Creation: Towards a Theory of All Things
These fluctuations in the universe provided a more detailed description of the first moments after the Big Bang. They also helped to tell the story of the formation of galaxies which will be discussed in the next chapter. The Big Bang theory provides a viable solution to one of the most pressing questions of all time. It is important to understand, however, that the theory itself is constantly being revised. As more observations are made and more research conducted, the Big Bang theory becomes more complete and our knowledge of the origins of the universe more substantial.
Now that an attempt has been made to grapple with the theory of the Big Bang, the next logical question to ask would be what happened afterward? In the minuscule fractions of the first second after creation what was once a complete vacuum began to evolve into what we now know as the universe.
In the very beginning there was nothing except for a plasma soup. What is known of these brief moments in time, at the start of our study of cosmology, is largely conjectural. However, science has devised some sketch of what probably happened, based on what is known about the universe today. Immediately after the Big Bang, as one might imagine, the universe was tremendously hot as a result of particles of both matter and antimatter rushing apart in all directions. As these two materials are created together, they collide and destroy one another creating pure energy.
Fortunately for us, there was an asymmetry in favor of matter. As a direct result of an excess of about one part per billion, the universe was able to mature in a way favorable for matter to persist.
As the universe first began to expand, this discrepancy grew larger. The particles which began to dominate were those of matter. They were created and they decayed without the accompaniment of an equal creation or decay of an antiparticle. As the universe expanded further, and thus cooled, common particles began to form. These particles are called baryons and include photons, neutrinos, electrons and quarks would become the building blocks of matter and life as we know it.
During the baryon genesis period there were no recognizable heavy particles such as protons or neutrons because of the still intense heat. At this moment, there was only a quark soup. As the universe began to cool and expand even more, we begin to understand more clearly what exactly happened.http://expo24.online/img/45.php
Theory of everything - Wikipedia
After the universe had cooled to about billion degrees Kelvin, a radical transition began which has been likened to the phase transition of water turning to ice. Composite particles such as protons and neutrons, called hadrons, became the common state of matter after this transition.
Still, no matter more complex could form at these temperatures. Although lighter particles, called leptons, also existed, they were prohibited from reacting with the hadrons to form more complex states of matter. These leptons, which include electrons, neutrinos and photons, would soon be able to join their hadron kin in a union that would define present-day common matter.
After about one to three minutes had passed since the creation of the universe, protons and neutrons began to react with each other to form deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen. Deuterium, or heavy hydrogen, soon collected another neutron to form tritium. Rapidly following this reaction was the addition of another proton which produced a helium nucleus.
Scientists believe that there was one helium nucleus for every ten protons within the first three minutes of the universe. After further cooling, these excess protons would be able to capture an electron to create common hydrogen.
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Consequently, the universe today is observed to contain one helium atom for every ten or eleven atoms of hydrogen. While it is true that much of this information is speculative, as the universe ages we are able to become increasingly confident in our knowledge of its history. By studying the way in which the universe exists today it is possible to learn a great deal about its past.
Much effort has gone into understanding the formation and number of baryons present today. Through finding answers to these modern questions, it is possible to trace their role in the universe back to the Big Bang.
Big Bang Theory
Subsequently, by studying the formation of simple atoms in the laboratory we can make some educated guesses as to how they formed originally. Only through further research and discovery will it be possible to completely understand the creation of the universe and its first atomic structures, however, maybe we will never know for sure. We now have something of a handle on two of the most important quandaries concerning the universe; however, one major question remains. If the universe is indeed finite, how long has it been in existence?
Again, science has been able to expand upon what it knows about the universe today and extrapolate a theory as to its age. By applying the common physical equation of distance over velocity equaling time, which again uses Hubbles observations, a fairly accurate approximation can be made. The two primary measurements needed are the distance of a galaxy moving away from us and that galaxys red shift.
An unsuccessful first attempt was made to find these distances through trigonometry. Scientists were able to calculate the diameter of the Earths orbit around the sun which was augmented through the calculation of the Suns motion through our own galaxy.
Unfortunately, this calculation could not be used alone to determine the enormous distance between our galaxy and those which would enable us to estimate the age of the universe because of the significant errors involved. The next step was an understanding of the pulsation of stars.
It had been observed that stars of the same luminosity blinked at the same rate, much like a lighthouse could work where all lighthouses with , watt light bulbs would rotate every thirty seconds and those with , watt light bulbs would rotate every minute. With this knowledge, scientists assumed that stars in our galaxy that blinked at the same rate as stars in distant galaxies must have the same intensity.
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- History of evolutionary thought!
What about the brain? The brain isn't affected. Your thoughts won't change, it's Well, eventually, no one will know what they are. Stephen, Jane was telling me that you have a beautiful, theorem. That proves that the universe, had a beginning. That was my PhD thesis. My new project disproves it. So then you no longer believe in the creation? What one believes is irrelevant in physics. In , you talked about the possibility of a theory of everything being discovered before the end of the century. I now predict that I was wrong. No, this is a black hole theory.
Time began at a certain point. There was a moment of creation. This is God's work. I think you'll find the equations are mine, but good point. Let's put a copyright symbol on the front page to avoid conflict. To the esteemed and formidable doctor To prove with a single equation that time had a beginning. Wouldn't that be nice professor? The one simple elegant equation, to explain everything. Why are we here? If we ever learn this, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason, for then we would know the mind of god. To be honest, I came here today expecting to hear a lot of nonsense.
I go home disappointed. The little one here has done it! In and , they published papers in which they extended Einstein's Theory of General Relativity to include measurements of time and space. Prior to the singularity, nothing existed, not space, time, matter, or energy - nothing.
So where and in what did the singularity appear if not in space? We don't know where it came from, why it's here, or even where it is.
All we really know is that we are inside of it and at one time it didn't exist and neither did we. First of all, we are reasonably certain that the universe had a beginning. Second, galaxies appear to be moving away from us at speeds proportional to their distance. This is called "Hubble's Law," named after Edwin Hubble who discovered this phenomenon in This observation supports the expansion of the universe and suggests that the universe was once compacted. Third, if the universe was initially very, very hot as the Big Bang suggests, we should be able to find some remnant of this heat.
This is thought to be the remnant which scientists were looking for. Penzias and Wilson shared in the Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery. Finally, the abundance of the "light elements" Hydrogen and Helium found in the observable universe are thought to support the Big Bang model of origins.
Theory of everything
Is the standard Big Bang theory the only model consistent with these evidences? No, it's just the most popular one. Internationally renown Astrophysicist George F. For instance, I can construct you a spherically symmetrical universe with Earth at its center, and you cannot disprove it based on observations…. You can only exclude it on philosophical grounds.
In my view there is absolutely nothing wrong in that.