Francisco, No El Santo: Una Historia Verdadera (Spanish Edition)
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Click here Would you like to report this content as inappropriate? Click here Do you believe that this item violates a copyright? There's a problem loading this menu right now. Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. View or edit your browsing history. It was during this expedition that he climbed a high tree in the central mountains of the Isthmus of Panama and thus became the first Englishman to see the Pacific Ocean.
He remarked as he saw it that he hoped one day an Englishman would be able to sail it—which he would do years later as part of his circumnavigation of the world. When Drake returned to Plymouth after the raids, the government signed a temporary truce with King Philip II of Spain and so was unable to acknowledge Drake's accomplishment officially.
Drake was considered a hero in England and a pirate in Spain for his raids. Drake played a significant role in the Rathlin Island massacre in Despite the surrender, they killed all the defenders and more than civilian men, women and children of Clan MacDonnell Sugden, John Therefore, the remaining leader of the Gaelic defense against English power, Sorley Boy MacDonnell , was forced to stay on the mainland.
With the success of the Panama isthmus raid, in Elizabeth I of England sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake used the plans that Sir Richard Grenville had received the patent for in from Elizabeth, which was rescinded a year later after protests from Philip of Spain. He set out from Plymouth on 15 November , but bad weather threatened him and his fleet.
They were forced to take refuge in Falmouth, Cornwall , from where they returned to Plymouth for repair. After this major setback, Drake set sail again on 13 December aboard Pelican with four other ships and men. He soon added a sixth ship, Mary formerly Santa Maria , a Portuguese merchant ship that had been captured off the coast of Africa near the Cape Verde Islands. He also added its captain, Nuno da Silva, a man with considerable experience navigating in South American waters. Drake's fleet suffered great attrition; he scuttled both Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing.
He made landfall at the gloomy bay of San Julian , in what is now Argentina. Ferdinand Magellan had called here half a century earlier, where he put to death some mutineers. Drake's men saw weathered and bleached skeletons on the grim Spanish gibbets. Following Magellan's example, Drake tried and executed his own "mutineer" Thomas Doughty.
The crew discovered that Mary had rotting timbers, so they burned the ship. Drake decided to remain the winter in San Julian before attempting the Strait of Magellan. On his voyage to interfere with Spanish treasure fleets, Drake had several quarrels with his co-commander Thomas Doughty and on 3 June , accused him of witchcraft and charged him with mutiny and treason in a shipboard trial.
The main pieces of evidence against Doughty were the testimony of the ship's carpenter, Edward Bright, who after the trial was promoted to master of the ship Marigold , and Doughty's admission of telling Lord Burghley , a vocal opponent of agitating the Spanish, of the intent of the voyage. Drake consented to his request of Communion and dined with him, of which Francis Fletcher had this strange account:. And after this holy repast, they dined also at the same table together, as cheerfully, in sobriety, as ever in their lives they had done aforetime, each cheering up the other, and taking their leave, by drinking each to other, as if some journey only had been in hand.
Drake had Thomas Doughty beheaded on 2 July When the ship's chaplain Francis Fletcher in a sermon suggested that the woes of the voyage in January were connected to the unjust demise of Doughty, Drake chained the clergyman to a hatch cover and pronounced him excommunicated. The three remaining ships of his convoy departed for the Magellan Strait at the southern tip of South America. A few weeks later September Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed one of the three ships, the Marigold captained by John Thomas in the strait and caused another, the Elizabeth captained by John Wynter , to return to England, leaving only the Pelican.
After this passage, the Pelican was pushed south and discovered an island that Drake called Elizabeth Island.
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Captain Wynter ordered the collection of great amounts of bark — hence the scientific name. Despite popular lore, it seems unlikely that Drake reached Cape Horn or the eponymous Drake Passage ,  because his descriptions do not fit the first and his shipmates denied having seen an open sea.
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The first report of his discovery of an open channel south of Tierra del Fuego was written after the publication of the voyage of Willem Schouten and Jacob le Maire around Cape Horn in Drake pushed onwards in his lone flagship, now renamed the Golden Hind in honour of Sir Christopher Hatton after his coat of arms.
Some Spanish ships were captured, and Drake used their more accurate charts. Before reaching the coast of Peru , Drake visited Mocha Island , where he was seriously injured by hostile Mapuche. It would come to be called the Cacafuego. Drake gave chase and eventually captured the treasure ship, which proved his most profitable capture.
Drake was naturally pleased at his good luck in capturing the galleon, and he showed it by dining with the captured ship's officers and gentleman passengers. He offloaded his captives a short time later, and gave each one gifts appropriate to their rank, as well as a letter of safe conduct.businesspodden.com/la-batalla-de-austerlitz-napolen-frente-a.php
Francis Drake - Wikipedia
After looting the Cacafuego, Drake turned north, hoping to meet another Spanish treasure ship coming south on its return from Manila to Acapulco. Although he failed to find a treasure ship, Drake reputedly sailed as far north as the 38th parallel, landing on the coast of California on 17 June He found a good port, landed, repaired and restocked his vessels, then stayed for a time, keeping friendly relations with the Coast Miwok natives.
Assertions that he left some of his men behind as an embryo "colony" are founded on the reduced number who were with him in the Moluccas. The precise location of the port was carefully guarded to keep it secret from the Spaniards, and several of Drake's maps may have been altered to this end.
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All first-hand records from the voyage, including logs, paintings and charts, were lost when Whitehall Palace burned in A bronze plaque inscribed with Drake's claim to the new lands — Drake's Plate of Brass — fitting the description in his account, was discovered in Marin County , California but was later declared a hoax. Drake left the Pacific coast, heading southwest to catch the winds that would carry his ship across the Pacific, and a few months later reached the Moluccas , a group of islands in the western Pacific, in eastern modern-day Indonesia.
While there, Golden Hind became caught on a reef and was almost lost. After the sailors waited three days for convenient tides and had dumped cargo, they freed the barque. Befriending a sultan king of the Moluccas, Drake and his men became involved in some intrigues with the Portuguese there.
He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa, eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hope , and reached Sierra Leone by 22 July The Queen's half-share of the cargo surpassed the rest of the crown's income for that entire year. Drake was hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth and the second such voyage arriving with at least one ship intact, after Elcano 's in The Queen declared that all written accounts of Drake's voyages were to become the Queen's secrets of the Realm, and Drake and the other participants of his voyages on the pain of death sworn to their secrecy; she intended to keep Drake's activities away from the eyes of rival Spain.
Drake presented the Queen with a jewel token commemorating the circumnavigation. Taken as a prize off the Pacific coast of Mexico, it was made of enamelled gold and bore an African diamond and a ship with an ebony hull. For her part, the Queen gave Drake a jewel with her portrait, an unusual gift to bestow upon a commoner, and one that Drake sported proudly in his portrait by Marcus Gheeraerts now at the National Maritime Museum , Greenwich. On one side is a state portrait of Elizabeth by the miniaturist Nicholas Hilliard , on the other a sardonyx cameo of double portrait busts, a regal woman and an African male.
The "Drake Jewel", as it is known today, is a rare documented survivor among sixteenth-century jewels; it is conserved at the Victoria and Albert Museum , London. After receiving his knighthood Drake unilaterally adopted the armorials of the ancient Devon family of Drake of Ash , near Musbury , to whom he claimed a distant but unspecified kinship.
Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules ,  and the crest, a dexter arm Proper grasping a battle axe Sable, headed Argent. The head of that family, also a distinguished sailor, Sir Bernard Drake d. Sable a fess wavy between two pole-stars [Arctic and Antarctic] argent; and for his crest, a ship on a globe under ruff, held by a cable with a hand out of the clouds; over it this motto, Auxilio Divino; underneath, Sic Parvis Magna; in the rigging whereof is hung up by the heels a wivern, gules, which was the arms of Sir Bernard Drake.
The motto, Sic Parvis Magna , translated literally, is: The full achievement is depicted in the form of a large coloured plaster overmantel in the Lifetimes Gallery at Buckland Abbey . Nevertheless, Drake continued to quarter his new arms with the wyvern gules. Arms of Sir Francis Drake: Sable, a fess wavy between two pole-stars Arctic and Antarctic argent. Arms of Drake of Ash: Argent, a wyvern wings displayed and tail nowed gules. Drake was politically astute, and although known for his private and military endeavours, he was an influential figure in politics during the time he spent in Britain.
Often abroad, there is little evidence to suggest he was active in Westminster, despite being a member of parliament on three occasions. After returning from his voyage of circumnavigation, Drake became the Mayor of Plymouth , in September . He became a member of parliament during a session of the 4th Parliament of Elizabeth I ,  on 16 January , for the constituency of Camelford. He did not actively participate at this point, and on 17 February he was granted leave of absence "for certain his necessary business in the service of her Majesty".
Drake became a member of parliament again in for Bossiney  on the forming of the 5th Parliament of Elizabeth I. He spent the time covered by the next two parliamentary terms engaged in other duties and an expedition to Portugal. He lived there for fifteen years, until his final voyage, and it remained in his family for several generations.
Buckland Abbey is now in the care of the National Trust and a number of mementos of his life are displayed there. War had already been declared by Phillip II after the Treaty of Nonsuch , so the Queen through Francis Walsingham ordered Sir Francis Drake to lead an expedition to attack the Spanish colonies in a kind of preemptive strike. An expedition left Plymouth in September with Drake in command of twenty-one ships with 1, soldiers under Christopher Carleill. He first attacked Vigo in Spain and held the place for two weeks ransoming supplies. He then plundered Santiago in the Cape Verde islands after which the fleet then sailed across the Atlantic, sacked the port of Santo Domingo , and captured the city of Cartagena de Indias in present-day Colombia.
After the raids he then went on to find Sir Walter Raleigh 's settlement much further north at Roanoke which he replenished and also took back with him all of the original colonists before Sir Richard Greynvile arrived with supplies and more colonists. He finally reached England on 22 July, when he sailed into Portsmouth, England to a hero's welcome. In another pre-emptive strike, Drake "singed the beard of the King of Spain" in by sailing a fleet into Cadiz and also Corunna , two of Spain's main ports, and occupied the harbours.
He destroyed 37 naval and merchant ships. The attack delayed the Spanish invasion by a year. Vincent , intercepting and destroying ships on the Spanish supply lines. Drake was vice admiral in command of the English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham when it overcame the Spanish Armada that was attempting to invade England in The Spanish ship was known to be carrying substantial funds to pay the Spanish Army in the Low Countries.
Drake's ship had been leading the English pursuit of the Armada by means of a lantern. By extinguishing this for the capture, Drake put the fleet into disarray overnight. On the night of 29 July, along with Howard, Drake organised fire-ships , causing the majority of the Spanish captains to break formation and sail out of Calais into the open sea. The next day, Drake was present at the Battle of Gravelines.
Coming up to them, there has passed some common shot between some of our fleet and some of them; and as far as we perceive, they are determined to sell their lives with blows. The most famous but probably apocryphal anecdote about Drake relates that, prior to the battle, he was playing a game of bowls on Plymouth Hoe.
On being warned of the approach of the Spanish fleet, Drake is said to have remarked that there was plenty of time to finish the game and still beat the Spaniards. There is no known eyewitness account of this incident and the earliest retelling of it was printed 37 years later. Drake's seafaring career continued into his mid-fifties. In , he failed to conquer the port of Las Palmas, and following a disastrous campaign against Spanish America, where he suffered a number of defeats, he unsuccessfully attacked San Juan de Puerto Rico, eventually losing the Battle of San Juan.
The Spanish gunners from El Morro Castle shot a cannonball through the cabin of Drake's flagship, but he survived. He attempted to attack San Juan again, but a few weeks later, in January , he died aged about 56 of dysentery , a common disease in the tropics at the time, while anchored off the coast of Portobelo , Panama , where some Spanish treasure ships had sought shelter.
Following his death, the English fleet withdrew. Before dying, he asked to be dressed in his full armour. He was buried at sea in a sealed lead-lined coffin, near Portobelo, a few miles off the coastline. It is supposed that his final resting place is near the wrecks of two British ships, the Elizabeth and the Delight , scuttled in Portobelo Bay.
Divers continue to search for the coffin. In the UK there are various places named after him, especially in Plymouth , Devon. Plymouth Hoe is also home to a statue of Drake. A large hotel in Union Square, San Francisco also bears his name. In British Columbia , Canada , where some theorize he may also have landed to the north of the usual site considered to be Nova Albion , various mountains were named in the s for him, or in connection with Elizabeth I or other figures of that era, including Mount Sir Francis Drake , Mount Queen Bess , and the Golden Hinde , the highest mountain on Vancouver Island.
Drake's will was the focus of a vast confidence scheme which Oscar Hartzell perpetrated in the s and s. He convinced thousands of people, mostly in the American Midwest, that Drake's fortune was being held by the British government, and had compounded to a huge amount.