Handbook on Leadership and Conflict Resolution in Africa

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He has authored, co-authored, and edited a dozen books and over 50 articles. Together with the late Jeffrey Z. His works have been published in 11 different languages. His areas of expertise include the causes of war, UN peacekeeping, and international law. She graduated in Political Science and Philosophy.

Her main research interest is memory and Conflict Resolution. He received his PhD from the University of Michigan. His two main research topics are the effects of dispute management on peace and conflict e. Gartner and Bercovitch, International Studies Quarterly , and the interactive relationship between war and domestic politics e. Gartner, American Political Science Review , New Approaches and Findings Routledge. Her main research interests include international negotiation, issues of justice and ethics, and international cooperation over global issues.

Global Public Goods and Fairness Cambridge, His research interests include conflict and cooperation, democratization, and spatial dimensions of social and political processes. He is the author of All International Politics is Local: Her research interests include identity-based conflicts; co-existence and trust-building in the aftermath of civil war; and the interface between human rights concerns and peace-building.

As a member since of the PIN Steering Committee, he participates in PIN research on a structural basis with a special focus on issues like the evolution of interstate negotiation, the connection between negotiation and warfare, as well as negotiation processes in the European Union and other multilateral regimes.

She has published widely in international journals and edited volumes in the fields of negotiation, diplomacy, conflict theory, and the Middle East peace process. Her research and teaching interests are in the areas of international relations and political methodology, with emphasis on international conflict and conflict management. She is [Page xviii] also interested in international organizations and foreign policy decision-making.

Her current research focuses on third-party interventions in ongoing international conflicts and the dynamics of conflict expansion. Brandon Valeriano is an assistant professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He has previously taught at Vanderbilt and Texas State University. Dr Valeriano's main research interests are in the causes of war and peace. His book in progress is an exploration of the onset of all interstate rivalries from to Other ongoing research looks at classification systems of war, complex rivalries, immigration, and Latino foreign policy issues.

Crocker is the James R. Schlesinger Professor of Strategic Studies at Georgetown University where his teaching and research focus on conflict management and regional security issues.

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SAGE Reference - Media and Conflict Resolution

He served as chairman of the board of the United States Institute of Peace — , and continues as a member of its board. As such, he was the principal diplomatic architect and mediator in the prolonged negotiations among Angola, Cuba, and South Africa that led to Namibia's transition to independence, and to the withdrawal of Cuban forces from Angola.

He serves on the boards of ASA Ltd. He serves on the advisory board of the National Defense University in Washington. As we survey the stacks of massive contributions in front of us, we realize that the book represents what is known about conflict resolution today.

It embodies the ideas, insights, and experiences of some of the best scholars and practitioners of the field. Pleased as we are with it, we cannot but be aware of the many debts we have incurred in completing a task of this magnitude. It is a pleasure to acknowledge all the people and organizations who have helped us. Above all, we owe a tremendous debt to all our distinguished colleagues and friends who contributed chapters for this volume, and worked within our guidelines and requests without too many complaints.

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Their contributions have been truly outstanding, and it was a pleasure to work with such a dedicated and professional group of people. Lucy Robinson and Sage Publications have commissioned us to produce this volume. We are grateful to them for their vote of confidence in us, and their continued support and encouragement. Eight anonymous reviewers read through our draft proposal and made some very helpful comments.

We wish we could thank them individually, but we have no idea who they are, save that they are masters in the field of Conflict Resolution. We owe special thanks to our International Advisory Board, who in faith backed this project before the results came in. In many ways, IIASA was the home of the project, and we doubt that it would have been possible without the Institute's support.

Through the PIN project, they hosted all the contributors at a three-day conference at their site in Laxenburg, Austria, in the summer of The conference was a marvelous opportunity to meet each other in person, share experiences, discuss the strengths of each chapter, and ensure the coherence of the whole enterprise. From its very inception, Tanja became the indispensable link through which all chapters were channeled, all communications were undertaken, and all arrangements were made.

Editing a book of this size when the editors are either traveling constantly or are in three different continents requires a central person with special talents. Tanja had these talents in abundance. We owe Tanja a truly profound debt, and it is a pleasure to be able to acknowledge it here. We also want to thank Isabelle Talpain-Long for keeping the project in order on the Washington side.

Our biggest thanks must go to our families. They did not write any of the chapters, but without their support, understanding, patience, and often forbearance, you, dear reader, would not have held this book in your hands right now. Now that you have opened it, we hope you will read parts, or most of it, and, dare we hope, enjoy the experience.

The Committee conducts one to two workshops every year devoted to the current collective publication project and involving scholars from a wide spectrum of countries, in order to tap a broad range of international expertise and to support scholarship on aspects of negotiation. It also offers mini-conferences on international negotiations in order to disseminate and encourage research on the subject. Escalation and Negotiation in International Conflicts , I. Negotiating European Union , P.

Resolving Disputes in Different Cultures , G. Professional Cultures in International Negotiation: Analysis, Approaches, Issues , 2nd Edition, V. Kremenyuk, editor, Jossey-Bass Inc. Avoiding Conflict Escalation , I. Zartman, editor, , Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Power and Negotiation , I. Models versus Reality , V. Approaches to the Management of Complexity , I. Zartman, editor, , Jossey-Bass Inc. International Environmental Negotiation , G. The Resolution of Water Disputes , G.

Rubin, editors, , Sage Publications, Inc. Processes of International Negotiations , F. Mautner-Markhof, editor, , Westview Press Inc. Perhaps more than most other handbook subjects, Conflict Resolution is an exciting field of intellectual attention, still in a state of development. It is of course exciting because it is so important to the maintenance of a better, safer world.

The intellectual challenge is of immediate, practical import and its theory faces its ultimate test of practical value. Conflict resolution is not just a set of abstract ideas, it is a highly practical set of skills and behaviors. But it is also exciting because the field is still in its infancy, and so many advances remain to be made. It is a field that is truly interdisciplinary with many scholars and findings coming to the field from different branches of knowledge.

What is known is for the greatest part relatively new knowledge, and every advance poses further challenges to discover newer knowledge. Conflict Resolution is a new and lively frontier of knowledge, and we have tried to capture this sense of intellectual adventure in the preceding chapters. We have learned much about the sources and causes of conflict, how to respond to it, prevent it or resolve it, but there is much more we need to do, and many unanswered questions.

One of the questions left unanswered in the theory and practice of Conflict Resolution so far, is: It is evident that Conflict Resolution is promising and deserves support. Also, it is clear that with time, the CR approach will enjoy even more support because violent coercive solutions of conflicts become more and more expensive and the only viable alternative to it is a peaceful resolution.


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Weapons of mass destruction WMD have outlawed themselves in practice, except possibly at the hands of outlaws, and yet both interstate and intrastate conflict, often by the most primitive methods, has directly taken massive toll and indirectly destroyed and dehabilited entire societies IRC The challenge is intensified. Each of the four parts of this collection asks different questions and poses new directions for further research and for testing in practice.

Part I , History and Methods of Study , shows Conflict Resolution to constitute a serious corrective to established patterns of studying international relations IR from a Realist or Institutional perspective only. It has come a long way since then, picking up controlled comparisons in case studies, quantitative analysis, modeling, experimentation, social analysis, and multimethod research to add to diplomatic studies.

Indeed, the variety of methodologies is so great that the opportunity for multimethod studies becomes more and more expansive. Today, methodologies old and new often [Page ] tend to honker down in their approaches, defending themselves even more vigorously than their results, when they should be inviting cross-methodological testing and verification of those results. The first part of the book tries to capture this complexity and account for it, suggest the various ways conflict resolution can be studied, and shows how its findings impact so directly on our lives.

Methodologically and conceptually, this diversity has opened doors to new rooms of study. Other data banks have also been created e. ICB, MID, ICM , and these indeed permit the analysis of different aspects of conflict, but more needs to be done if we are to understand how conflicts are or can be resolved. So there is a need, which we must all see as a challenge to meet, to develop better questions and data sources, so that better and more relevant answers can be sought Bercovitch and Fretter Misleading results have been achieved through the use of proxies, which ignore the many steps that separate them from dynamic reality.

Modeling too presents its challenge Avenhaus and Zartman While models of negotiation are still seeking to catch up with actual practice at a meaningful depth of insight into process, models for negotiation have proven to be of great usefulness in illustrating proposed effect but are too little used, and models in negotiation such as for fair divisions and optimum packages have still to overcome the need for politics and ownership Raiffa with Richardson and Metcalfe In a more standard direction, the controlled comparisons among case studies are fed new cases every day or so.

The methods we use to study conflict resolution affect the questions we ask, and the answers we get. The more aware we can be of that, the better will our practice of conflict resolution be. Part II , Issues and Sources of Conflict , presents an exhaustive analysis of the issues, sources and causes that are associated with or produce conflict in the relations between individuals and groups. Many causes and sources are identified, but, in fact, the comprehensive knowledge that we have here only poses new questions for analysis. Territorial issues in conflict have been plumbed deep, but they still leave many questions unanswered when they move from political geography to psychogeography: Indeed, as the game theoretic presentation has shown, Chicken Dilemmas and Battles of the Sexes have two Nash equilibria, so how can collaborative situations be brought to a single joint and stable outcome?

The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution

The dilemma is a clear example of the need for multi-method analysis. Similarly, much has been done on the economic sources of conflict, even to the extent of purporting to elbow out other sources. But when in fact does general deprivation become reframed into terms of discrimination? Where do political entrepreneurs come from? And how can a country get out of the Conflict Trap Collier et al. Beyond economics, current knowledge about conflict resolution faces the huge challenge of the future in handling ecological sources of existential threats of ever rising importance.

More than ever, the answer lies in new and broader regimes that are increasingly difficult to negotiate but also increasingly difficult to enforce. Both aspects of conflict resolution — creation and enforcement — belong to the study of regimes that surged at one point in the past, then sagged, and demands revival in the future for its importance Spector and Zartman And beyond that understanding lies the need to conceptualize the ever-growing net of ecological regimes that regulate international activity, themselves overlapping, contesting and conflicting with each other.

Neither law nor politics know how to analyze, let alone manage, these conflicts. Identity conflicts arise when one party's identity requires actions that impinge on another. This requirement can be internally focused or aggressive, either when one party's identity is only realized at the expense of another's or when one party feels the need to proselytize another.

Or it can be externally driven or defensive, when one party feels itself to be under an existential threat. In all these cases, the operative trigger is subjective. It might be hypothesized that the more intense the identity feelings, the greater the chance for conflict with another party, but that does not solve the subjective problem. Which, when, and why — the eternal questions for social science analysis — compel us to push our research further.

Similarly, it is striking that the beginning of the new millennium faces a challenge to international relations from a mystical religious surge closer to the beginning of the previous millennium than to either the state-based, world-shrinking globalization or the positivist quantitativizing ways of studying it in the current era. Wars of religion and ideology were thought to be over, as History as we knew it was to be too, leaving both analysis and action unable to handle the new — old turn of conflict relations. This final challenge in the list of issues and sources of conflict reinforces at the highest level the fact that the field faces broad new questions, not only in the substance of its study but even in the procedures of its methodology, still seeking ways to grasp that substance.

Part III , Methods of Managing Conflict , deals with how parties in conflict or change agents from outside can do something to escape from an escalating and costly conflict. It begins with an account of the latest set of ideas on conflict resolution — conflict prevention. Yet prevention remains an aspiration for policy and an approach for research, elusive in both cases.

Since conflict cannot be eliminated, only its escalation managed, resolved and transformed, prevention depends on its existence, and faces the continual challenge of satisfying at the same time the needs and desires of the parties that gave rise to the conflict. Conflict management is the enemy of conflict resolution, as it removes the pressure to resolve, yet it is frequently the only means to reduce violence, a paradox that itself needs resolving.

For conflicts that cannot be prevented, the next tool of conflict resolution is negotiation, where some basic new opportunities appear. The new conflicts of the era pose questions about the assumptions of the negotiation process as developed, studied and practiced to date. Instead of a binary exercise between established parties, negotiation became increasingly a process of selecting parties, shaping awareness of interests, and arriving at an outcome that depends on the sides' faith in its implementation.

Current theory and practice are not equipped to handle such a process. Nor — though they have dealt with questions of opening and process — have they addressed at all the subject of closure. In multilateral negotiation, so important to developing cooperation, the theory of coalition so basic to the process and absent in bilateral negotiation also demands to be revived and expanded beyond its earlier beginnings. Mediation is more necessary than it should be and less frequently practiced than it could be.

Conflicting parties need help, and are so engaged for ostensibly good reason that they cannot extract themselves from the costly conflict. Themediatorisusuallyfacedwiththe assumption that it knows the parties' interest in conflict vs. In so doing, the mediator draws on a limited supply of leverage, still not fully analyzed, to accomplish major transformations. The parties face the reentry problem of making their mediated behavior palatable to their home populations.

Both theory and data are needed to analyze these problems and develop new knowledge useful to mediators and parties themselves. Judicial methods of resolving conflict take ownership out of the hands of the parties [Page ] and delegate it to a higher authority, much in the way that formal models in negotiation propose optimal solutions. But in the process of deciding guilt, the expanded international role of the judiciary under special courts and universal jurisdiction constitutes impediments to negotiated or mediated conflict management and resolution.

Practice and research alike stand at the door to a solution to the paradox. Another paradox posed by evolving international law is the right to protect or sovereignty as responsibility, the duty imposed on stronger states to intervene in the affairs of weaker states to protect their population, in a reversal of the basis of the Westphalian system. But when that right is to be exercised remains deep in academic and diplomatic debate. Similarly, the tool of dialog and the role of NGOs' Track 2 effects another penetration into the state sanctuary, held in the hands of actors who can go where states cannot.

But the limits of this new activity are not yet clear, and neither are the measures of their success. The methods and the results are generally looser than standard negotiation and mediation, their purposes neither fully managing nor resolving, and their analysis and practice softer in the skills and processes involved. Yet the increasing penetrability of the state calls for increasingly sophisticated study and use of their methods and authorization of their agents.

Finally, the increasing prominence of international organizations IOs and nongovernmental organizations NGOs on the global and regional levels brings to the fore a subject, like others above, caught in the cloud between their powers and their aspirations: The UN is weak to a fault, yet its very weakness keeps its members from enacting the reforms necessary to its strengthening UN Between the two levels, the debate over subsidiarity often adds to inactivity.

Indeed, the biggest challenge to scholarship on the subject is not to fall off either side of the road into cynicism or idealism, while finding appropriate data and analysis of IO effects on conflict resolution. Here the intellectual horizons of the field are stretched farther, and new issues and ideas that have a bearing on conflict and its reclusion are introduced. New forms of conflict, such as terrorism, and how best to respond to it, are discussed.

Terrorism is a form of unregulated conflict where the parties' identities are not always certain, or are even obscured, and the means used to pursue objectives are at best indiscriminate. This form of conflict poses new challenges to all of us in the field and requires different approaches and methods, yet ultimately, we believe that even such conflicts can be negotiated and resolved. Another element in the expanding Conflict Resolution context is the press and other media, which in the ostensible search for better information for a better informed public can come to play an important, but often disruptive, role in the search for solutions to violence and conflict.

Both training and reconceptualization are called for. Interestingly, democracy plays a similar role. The line between informed public awareness and uninformed public participation in conflict and its resolution is often thin and porous. Democratization is often a context and source of conflict, even though democracy, once attained, is both a procedure for handling conflict and a condition for reducing it.

New work is needed to smooth the passage from authoritarian to democratic stability. Another issue that may have a major impact on conflict is culture. Indeed, some posit that any future conflict will be a conflict between cultures, not states or nations Huntington, Email Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature.

Looks like you do not have access to this content. Click here for free trial login. The Evolution of Conflict Resolution 1 Chapter 2: Diplomacy and Conflict Resolution Chapter 3: Conflict Resolution in the International System: A Quantitative Approach Chapter 4: Case Studies and Conflict Resolution Chapter 5: Experimental Research on Social Conflict Chapter 7: Problem-Solving Approaches Chapter 9: Constructivism and Conflict Resolution Chapter Economic and Resource Causes of Conflicts Chapter Typical and Special Circumstances Chapter Ethnicity, Negotiation, and Conflict Management Chapter Theory in Pursuit of Policy and Practice Chapter Conflict Resolution and Negotiation Chapter Mediation and Conflict Resolution Chapter Dialogue as a Process for Transforming Relationships Chapter United Nations Mediation Experience: Practical Lessons for Conflict Resolution Chapter Terrorism and Conflict Resolution Chapter Media and Conflict Resolution Chapter Democracy and Conflict Resolution Chapter Ending Intractable Conflicts 1 Chapter Culture and Conflict Resolution Chapter