Death by Emotion
Attribution statements need not involve persuasive intent but may instead be simple statements of fact. Indeed, their guise as truth statements may be thought of as their most effective advantage.
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- Death and Rational Emotion - Oxford Handbooks.
In , 42, people lost their lives to AIDS, and , deaths occurred as a result of some form of cancer Edmondson, We are given time to accept the thought of death is we know that it is going to happen. When a violent death occurs it is difficult to understand and know how to react. A person may wonder why this is happening, if they had no knowledge that it was going to happen. The reactions to these two causes of death are very different.
People assume that those who die of AIDS brought on their illness. Much differently, those who succumb to leukemia are victims. The road to achievement is often long and full of twists and turns. It goes without saying that external circumstances can sometimes get in the way Clarke, Everyone goes through hard times, but not every person deals with these periods of time in the same way. When death occurs, optimistic people mourn and grieve, but in a different manner than that of which pessimistic people grieve.
Optimistic people view death as content more often than those who do not consider themselves optimistic. If you expect something to turn out badly, it probably will.go to link
Loss and Grief - Grief Comes With Many Emotions
Pessimistic people are seldom disappointed. But the same principle also works in reverse. If you expect good things to happen, they usually do. Optimism and pessimism are both powerful forces, and each of us must choose which we want to shape our outlook and our expectations. We can choose to smile or cry, bless or curse, remember the good times or dwell upon the missing void that we are left with when death occurs.
The only thing more powerful that negativism is a positive affirmation, a word of hope. Too many people spend too much time looking down rather than up De Vos, People with positive attitudes and outlooks live longer and feel better in the process. They expect the worst. They predict the worst.
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They prepare for the worst, and the worst often happens to them. Pessimistic people make death seem like an end to life, instead of the beginning of eternity. Most optimists are realistic in accepting that problems, setbacks, and tragedies such as death happen. They just refuse to allow reversals to prevail. If you believe in happy endings, you are more likely to experience them. This of course has a huge effect on how the different personality types view death. Pessimism is a prison that some people impose on themselves.
Note the reactions of others when death education is discussed. When we think of death education we think of high school or college courses. People may argue that it is not necessary to teach a child about death because they are to young to understand it.
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With that in mind, people never consider the fact that children loose loved ones too. It may be more difficult for a child who does not understand death to deal with a loss. Death education should start at a young age not only because this type of education helps the child to understand death better, but it will help children as they become adults to know how to deal with the death of a loved one. Those who have been enrolled in a death and dying course will view death as peaceful more often than those who have not previously had the course. The traditional house wakes are being replaced with a more clinical approach to death, allowing little participation for children in death rituals.
Increasingly, schools are being asked to provide educational and counseling support to students experiencing situations involving death, suicide, or grief trauma. A number of handbooks and support materials for schools have been circulated by statutory and voluntary agencies in dealing with adult and child bereavement. Death should be discussed with children before they encounter it. Although discussions in the home and classroom by both teachers and parents were reported, it was relevant that parents were not comfortable talking about death with their children.
There was general support for the inclusion of death education in the school curriculum, with both teachers and parents supporting the need for further teacher training to undertake its delivery. However, it appears that personal attitudes and anxieties concerning death and dying significantly influence their level of support. There were few significant differences between the expressed attitudes of parents and teachers. However, teachers were more likely than parents to agree that death education would take away from parental responsibility.
If there were more parental knowledge about the subject, the result could be more parental support McGovern, This research study on the topic of death and dying is guided by these hypothesis: As discussed in the fundamental attribution theory, the leukemia victims will be viewed as more peaceful then AIDS victims. Optimistic people view death as content more often then those who do not consider themselves optimistic. Those who have been enrolled in a death and dying course will view death with more peacefulness then those who have not previously had the course.
The participants consisted of fifty college students attending a small Midwestern church related liberal arts college. The surveys were handed out to students enrolled in four different psychology classes. There was a much greater number of females in the Psychology of the Exceptional Child class, and so in Theories of Personality, and Adult Development, only males were given the survey.
Death, Emotion, and the Household among the Late Moche - Oxford Handbooks
In Introduction to Psychology, both males and females were given the survey. All of the students were in a Psychology class, but not all were Psychology majors. Out of those participants, 20 were males, and 30 were females. Another 50 surveys were handed out in two different places of employment in Bond County, IL. In this group 28 males, and 22 females completed the survey.
One hundred surveys were handed out on the perceptions of death. Along with the survey, participants were given a black and white picture of a woman lying in a casket. The participants were asked to answer all of the questions completely and honestly. They were also asked to not discuss or share information with their friends or classmates, and to respond anonymously. The demographic data requested was gender, age, and death education. Next, the students were asked to read a scenario. Fifty of the hundred surveys included a woman named Marybeth who had struggled with Leukemia for 2 years and eventually succumbed to the disease.
The other 50 surveys included the same person, but instead the disease that Marybeth succumbed to was AIDS. All participants were given a picture to look at; all of the pictures were the same. Once the participants read the scenario they were asked to choose a facial expression out of sadness, anger, happiness, fear, surprise, hope, contentment, and peace to describe the deceased facial expression. The final section is a life orientation scale. There are eight different questions all dealing with optimism and pessimism. The participants choose their answer on a one to five likert scale, with one being equal to strongly agree, and five being strongly disagree see Appendix A.
To assess the first hypothesis, a chi-square was conducted comparing men and women on eight different choices of facial expressions.
The percentage of men who choose sadness as the facial expression of the deceased was The percentage of women who choose sadness as the facial expression of the deceased was The percentage of males that choose contentment as the facial expression of the deceased was The percentage of females that choose contentment as the facial expression of the deceased was 29 see table 1 for a complete breakdown.
To assess the second hypothesis, a chi-square was conducted comparing the AIDS and Leukemia scenarios to the facial expression choices. To assess the third hypothesis, a chi-square was conducted comparing pessimism and optimism to the eight facial expression choices. A total was created by adding the scores of the life orientation scale.
One a scale of 5 to 40 participants were scored then divided into two groups with the low scores being equal to pessimism and the higher scores equaling optimism. To assess the final hypothesis, a chi-square was conducted comparing those who have had former death education, and those who have not had former death education, to the eight facial expressions.
Death is a taboo subject in our society today. People choose not to discuss death because they do not feel comfortable talking about the subject. Different factors effect how a person may view death. The gender differences are a result of being raised emotionally different. Men are not able to deal with death as well because they are not expected to express their emotions. If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.
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