section the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply mutatis mutandis to the pronouncement of the court. If the costs are offset against one another, the court costs shall be imposed on each in halves. A party may be burdened with the entire costs if the other only lost to a small part. Section of the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply mutatis mutandis if the party obliged to pay the costs consists of several persons. If the dispute is dealt with by means of a settlement, and if those concerned have not determined the costs, the court costs shall be imposed in halves on each party. Each party concerned shall bear their own out-of-court costs.

Insofar as preliminary proceedings were pending, fees and expenses shall be refundable if the court declares it necessary to consult a proxy-holder for the preliminary proceedings.

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Legal entities under public law and authorities may demand the maximum flat-rate determined in No. The clerk of the first-instance court shall determine on application the amount of the costs to be refunded. Those concerned may challenge the determination of the costs to be refunded. Section shall apply mutatis mutandis. The provisions of the Code of Civil Procedure on legal aid, as well as section , subsection 3, No. The execution court shall be the court of first instance. It shall determine the execution measures to be implemented and request the competent agency to carry them out.

The requested agency shall be obliged to comply with the request in accordance with the execution provisions applicable thereto. The period may not exceed one month. The court shall rule on objections after hearing the competent supervisory authority or, in case of supreme federal or Land authorities, the competent minister.

No execution clause shall be required in cases falling under sections and , subsections 1 to 3. If in cases covered by section , subsection 1, second sentence, and subsection 5 and by section the authority fails to comply with the obligation imposed on it in the judgment or in the injunction, the court of first instance may, in response to a motion, by order including the setting of a deadline, threaten, determine after unsuccessful expiry of the deadline, and execute ex officio, a coercive fine of up to ten thousand Euros against it.

The coercive fine may be repeatedly threatened, determined and executed. Unless this Act contains provisions with regard to the proceedings, the Courts Constitution Act and the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply mutatis mutandis if the fundamental differences between the two types of procedure do not rule this out.

The court within the meaning of section of the Code of Civil Procedure shall be the administrative court with jurisdiction; the court within the meaning of section of the Code of Civil Procedure shall be the Higher Administrative Court with jurisdiction. If the questioning or swearing in of witnesses and expert witnesses in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act or in accordance with the Tenth Book of the Social Code is effected by the administrative court, it shall take place before the judge determined for this in the business schedule. The administrative court shall rule by order with regard to the lawfulness of refusal to provide testimony or an expert report or to give an oath in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act or in accordance with the Tenth Book of the Social Code.

If the Constitutional Court of a Land has found that Land law is null and void or has declared provisions of Land law to be null and void, rulings of the courts of administrative jurisdiction which are no longer contestable based on the provision which has been declared null and void shall remain unaffected. Execution from such a ruling shall be inadmissible on proviso of a special statutory arrangement by the Land.

Section of the Code of Civil Procedure shall apply mutatis mutandis. The fields in matters of welfare, with the exception of matters of social assistance and of the Asylum-Seekers Benefits Act Asylbewerberleistungsgesetz , youth assistance, welfare of war victims, welfare of persons with serious disabilities, as well as training promotion, should be combined in one chamber or in one senate.

Court costs fees and expenses shall not be levied in proceedings of this nature; this shall not apply to disputes on refunds between social benefits institutions. Specialist senates shall be formed at the Higher Administrative Courts and the Federal Administrative Court for the decisions to be taken in accordance with section 99, subsection 2. In a Land in which there is no Constitutional Court, jurisdiction assigned to the Higher Administrative Court to rule on constitutional disputes within the Land shall remain unaffected until the establishment of a Constitutional Court.

The above translation was published by the the Federal Ministry of Justice. Reproduced with kind permission.


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The contents of this page may be downloaded and printed out in single copies for individual use only. Making multiple copies without permission is prohibited. Section 3 1 The law shall order 1. Section 4 The provisions of Title II of the Courts Constitution Act Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz shall apply mutatis mutandis to the courts of administrative jurisdiction.

Section 5 1 The administrative court shall be composed of the President and the Presiding Judges and the necessary number of further judges. Section 6 1 The chamber should as a rule assign the legal dispute to one of its members as an individual judge for a ruling if 1. Section 7 to 8 repealed Section 9 1 The Higher Administrative Court shall be composed of the President and the Presiding Judges and the necessary number of further judges.

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Section 12 1 The provisions of section 11 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the Higher Administrative Court insofar as it rules finally on a matter of Land law. Section 13 A registry shall be established at each court. Section 14 All courts and administrative authorities shall provide legal and administrative assistance to the courts of administrative jurisdiction. Section 16 At the Higher Administrative Court and at the administrative courts judges of other courts who have been appointed for life and full professors of law may be appointed as judges in subsidiary office for a fixed period of at least two years, but at most for the duration of their main office.

Section 17 Judges on probation or judges may be deployed at the administrative courts by commission. Section 18 — 3rd Chapter — Honorary judges Section 19 Honorary judges shall take part in oral hearings and in reaching a judgment with equal rights as judges. Section 20 An honorary judge must be a German. Section 21 1 The following shall be excluded from holding the office of honorary judge 1.

Section 22 The following may not be designated as honorary judges 1. Section 23 1 The following may reject nomination to the office of honorary judge 1. Section 25 Honorary judges shall be elected for five years. Section 26 1 A committee shall be established at each administrative court to elect the honorary judges.

Section 27 The number of honorary judges required for each administrative court shall be determined by the President such that each can be anticipated to be called on to attend a maximum of twelve ordinary session days per year. Section 28 The districts and cities not associated with a districtshall draft a list of proposals for honorary judges every five years.

Section 29 1 The committee shall select the requisite number of honorary judges from the lists of proposals with a majority of at least two-thirds of the votes. Section 30 1 The Presidium of the administrative court shall determine prior to the commencement of the business year the sequence in which the honorary judges are to be called in to the sessions. Section 34 Sections 19 to 33 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the honorary judges at the Higher Administrative Court if the Land legislature has determined that honorary judges are involved at this court.

Section 36 1 A representative of the public interest may be appointed at the Higher Administrative Court and at the administrative court, in accordance with a legal ordinance of the Land Government. Section 39 The Court may not be assigned any administrative business outside court administration. Section 41 repealed Section 42 1 The rescission of an administrative act rescissory action , as well as sentencing to issue a rejected or omitted administrative act enforcement action can be requested by means of an action.

Section 43 1 The establishment of the existence or non-existence of a legal relationship or of the nullity of an administrative act may be requested by means of an action if the plaintiff has a justified interest in the establishment being made soon action for a declaratory judgment. Section 44 Several requests pursued by court action may be pursued by the plaintiff together in one action if they address the same defendant, they are in one context and the same court has jurisdiction for them.

Section 44a Appeals against procedural acts by authorities may only be asserted at the same time as appeals which are admissible against the factual decision. Section 45 The administrative court shall adjudicate at first instance on all disputes for which recourse to the administrative courtsis available.

Section 46 The Higher Administrative Court shall adjudicate on the rights of 1. Section 47 1 The Higher Administrative Court shall adjudicate on application within the bounds of its jurisdiction on the validity of 1. Section 48 1 The Higher Administrative Court shall rule at first instance on all disputes concerning 1. Section 50 1 The Federal Administrative Court shall rule at first and last instance on 1. Section 51 1 In cases where the prohibition of an entire association has been ordered under section 5, subsection 2, of the Associations Act rather than prohibition of only one part of the association, any proceeding on an action brought by this part of the association against its prohibition shall be suspended until such time as a decision has been made on an action brought against prohibition of the entire association.


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Section 52 The following shall apply to territorial jurisdiction: Section 53 1 The competent court within the jurisdiction of the administrative courts shall be determined by the next highest court 1. Section 55 Sections , a to of the Courts Constitution Act regarding publicity, court officers, language of the court, deliberations and voting shall apply mutatis mutandis.

Section 55a 1 Those concerned may convey electronic documents to the court insofar as this has been permitted for the respective jurisdiction by legal ordinance of the Federal Government or of the Land Governments. Section 55b 1 The procedural files may be kept in electronic form. Section 56 1 Orders and rulings by which a deadline period is initiated, as well as deadlines and subpoenas, shall be served, in case of a pronouncement however only if it is explicitly prescribed.

Section 56a 1 If identical announcements are required to be served to more than fifty individuals, the court may order for the further procedure announcement by public notification. Section 57 1 Unless otherwise determined, a deadline period shall be initiated on service or, if this is not prescribed, on publication or pronouncement. Section 58 1 The deadline period for an appeal or another legal remedy shall only be initiated if the party concerned has been informed in writing or in electronic form of the appeal, the administrative authority or the court at which the appeal is to be lodged, the seat and the deadline to be adhered to.

Section 59 If a federal authority issues a written or electronic administrative act which is subject to challenge, a declaration shall be enclosed by means of which the party concerned is informed of the appeal that is admissible against the administrative act, of the agency at which the appeal is to be submitted, and of the deadline. Section 61 The following shall be able to take part in the proceedings 1. Section 62 1 The following shall be able to effect procedural acts 1. Section 63 The following shall be concerned by the proceedings 1. Section 64 The provisions of sections 59 to 63 the Code of Civil Procedure on the joinder of parties shall apply mutatis mutandis.

Section 65 1 As long as the proceedings have not yet been finally concluded or are pending at a higher instance, the court may subpoena others ex officio or on request whose legal interests are affected by the ruling. Section 66 The subpoenaed party may independently assert means of attack and defence and implement all procedural acts effectively within the requests of a person concerned.

Section 67 1 Those concerned may themselves pursue the dispute before the administrative court. Over and above this, only the following shall be empowered to represent the person concerned as a proxy-holder before the administrative court 1. Section 67a 1 If more than twenty persons are involved in a dispute in the same interest without being represented by an authorised legal representative, the court may instruct them by means of an order to appoint a joint proxy-holder within a suitable period if the proper processing of the dispute would otherwise be impaired.

Such a review shall not be required if a statute so determines, or if 1. Section 69 The preliminary shall proceedings begin on the lodging of the objection. Section 70 1 The objection shall be lodged in writing within one month after the administrative act has been announced to the aggrieved party, in writing or for the record of the authority which has carried out the administrative act. Section 71 Hearing If the rescission or amendment of an administrative act is linked in the objection proceedings with a grievance for the first time, the person concerned should be heard prior to issuing the remedial notice or the ruling on an objection.

Section 72 If the authority considers the objection to be well-founded, it shall remedy it and rule on the costs. Section 73 1 If the authority does not remedy the objection, a ruling on the objection shall be handed down. This shall be issued by 1. Section 74 1 The rescissory action must be lodged within one month of service of the ruling on the objection. Section 75 If with regard to an objection or an application to carry out an administrative act it has not been decided on the merits within a suitable period without sufficient reason, the action shall be admissible in derogation from section Section 76 repealed Section 77 1 All provisions of federal law in other statutes regarding objection or complaint proceedings shall be substituted by the provisions of the present chapter.

Section 78 1 The action shall be addressed 1. Section 79 1 The subject-matter of the rescissory action shall be 1. Section 80 1 An objection and a rescissory action shall have suspensive effect. This shall not apply if 1. Section 80 a 1 If a third party submits an appeal against the administrative act addressing another and favouring the latter, the authority may 1. Section 80 b 1 The suspensive effect of the objection and of the rescissory action shall end on non-contestability or, if the rescissory action has been rejected at first instance, three months after expiry of the statutory deadline for reasoning of the appeal available against the negative decision.

Section 82 1 The action must designate the plaintiff, the defendant and the subject-matter of what is at stake in the action. Section 83 Sections 17 to 17b of the Courts Constitution Act shall apply mutatis mutandis to factual and territorial jurisdiction. Section 84 1 The court may rule by means of a summary decision without an oral hearing if the case does not show any particular factual or legal difficulties and the facts have been clarified.

Section 85 The presiding judge shall order the action to be served on the defendant. Section 86 1 The court shall investigate the facts ex officio; those concerned shall be consulted in doing so. Section 86a repealed Section 87 1 The presiding judge or the reporting judge shall already issue all orders prior to the oral hearing that are necessary in order to deal with the dispute where possible in one oral hearing.

Section 87a 1 The presiding judge shall decide if the decision is taken in the preparatory proceedings 1. Section 88 The court may not go beyond what is requested in the action, but is not bound by the version of the motions.