Palabras Ascendidas / Tercera Parte: Libro V (Humanos Ascendidos nº 5) (Spanish Edition)

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You must work hard with them and show them you are the best. We have a long term vision, our finances are better; we have better executives and better ideas to face the crisis. With many years of experience in the region, the awareness about the difficulties is complete: Family companies which have proved to be successful when overcoming internal crisis were those that let special professionals help on the matter.

If we give an order, we obtain a response. In our culture, we should give ten orders to obtain a response. Del efecto populista, por ejemplo, no se ha podido librar Argentina. This is a pivotal moment in media, demanding radical, structural, changes arising from the emergence of new technologies, where companies require more than ever, regulations that balance and protect them from unclear boundaries in the avalanche of platforms generated by progress.

Vital, therefore, is having adequate legal frameworks in each country and rational schemes determined by technicians in the field. In the case of Latin America, is the region prepared for such a great challenge? The answer is unclear: Brazil and Chile set a standard in regulation that democratically determines adjustments to the technological transformation. They are also the two countries of the Americas below the Rio Grande with the best regarded political and economic practices.

In the countries most immature in the regulatory aspect of the industry, the phenomenon of transformation in the digital revolution is happening at a politically inconvenient time. Requiring rational, independent, criteria for the discussion of regulatory frameworks. Ecuador and Bolivia top that list: We know, from experience that when there is too much government influence, prospects are far from ideal. Argentina has not been able to get rid of the populist effect, for instance.

The developed world is experiencing a time of frenzied discussion about the rules that must be respected at this stage of the analog-digital conversion. The large conglomerates realize the importance of new technologies for their fate, having strengthened their impact upon political outcomes, with strong lobbies. The projections make the current administration a more open stage but do not modify the existing inequalities. In Peru and Colombia, two countries without a populist wave, having stable political practices and good economic projections, the discussions for renewed regulation is not a priority.

Convergence of technologies and the digital-analog switch coincide in Latin America with a wave of populist governments. Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia and Ecuador clearly evidence the negative effects of these political movements. Los medios tradicionales tampoco se muestran preocupados por cambiar las reglas establecidas. A diferencia del caso anterior, el Grupo. Only television and radio broadcasting attract the attention of new investors, but the regulators have shown a general inability to address those interests.

Uruguay is preparing to discuss a media bill whose main challenge will be to break the willingness of the executive to control key business development of the new radio and television broadcasting, where independence is crucial to development. Traditional media is concerned about not changing the rules.

The outlook for the Uruguayan case, definitely conservative, does not anticipate heated debates or changes when discussing new regulation. The Central American countries, meanwhile, seek to design their new regulations without rush. Costa Rica is at the forefront of these attempts, followed by Panama. With much less intensity, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras have discussed sending bills to their legislative bodies.

There are clear signs that in new regulations will be ready, with the exception of Costa Rica. Argentina has shown the effects of populism throughout Latin America: It has just passed a law out of sheer animosity against a media group that has been an inconvenience to the government in power. There was no intention of promoting the common good, or providing a law that respects the interests of the citizen and the rights acquired by companies.

If there was illegality in the granting of rights, the new regulation should have created a process for the restoration of fairness, not a fight to death. With the passage of the bill written by the current Peronist government, Argentina has become a case study for the world. With government policies historically nonexistent, government interventions with almost imperceptible positive effect, and negative impacts in most cases to regulate the sector.

Without balanced and specific regulations, the country came to its current situation, with a law passed which undermines investment in the sector and goes against the business trends of transformation in the developed world. If fully complied with, enforcement of the rules that came out of the Congress in October and signed by President Cristina. In Latin America, Argentina begins its process of applying the new media law. Mexico plans to unveil its reforms to the current law. Ecuador and Bolivia will begin the debate in their respective legislative bodies.

Fernandez de Kirchner, the leading media conglomerate in Argentina, Grupo Clarin, must disassamble its structure and sell, in less than a year, the bulk of its operations. As the adopted rule also requires to choosing between open TV and properties in cable and radio, its current weight in the industry will be reduced almost to nothing. One year is all that is given to sell assets not in compliance, at any local or international market. Something similar happened to the second largest multi-media firm, Grupo Uno, which has assets in cable and open TV in Mendoza and Buenos Aires.

They must dispose of divisions as well, if they intend to maintain operations. Unlike Grupo Clarin, Grupo Uno is on track to disappear if the rule is implemented as it was written, as its financial losses force this group to make some very important financial decisions, only possible with a proper mix of offerings for the conglomerate. In the cable television market, the impact of the law, which seeks to reduce the power of the big media to a minimum so they do not criticize the essentially erratic policies of the government.

The existing small and medium companies across a vast territory of Argentina could eventually disappear if they can not stop the entry into the business of service cooperatives, which are empowered by the new regulations and exist in cities and towns of the Argentinian interior. Born with monopolistic privileges as they provide basic services to residents, such as gas, electricity, water, telephone and internet, these cooperatives have spread everywhere in the country.

Their privileged situation will allow them to add pay-TV with virtually no cost to the customer, leaving their new competition, the local cable operator, unable to compete. In every town where there are cable TV systems, there is a cooperative offering of all of these services with tax benefits cable operators do not have. The business of pay TV programmers, both local and foreign, is emtering a tenuous period, if the law remains. The law distinguishes between domestic and foreign channels, which applies a different treatment to.

En cada pueblo en donde existen sistemas de TV por cable, hay una cooperativa ofreciendo todos esos servicios con beneficios impositivos que no tienen las cableoperadoras. Obstacles generated by ineffective and counter-productive regulations are affecting technological convergence. Particularly in countries like Mexico and Argentina, the weight of telephony companies involved has created difficulties and still impedes the opening process of the media to new technologies.

The project creates the distinction between foreign and domestic rates taking into account the origin of programming content. As for private open television and the licensees for frequencies, no more than two years ago, the extension of permits for another decade, is also under review with the law in effect. The new regulation makes no provision for digital terrestrial television, a point also crucial to the fate of the open networks, leaving that future open to another bout of executive discretion. In addition, the year closed with the foray into the platform of MySpace and YouTube and strong investments in non-scripted content and even videogames.

Comenzamos en abriendo una nueva oficina en Brasil, y hemos hecho lo propio en India. A year ago you said that the strategy for the future would consist of four key elements: Would you say these points have been put into practice? Yes, without a doubt. Our strategy has contained three main elements, the first of which was to develop our network of companies into new markets and territories. The second element is to invest in creativity. We place a great deal of emphasis on our internal development activities, and we also have a de-. Estamos aumentando nuestras capacidades en el plano digital, en nuevas plataformas y redes sociales como YouTube y MySpace, y encontrando nuevas formas de conectarnos con audiencias y anunciantes.

What has been your greatest surprise? On top of that, we also produce entertainment blockbusters all around the world. In spite of the fi-. How would you compare to regarding volume of production? We saw an increase in the number of commissions for our formats. FremantleMedia has an important presence in Brazil. What are your plans for this country and for Latin America? We see a lot of potential in the region, and we have offices in Mexico and in Brazil.

We want to do more shows like these in the region. We are also looking at other markets, like Eastern Europe. Es necesario desarrollar asociaciones con plataformas digitales y terceros para poder crear y luego distribuir el tipo de contenido apropiado para las audiencias. FremantleMedia es muy activa en el espacio online, y estamos aprendiendo mucho acerca de lo que funciona y lo que no. Hasta ahora hemos usado diversos modelos de negocio para financiar nuestras actividades online: In we launched our Gaming division, and took a strategic minority equity investment in a Canadian company called Ludia, which is a leading developer and publisher of interactive casual games.

What elements do you believe are necessary to make online content investments profitable? In the digital world we need to develop partnerships with digital platforms and third parties so that we can create and then distribute the kind of content that audiences want to engage with. We will still need to work hard to change the misconception that online content should be free, and piracy is clearly a big issue.

How would you describe your outlook for audiovisual content in the next five years? I think FremantleMedia is very well positioned to face these changes, and that we will continue to create, produce and roll-out inspiring entertainment to audiences all around the world. The great news though is that audiences are growing, and finding creative ways to engage with them is what we do best. El largo entramado de negociaciones ha llegado a su fin: The long rounds of negotiations have ended: General Electric has agreed to hand over control of its media subsidiary, NBC Universal one of the largest cable conglomerates in the US and the world to Comcast.

The remaining chapter will be written by the regulatory authorities, who have the last word. The Federal Communications Commission FCC , says it must intensify its analysis, due to the control of the market that Comcast amasses with this acquisition, particularly because it involves a breadth of business that no one has attempted to measure yet.

The new platforms of the digital age and its projections are beyond the scope of the studies that have traditionally occupied the attention of regulators. The Department of Justice will be involved in the review of the operation. This Department is usually stricter than media regulators as such, in applying the rules of competition. Since mid-December, AOL is being traded on the NYSE as an independent company, and these ten years of mergers have resulted in a value 40 times smaller.

Finally, AOL and Time Warner have separated, in a move that almost ten years ago promised to be the future of US cross-platform and media. At a time when most major media companies are struggling to have a presence on the internet, this leaves a number of questions that should make any executive stop and contemplate this outcome. Why did this project fail? He said they will seek to enhance their technological resources and content offering by injecting fresh investment. The failure in economic terms will not be recovered easily: The shareholders of the group received on Tuesday, December 9th, the first day when AOL went back to the stock market as an independent company, one share for every eleven owned by Time Warner.

The balance sheet of AOL, which does not differ from the common market, is in the red. In addition, of the Although these companies have great success in the traffic market and internet advertising, according to comScore, AOL is the firm with the largest advertising reach on the US network, ahead of Google and Yahoo.

Armstrong also explained that AOL launched a new content management system, seed. The advance of digital TV in the region still has a long way to go; however, it is now possible to envision future businesses that have already been developed in mature markets, where the internet is connected to the TV. One of the most important factors to generate a genuine interaction with the audience through interactive tools, in addition to digital, is given by the possibility of connecting TV to the internet.

A model that will change consumer habits and perhaps even bring about a complementary framework between platforms. New software applications are being developed, dedicated to offering or inviting the audience to experience a myriad of supplements to the television screen. With the future mass production of TVs with internet connectivity, widgets -graphic symbols that allow an interactive interface- the expectations of bringing the benefits of the internet to TV screens are on the rise. Interactive systems that connect television and the internet in Latin America will take some time to arrive, especially due to low ADSL penetration.

However, the global trend is moving towards interconnectivity, and the region, although late, will not be left out. El informe incluye algunas precauciones. Several US analysts agree that the rapid acceleration in terms of sales of TVs with internet access, either by fiber optics or wi-fi, generate new applications and are already being developed by manufacturers like LG, Sony and Samsung. Simultaneously, companies like Yahoo or Verizon FiOS are developing and evaluating ways to use widgets and utilities.

In more developed markets these applications provide news, traffic reports, weather, sports or stock quotes, and also allow connection with social networks like Twitter, Facebook, MySpace or Flickr. A recent study by Parks Associates showed strong numbers in this usage. In , over thousand televisions with connectivity were sold, and the research forecast stands at nearly 14 sets with this capability to be online by Some of the keys to the applicability and the possibility of a massive adoption of the synergy rely on a differential offer.

A set of options that do not attempt to replicate the internet screen, but offer a combination of both. The report includes some precautions. If these widgets include advertising content, it might conflict with the campaigns on the screen. Technically, the application offers significant advantages, it will soon be possible for a supplier to designate its own widgets to adapt and increase its audience.

The widgets will be one of the advertising tools of the future and achieve integration between media audiences and advertisers in a way not ever before seen. With promising projections for the coming years, the sector must overcome barriers related to standards, share, quality and costs. Las agencias y los medios que trabajan en la publicidad en la red mantienen en alza la expectativa. A survey conducted by Horizont and presented to industry executives describes the main obstacles to be overcome before online video is established as an advertising tool.

Media agencies working in advertising on the net continue to raise expectations. The launch of video advertising is definite; however, some obstacles slowing its growth still need to be overcome. European experts consulted by Horizont defined five major barriers. The main one, and the most talked about in the industry, is the lack of data and market research.

The demand for the measurement of advertising impact is absolutely necessary to justify ad spending. Advertisers are demanding sufficient evidence in the determination, efficacy and security of measurements. It is precisely this aspect that shows the greatest need, as stated by Jean-Pierre Fumagalli, president of Smartclip. Another obstacle, which no doubt arises from the changes that are happening, is the tendency of advertisers to compare television spots to online videos. This comparison affects costs, with TV prices going down and a growing demand for online advertising.

The trend, according to Roland Schaber, chairman of Smartclip, is the low cost of advertising inserted into online videos. High quality content is another uncertainty. Although some improvements have been made in terms of creativity and quality, as reflected by the growing attention to the internet, is that video is still marginal in most searches and their presence on websites is also minimum.

For this reason, the experts consulted consider an evolution towards more attractive content a necessity. From a technical standpoint, the difficulty lies in the multiplicity of video formats. The cost of streaming, the most expensive internet protocol, is another obstacle to development, by involving a number of industry players, we end up slowing down the business. Pricing for content licenses, which until now continue to remain high, also keep professional online video from reaching full swing.

The study shows that growth and investment geared to online video advertising continues to grow. Sony, que tiene la ventaja de ser productor y fabricante de televisores, experimenta un nuevo modelo de negocio: La primera prueba en EE. Sony, which has the advantage of being a producer and manufacturer of television sets, is experimenting with a new business model: The company states that launches like this one will push the sales of the devices, as well as DVDs.

Last Mipcom saw the presentation of the 10 minute screening of this new fiction that will be part of the Flor Latina Entertainment Group catalog. MarVista Entertainment reaches strategic deal with Snap TV Among the objectives of this strategic alliance are the establishment of Snap TV as a distributor and producer of formats, the production of fiction and nonfiction programming for panregional channels in Latin America and Hispanic USA, and the production of fiction, which demands the international distribution of MarVista Entertainment.

Snap TV will distribute the MarVista catalog in Latin America and as an international distribution offer, to boost regional co-productions for both companies. The series premiered in on TVE. Now, four years later, it reached its 1,th episode, on December 7th. Since its debut, more than sets have been built for it, featuring 30 scriptwriters. Today, four directors are working on the series, with the support of more than technicians. Telemundo International distributes the fiction series in Latin America as well. CBS takes idea from Twitter to produce new series The network started the project after a look at the updates of Justin Halpern in his Twitter page.

Based on some of the phrases and observations of his 73 year old father, Halpern made a series of daily tweets, with more than , followers. RCN Television seduces with multiplatform series For the first time in Colombian history, a series was launched online first, then on television. Monday, October 26th saw its premiere on RCN. The teen fiction allows the viewer to interact and contribute with their opinion on the topics dealt with in the show. Meanwhile, the financial downturn has accelerated the search for the monetization of online content.

Los principales modelos propuestos han sido: The Spanish content industry, which saw its sales erode dramatically due to film piracy, is represented by two players: Aditionally, based on the European Parliament, a regulatory framework that enables the cutting of connections to users who access illegal downloads will be implemented.

Moreover, the Spanish Government has promoted a bill on sustainable economy that includes the creation of an Intellectual Property Commission with the power to block the sites that host or provide links to copyrighted files. These moves have already caused a commotion with internet organizations that reject regulation and advocate file sharing and free online access. The site has already conglomerated diverse professional content and historic, complete programming agreements with the British Channel 4 and Five. The main objective of the macroweb would be to recreate an extended form of the Findanyfilm.

Los modelos se reproducen en las ofertas de video, con algunas variantes. El mismo modelo ostenta el portal Hulu que ocupa el segundo lugar en popularidad, con casi Remembering the experience of the music industry, the first area affected by this problem. The main models proposed are: The models are reproduced in the video offerings, with some variations.

The pioneer YouTube which according to Nielsen represents two thirds of all streams made in the USA, and also hosts a total of 6. However, this condition could change in coming months see box. The same pattern is seen on Hulu which is second in popularity, with nearly , streams , only available in the US, is oriented to series, movies, TV shows and video clips from more than content providers. Among the pay models is Netflix, initially a postal rental DVD and Blu-ray that has successfully incorporated a streaming service for US pay subscribers. Its users have unlimited access to over 17, movies and shows from the Hollywood majors.

Though it offers exclusive premieres before their DVD release, it is a more complex model and limited exclusively to subscribers of Verizon FiOS service. Despite being designed as an expandable project in the short term, DIRECTV, Comcast and Cablevision reported having no intentions to incorporate Epix, which suggests a resistance to its mass adoption. Another robust approach initiated in has been the TV Everywhere model, result of a partnership between Comcast and Time Warner last June, in a move that was classified as the cable response to the scrapping of audience and advertising investment by online video, led by Hulu.

This concept aims to lead the distribution of television content on the internet, and the agreement means that Comcast customers can freely access channel programs for Turner Broadcasting online and on demand. Finding the most effective model is not just a business concern, but it is a business. Esa necesidad ha sido motorizada por la crisis financiera, que dirige las expectativas acuciantes de las empresas de monetizar sus propuestas online, dado el auge de internet. Esto provoca una realidad ambivalente: Sin embargo, las principales acumuladoras de internautas son las redes sociales, ineludibles puertos de referencia en el bamboleante navegar de los usuarios: A este panorama se suman algunos datos de mercado.

Por ejemplo, en EE. That need has been driven by the financial crisis, which directs the urgent expectations of companies to monetize their online proposals, considering the internet boom. This results in an ambivalent reality: In the middle of this treacherous money outflow is a discussion led by the news media and publishers, whose voices support the micropayment system.

However, the main accumulators of internet users are social networks, an unavoidable reference for user navigation: To this list we add up some market data. If consumers begin to pay for online news, the decline of newspapers will slow but will not stop. So newspapers must innovate to consider multiple fronts. However, there are already clear signals. The legendary MGM is now for sale to the highest bidder, and the main cause is the dramatic decline in DVD sales at the hands of piracy.

This reality displaces DVD and requires a search for alternatives. In Hollywood, the MPAA analyzes carrying film premieres from the box office directly to households, exploiting the immediacy through an early window of distribution that could be even simultaneous with premieres in theaters. Regarding the migration of free to pay models, no success is certain, as the popularity of the pay offers is laughable compared to the free ad-supported models. The outcome is to be determined.

This is the sixth series produced by HBO in the region, and the fourth original production in Brazil. The series is made in accordance with the laws and regulations for co-financing of the National Cinema Agency ANCINE , official organ of the Ministry of Culture of Brazil that seeks to promote and regulate the film and audiovisual industry.

For HBO, this may be the most important market in Latin America from the viewpoint of turnover and the potential for further growth; we are paying close attention to this market. In addition, local content is very important in Brazil, with a strong TV industry with international scope. We have in our history, a few years producing original production in a variety of countries. Initially, we focused on drama series and reached the conclusion that there should be a thematic balance.

We came across this project and decided to take the step: Once the scripts were created and we were satisfied with the product, we decided to give the green light to produce it. The idea is to expand the horizon of original programming to other lines that are not strictly dramatic series. What are the narrative elements that characterize this series in particular? It is a series where each episode is self-contained. Each story develops and ends in one episode, but throughout the series the characters are developing their storylines. Nos encontramos con este proyecto y decidimos dar ese paso: Una vez que creamos los libretos y logramos quedar satisfechos con el producto, decidimos darle luz verde para producirlo.

Es una forma de balancear la oferta. La serie va a ser filmada en su totalidad en Porto Alegre. Ya veremos si tiene continuidad, si hay una segunda temporada. Casa de Cinema tiene la infraestructura y el talento in house como para acometer este tipo de proyecto. Es una empresa competente que ha realizado varios largometrajes. How is this production coming together? For the first time we are leaving the Sao PauloRio de Janeiro area, where the majority of audiovisual production in Brazil is concentrated.

The series will be filmed entirely in Porto Alegre. The format, like the drama, is a season of 13 episodes of 30 minutes each shot on film, as is customary for our original series, which aim to improve quality and visual texture. What requirements must the local producer comply with in terms of capacity, in order to meet your quality standards? In this case, the production company Casa de Cinema is a highly valued company in the Brazilian audiovisual industry, because it is composed of highly competent professionals. In fact, I think that is the only independent that frequently works with giants such as Globo - whom we know work with very few companies out of their environment.

Casa de Cinema has the infrastructure and inhouse talent to undertake this type of project. It is a competent company that has produced several feature films. We took an initial period to learn about, discuss possibilities and create several new paradigms, among them addressing a comedy product. We read a copy of her very funny comedy, and found it interesting for adaptation. Although the series is not true to the book, it is based on its literary world. It was a process of almost two years. Today we are very pleased with the outcome of the scripts, we believe we have a very good show in hand.

What is the budget for this production? The other way, if you have the money, is to fund the project through a tax incentive. This is the model we are following. Hoy estamos muy complacidos con el resultado de los libretos, creemos que tenemos una muy buena comedia entre manos. Es el esquema que estamos realizando. Es el futuro de este negocio. How would you contrast the Brazilian regulatory framework to markets like Mexico or Argentina? What are the similarities and differences? HBO has made productions in most countries with a major audiovisual industry, such as Mexico and Argentina.

While in both these countries and in Brazil there are laws that regulate and stimulate the film industry, the only country where there is an active and functional regulatory plan applied to TV is Brazil. Already there are six original productions made by HBO in the region.

What progress have you noticed on the experience of these accomplishments? There is an evolution in the sense that each production has a little more comprehensive quality: It was the first production in film format, so it was a reference point. The second season of the latest production to air was the most impressive yet for its comprehensive quality. We have long aspired to be shooting directly on high-definition video. This is the future of this business. We have done many tests, and I am sure that some of the upcoming productions will be in high definition.

One highlight is the international nominations and awards obtained in recent years. What factors have marked these successes? I believe that our series break the traditional pattern. Of course, in Latin America, good and bad movies are produced. The TV industry is a very powerful machine, especially in Brazil, Mexico and Argentina, but the most important format is the telenovela, a format with many episodes and with a daily output. The TV stations are a devil devouring material. In this context, we have the great advantage that, although our backbone is made up of films, we have content of very high profile series, both American and local, smaller in volume, but allowing more time to devote to production, and this is reflected in the final product.

Film has proved a great entertainment even under the present circumstances. That then translates into big hits available for TV broadcast. NATPE is the kick-off to submit a new lineup of titles both independent and from our represented companies. In Estonia, this innovative and entertaining format has captivated viewers as well. No es simplemente vender y marcharse. Recently appointed in this position, Helen Jurado is in charge of every effort from the multi platform sales of more than 50, hours of programming.

She is also responsible for digital media and home entertainment in that region. Hoy podemos decir con orgullo que Casablanca junto con VIP puede ofrecer servicios de amplio espectro internacional. Sin embargo, es un paso hacia el control de nuestro propio destino, es una forma de invertir en nosotros mismos. The association with Casablanca has enabled the company to provide its clients with a broad catalog.

We can say proudly today that Casablanca along with VIP can offer broad ranging international services. After having a near-death experience, ex-cop-turned-private-eye Frank Taylor learns that he has the ability to see and communicate with restless ghosts of murdered people who ask for his help in solving their deaths.

Hosted by worldwide famous photographer Yann Arthus-Bertrand, an extraordinary documentary series dedicated to confront and explore the major issues currently at stake for the planet. A seventeen-year-old photographer gets caught up in murder when he breaks his own rules and falls in love with one of his teenage models. When the clues to an ancient Inca prophecy fall into the hands of archeologist Jack Wilder, he embarks on a life long journey to find the legendary city of gold, El Dorado, hidden deep in the harsh landscapes of Peru. Henry faces tough decisions which cause him to consider his love for the perfect girlfriend, but when the Principle gives advice on love things start to become hilariously entertaining.

Armed with the latest in high tech gear and sent regularly into life-threatening situations, this tight-knit unit relies on each other to do what is necessary to protect national interests. Pushing aside the betrayal and crushing public humiliation caused by her husband, she starts over by pursuing her original career as a defense attorney and takes charge of her own destiny.

As he scrambles to the sea shortly after his birth on a beach in, Sammy the sea turtle finds and loses the love of his life, a pretty hatchling called Shelly. On the epic journey across the oceans, Sammy dodges every danger in the hope of meeting Shelly again. Award-winning teen drama series set in the fictional Degrassi universe that candidly explores real-life teen issues. Their paths cross at Middleton College. They meet and the half-day they subsequently spend together changes their lives forever. Four competitive brides battle it out to win a five star dream honeymoon.

Ever wondered what men get up to at home whilst their wives bring in the paycheck? This entertaining series uncovers the issues and conflicts that arise from what is becoming an increasingly common domestic arrangement, even for Hollywood stars. Brings viewers into the rarely seen world of investigative journalism, following an ensemble of reporters, correspondents, camera crews and editors as they unearth, investigate and assemble stories for the fictional television news-magazine the Eleventh Hour.

Gwen is a writer working on the life story of former child actress Francesca Lanfield, who is recovering from drug addiction. There they meet two teenage boys, Drew and Jeff, who have the same idea. During years Bliss has dreamed of escaping from the little twon Bodeen, Texas. Tommy Sparrow was a government agent with a past he was trying to forget. Now he is retiring home to the life he left behind and the daughter he abandoned.

His daughter Josephine is battling both her own destructive nature and the damage done by the disappearance of her father. Tommy carries his scars both inside and out and while his cold war operations never seem far behind, his journey home will surpass any mission he ran with the Agency - because reuniting with Josephine and becoming her father may cost him his life. Luz and Pedro throw a party for the birth of their newborn daughter, Delimar, but the celebration ends in tragedy when a fire breaks out in her bedroom. Luz is told Delimar has died in the fire yet, she is convinced her daughter has been stolen.

Stefano, 30 old go-get lawyer working for an important New York law firm, returns to Italy to attend the funeral of his mother. However, despite his inability to express feelings, Filippo has a marked sensitivity and incredible intuition for solving cases. There has never been any other man for Caterina in all these years; but seeing her daughters so independent and accomplished, she believes that the time has finally arrived to open up to a new relationship.

Unfortunately, just as she is about to give in to the courtship of Attilio, a charming widower, she discovers that the reality is actually quite different from what she believed. For Fanboy, there is nothing more normal than living life in tights and a cape, and the concept of an ordinary day is one where anything and everything can happen. Shot at various locations around Los Angeles, it features an ensemble cast that includes Grace Gummer and Gia Mantegna as two of the lead characters.

The lives of the staff at Mercy Hospital as seen through the eyes of those who know it best -- its nurses. Navigate through the daily traumas and social landmines of life, love both inside the hospital, and out in the real world. She has dated many men and received ten marriage proposals, but has yet to meet Mr. When she joins a popular dating site, she gets a little help from her dating counselor — who requires her to take a question compatibility test, which becomes a journey of self-discovery for Charlotte.

A charming and uplifting series, Power Family is ideal for all generations. Including tales of love, friendship and the strength of the human spirit, these movies will bring families together in front of their televisions. Forsaken by their governments, two people stand alone in a desperate struggle to track down a biological weapon before it is used to wipe half the population of Eurasia from the face of the earth.

After a mid-air collision, an uncontrollable passenger plane speeds through the skies and the heavily populated center of Berlin is the calculated crash point — now the race is on to prevent the catastrophe. A reporter in Iraq might just have the story of a lifetime when he meets Lyn Cassady, a guy who claims to be a former member of the U.

Stories inspired upon current topics which will certainly cause a lot of talk. A great show for the whole family in which participants test their skills in a series or original games with important prizes. During the whole show, there are challenges not only for the participants in the studio but also for the viewers at home. The show has captivated Argentinean audience from day one and it is one of the five most seen programs of local TV and the first one in its game show genre. The Single Man The story of George Falconer, a British college professor who is struggling to find meaning in his life after the death of his longtime partner, Jim.

We follow George through a single day, where a series of encounters, ultimately leads him to decide if there is a meaning to life after Jim. You have 90 minutes of oxygen left to breathe. Your only connection to the outside world is a mysterious cell phone with limited reception and battery life. And each second is a second closer to death. Meanwhile, an unmanned NASA space probe called the Infinity is dragged into an intergalactic wormhole, and crash-lands on an Earth-like planet on the other side of the galaxy.

Exploding with women, alcohol and non-stop bullets, Boogie provides a lethal dose of iron, it becomes impossible not to laugh. Valentina, The Series Captures the creative and kind spirit of its star in a format that combines 2D animation, musical scenes, amazing adventures and lots of fun. The Direction of International Business of Telefe, one of the top channels in Argentina, has a wide variety of products including telenovelas, comedies, shows for kids and teens, and series with socially relevant content.

Telefe International, with more than fifteen years in the global television market, has become a business platform, with a range of proposals that encompass: Telefe International provides an integral service of consultancy through new business platforms, looking for ways, windows and new markets for this industry. The original version was sold to more than ten countries.

Furthermore, Telefe was the first company to sell a license for a Latin fiction format in the US, when Sony acquired the format of the series. It provided us with a visibility as for production and I reckon it also opened a lot of doors for these series that are now a more imposed production format in the market. The original version has traveled around the world; it was sold in more than 30 countries.

The horizon seems clear. The crisis is increasingly being alleviated and Latin American markets are experiencing a sustained recovery outpacing the developed nations. And these are not just isolated anecdotal quirks. These are the results standardized measurement criteria. Given these indicators, the television industry is getting ready for NATPE, and although everything seems to indicate a return to the scene for buyers, the visions of the executives in charge of the areas of programming and acquisitions are key elements of many decisions and deals.

Under that premise, and motivated by a year that will feature the anticipation of World Cup in South Africa for June-July, the trends show encouraging results ahead. It seems that original production creates revenues for local television broadcasters, to the point that the growth rate of creation is a necessary premise in Latin American markets. From Chile, Mexico and Argentina, the strongest markets, to Bolivia and Paraguay, we see less cumbersome productions with strong local accents that are very well positioned in the programming grids, and no longer dedicated to minor timeslots, but in primetime.

While some broadcasters still have valid agreements with the majors-those three-year partnerships that extend. NATPE La tendencia de las emisoras latinoamericanas se enfoca para en el retorno de las adquisiciones en los distintos mercados. The trend of Latin American broadcasters for focuses on the return of acquisitions in various markets. After overcoming a crisis that in many cases was used to look for opportunities, programming managers are seeking blockbuster hits for their programming. The replies given by respondents questioned by todotv paint a picture where it appears that geographical boundaries are not relevant.

In Bolivia, Unitel will continue during with the same acquisition and programming policy of and Ultimately, strategies that work will not be changed. For this simple and compelling reason, America TV will not change their programming. Especially, for the opportunities available in times of difficulties. En definitiva, estrategias que dan resultado no se modifican. El incremento de la compra se manifiesta hacia horarios laterales de lunes a viernes, y hacia prime-time del fin de semana. Between the and seasons, they acquired just over 3, hours of programming, including movies, telenovelas, series, animation and documentaries.

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So, Channel 4 of Montevideo is following the same scheme they have been having for years, with a programming based on Telefe products, and afternoon telenovelas from Colombia and Mexico. A quick survey yields a view of some common strategies employed by open air stations, the purchase of material family and multitarget audiences.

These acquisition plans are in agreement with the strategic vision of Latin American stations. In this regard, the Ecuadorian station will prioritize the acquisition of children and teen series, preschool educational programs and telenovelas. Meanwhile, Mariano Mosca from Uruguay is planning on increased programming for film Film Pop, Casino Monte Carlo and promoting family and kids blocks with premieres.

Meanwhile, at Azteca TV, acquisitions will focus on series and movies of a larger scale than in Pedro Lascurain, Director of Acquisitions, told todotv that the station will not have a large variation in its procurement. Tal parece que los porcentajes destinados a contenidos nacionales crecen con fuerza de cascada. Por parte de Unitel con telediarios, magazines matutinos y programas de entretenimiento destinados a la franja etaria teen. What happens to original productions? It seems that the percentages of domestic content are thriving.

Open private stations show a strong attachment to schedule productions and co-productions in the most important timeslots, except that in some cases the volume analyzed increases in the non-primetime timeslots, and in other cases, they are the identity brand of the broadcaster in the ratings. It was left behind due to all of these positive indicators. On behalf of Unitel with television news, magazines and entertainment morning shows for teens.

Another example is Telefuturo, where domestic production across primetime from 8: El efecto de la crisis se nota en el comparativo con The market on the French Riviera showed a recovery compared to attendance at the last Miptv fair. Though, the effect of the crisis is evident in comparison to ReedMidem, in charge of the Mipcom organization, confirmed the number of those attending the event: This is slightly more than the 11, counted at the Miptv conference conducted in April For buyers, the official number rounds out at 4,, an amount that exceeds by the figures reported at Miptv. Ben Pyne Disney Media Networks In , AETN celebrated its 25th anniversary.

Our company celebrated its 25th anniversary in , and our success is the result of consistent guidance in the delivery of programming evolving along with audience interests. We have also diversified our content offerings to our partners in cable and satellite, and we work with them to achieve a correct balance.

Separately, the Home Entertainment Division has several avenues. This area also operates a distribution arm that develops educational online video, DVD and interactive teaching tools for schools, from primary to community institutions. The company controls ten cable and satellite TV signals in the US, adding recently the Lifetime portfolio.

The executive stressed that for several years, AETN had the vision to start producing almost all of its programming in high definition. Collector consumers, no doubt, have been critical during this downturn. The model has worked for them and for their viewers. Although AETN has as a corporate policy of not disclosing investment figures, Ronson explained that the company continues to make major financial commitments in programming: The vast majority of our original programming is developed by a team of top-notch producers from AETN.

To address the last two years of economic recession, AETN focused on implementing a careful strategic planning. The company works closely with its international distribution partners to deliver their brands and programs economically viable markets such as Europe, Asia and Latin America, and thus a total of million subscribers. Those territories in which we are still not present, the company distributes its content through the AETN International Division.

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Finally, we also have minor offers on our own sites, and syndicate content to multiple websites, including MSN in the US and internationally. Focusing the international market, in the division exported more than 13, hours of programming including telenovelas, series, stand alone shows and entertainment. International sales performances have been booming.

Currently, there are around 60 hours broadcasting Caracol content worldwide. Actualmente, hay cerca de 60 horarios emitiendo contenido de Caracol alrededor del mundo. According to Guerra, the trend to acquire the script, the format or the finished program depends on each market in particular. The cultures are similar, we share the same language and hence the original version travels perfectly in our countries. In Eastern Europe and Africa, they also tend to buy more finished programs because of the costs. Todas con una misma meta: Representing the Government was the Colombian vice president, Francisco Santos.

During his speech, Laserna highlighted the importance of every person who works at the broadcaster: Everyone with the same goal: During , the effects of the crisis were noticeable in many key trade shows, according to what executives from the company told todotv. Broadcasters were more conservative as to audiovisual content acquisition, resorting to programming suppliers or even demanding a cut in costs.

I think the fear with which started because of all the noise of the crisis has been wearing off and the buyers are calmer. Hay mucho por explorar y definitivamente nos concentraremos en abrir nuevos clientes en ese continente en According to the executive, channels are looking for long finished programs which attract the public for one season. The main commercialized titles in were: Africa and Asia are the markets on which the company has focused its expansion efforts: During the last five years, the area of international sales has become a key revenue source for Caracol.

This telenovela, which retells Colombian provincial stories, is inspired by the important rhythm and dance schools in Cali. This recognition is the fourth TV Globo receives in the entertainment categories. The production complex will occupy an area of 6, m2. The presentation of the project was in the hands of Ricardo Salinas, President of the Grupo Salinas, which owns the broadcaster, whom accompanied by other executives, producers, actors and technicians, laid the cornerstone of the new premises for Azteca Novelas. Record TV inaugurates state-of-the-art studios in their RecNov factory The broadcaster opened its 10th studio in the RecNov complex, adding an area of 12, m2, besides the set archive.

The works began last March, generating more than direct jobs and utilizes self sufficiency and environmental sustainability concepts. With the latest technology and high quality standards, the studios have dressing rooms, make up rooms, wardrobe and changing rooms.

The RecNov complex, located in Vargem Grande, Rio de Janeiro, was acquired by Record TV in March ; since then, the broadcaster has built more than 7, m2, in different studios where approximately 2, employees work daily. The series was created exclusively for the on demand service of HOT, the Israeli cable platform that has approximately 1 million subscribers.

The numbers that back up the daily telenovela are promising: The plot unfolds in a small city that gets shaken up with the building of a resort hotel. In that city, a series of murders will occur, which will end up being related to a political conspiracy. Colombian productions are gaining presence on regional and global screens at a pace that was unimaginable years ago.

The development of the cultural export industry has boosted the professionalization of Latin American content production, distributing it worldwide. Andrew Jackson, 8. Martin Van Buren, 9. William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James Knox Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Rutherford Birchard Hayes, James Abram Garfield, Chester Alan Arthur, Grover Cleveland, 4. Benjamin Harrison, Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Warren Gamaliel Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Clark Hoover, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Dwight David Eisenhower, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Lyndon Baines Johnson, Richard Milhous Nixon, Gerald Rudolph Ford, James Earl Carter, Jr.

Ronald Wilson Reagan, George Herbert Walker Bush, William Jefferson Clinton, George Walker Bush, Barack Hussein Obama, El Presidente es el comandante en jefe de las fuerzas armadas de Estados Unidos. De los individuos elegidos como Presidente, cuatro murieron de causas naturales en oficina William Henry Harrison, [3] Zachary Taylor, [4] Warren g. Harding, [5] y Franklin D.

Roosevelt , cuatro fueron asesinado Abraham Lincoln, [6] James a. Historia registra tres Presidentes: For example, George Washington served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first president not the first and second. Upon the resignation of 37th president Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford became the 38th president even though he simply served out the remainder of Nixon s second term and was never elected to the presidency in his own right.

Grover Cleveland was both the 22nd president and the 24th president because his two terms were not consecutive. A period during which a vice-president temporarily becomes Acting President under the Twenty-fifth Amendment is not a presidency, because the president remains in office during such a period. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill such a vacancy under the provisions of the Twenty-fifth Amendment when he appointed Gerald Ford.

Ford later became the second president to fill a vice presidential vacancy when he appointed Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him. His political opponents attempted to refer to him as "Acting President", but he refused to allow that. Clashed with Whig congressional leaders and was expelled from the Whig party in His failure to build a true National Union Party left Johnson without a party.

He also presided over the convention that drafted the Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation. The Constitution established the position of President of the republic, which Washington was the first to hold. Washington was elected President as the unanimous choice of the 69 electors in , and he served two terms in office. He oversaw the creation of a strong, well-financed national government that maintained neutrality in the wars raging in Europe, suppressed rebellion, and won acceptance among Americans of all types. His leadership style established many forms and rituals of government that have been used since, such as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address.

Further, the peaceful transition from his presidency to the presidency of John Adams established a tradition that continues into the 21st century. Historically, Washington has been widely regarded as the "father of his country". After both his father and older brother died when he was young, Washington became personally and professionally attached to the powerful William Fairfax, who promoted his career as a surveyor and soldier.

Washington quickly became a senior officer in the colonial forces during the first stages of the French and Indian War. Chosen by the Second Continental Congress in to be commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, Washington managed to force the British out of Boston in , but was defeated and almost captured later that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the dead of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey and restored momentum to the Patriot cause.

Because of his strategy, Revolutionary forces captured two major British armies at Saratoga in and Yorktown in Historians laud Washington for his selection and supervision of his generals, encouragement of morale and ability to hold together the army, coordination with the state governors and state militia units, relations with Congress and attention to supplies, logistics, and training. In battle, however, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies.

After victory had been finalized in , Washington resigned as Commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism. Dissatisfied with the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, in Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the United States Constitution. Elected unanimously as the first President of the United States in , he attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation.

He supported Alexander Hamilton s programs to pay off all state and national debt, to implement an effective tax system and to create a national bank despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson. Washington proclaimed the United States neutral in the wars raging in Europe after He avoided war with Great Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in , despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians.

Although never officially joining the Federalist Party, he supported its programs. Washington s "Farewell Address" was an influential primer on republican virtue and a warning against partisanship, sectionalism, and involvement in foreign wars. He retired from the presidency in and returned to his home, Mount Vernon, and his domestic life where he managed a variety of enterprises. He freed all his slaves by his final will.

Washington had a vision of a great and powerful nation that would be built on republican lines using federal power. He sought to use the national government to preserve liberty, improve infrastructure, open the western lands, promote commerce, found a permanent capital, reduce regional tensions and promote a spirit of American nationalism. As the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire in world history, Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism, especially in France and Latin America.

Su estilo de liderazgo establecido muchas formas y rituales del Gobierno que se han utilizado , como con un sistema de gabinete y la entrega de un discurso inaugural. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Notes 1. The provisions of the British Calendar New Style Act , implemented in , altered the official British dating method to the Gregorian calendar with the start of the year on January 1 it had been March These changes resulted in dates being moved forward 11 days, and for those between January 1 and March 25, an advance of one year.

For a further explanation, see: Old Style and New Style dates. Both Franklin s and Washington s confusing birth dates are clearly explained. See Ellis , p. Don Higginbotham places Washington s first formal advocacy of a strong central government in That person had no executive powers, but the similarity of titles has confused some into thinking there were other presidents before Washington. These competing claims led to a war in the colonies called the French and Indian War —62 , and contributed to the start of the global Seven Years War — Washington was at the center of its beginning.

The Ohio Company was one vehicle through which British investors planned to expand into the territory, opening new settlements and building trading posts for the Indian trade. Washington delivered the letter to the local French commander, who politely refused to leave. A small detachment of French troops led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, was discovered by Tanacharison and a few warriors east of present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania.


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Along with their Mingo allies, Washington and some of his militia unit then ambushed the French. What exactly happened during and after the battle is a matter of some controversy, but the immediate outcome was that Jumonville was injured in the initial attack and then was killed - whether tomahawked by Tanacharison in cold blood or somehow shot by another onlooker with a musket as the injured man sat with Washington is not completely clear.

Historian Joseph Ellis concludes that the episode demonstrated Washington s bravery, initiative, inexperience and impetuosity. Washington estaba en el centro de su comienzo. La empresa de Ohio fue Junto con sus aliados de Mingo, Washington y algunos de su unidad de milicia luego emboscaron a los franceses.

Surviving letters suggest that he may have been in love at the time with Sally Fairfax, the wife of a friend. Later the Washingtons raised two of Mrs. George and Martha never had any children together — his earlier bout with smallpox in may have made him sterile. By , Washington had doubled the size of Mount Vernon to 6, acres 26 km2 , and had increased its slave population to over As a respected military hero and large landowner, he held local office and was elected to the Virginia provincial legislature, the House of Burgesses, beginning in Washington also was known to play cards, backgammon, and billiards.

Letras supervivientes sugieren que pudo haber sido en el amor a la vez con Sally Fairfax, la esposa de un amigo. Casa de George Washington. Mount Vernon — Washington began to pull himself out of debt in the mid s by diversifying his previously tobacco-centric business interests into other ventures[56] and paying more attention to his affairs. From to , he invited some guests to his Mount Vernon estate, mostly those he considered "people of rank".

As for people not of high social status, his advice was to "treat them civilly" but "keep them at a proper distance, for they will grow upon familiarity, in proportion as you sink in authority". Washington appeared at the Second Continental Congress in a military uniform, signaling that he was prepared for war. Virginia, the largest colony, deserved recognition, and New England—where the fighting began—realized it needed Southern support.

Washington did not explicitly seek the office of commander and said that he was not equal to it, but there was no serious competition. In —77, and again in he led his men against the main British forces. Although he lost many of his battles, he never surrendered his army during the war, and he continued to fight the British relentlessly until the war s end.

He plotted the overall strategy of the war, in cooperation with Congress.


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  • He recruited regulars and assigned Baron and General Friedrich von Steuben, a veteran of the Prussian general staff, to train them. The war effort and getting supplies to the troops were under the purview of Congress,[68] but Washington pressured the Congress to provide the essentials. The results of his general staff were mixed, as some of his favorites like John Sullivan never mastered the art of command. The American officers never equaled their opponents in tactics and maneuver, and consequently they lost most of the pitched battles. The great successes, at Boston , Saratoga and Yorktown , came from trapping the British far from base with much larger numbers of troops.

    His enormous stature and political skills kept Congress, the army, the French, the militias, and the states all pointed toward a common goal. By voluntarily stepping down and disbanding his army when the war was won, he permanently established the principle of civilian supremacy in military affairs. And yet his constant reiteration of the point that well-disciplined professional soldiers counted for twice as much as erratic amateurs helped overcome the ideological distrust of a standing army.

    Virginia, la mayor colonia, merecido reconocimiento y Nueva Inglaterra, donde los combates comenzaron — se dio cuenta necesitaba apoyo sur. Los resultados de su estado mayor se mezclaron, como algunos de sus favoritos como John Sullivan nunca dominan el arte de comando. National Archives and Records Administration Located online at http: Realizing his army s desperate shortage of gunpowder, Washington asked for new sources. American troops raided British arsenals, including some in the Caribbean, and some manufacturing was attempted. They obtained a barely adequate supply about 2. These articles were bold, as Washington was an enemy general who commanded an army in a cause that many Britons believed would ruin the empire.

    The Continental Army under Washington engaged the enemy for the first time as an army of the newly independent United States at the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. The Americans were heavily outnumbered, many men deserted, and Washington was badly beaten. Subsequently, Washington was forced to retreat across the East River at night. He did so without loss of life or materiel. Washington then retreated across New Jersey; the future of the Continental Army was in doubt due to expiring enlistments and the string of losses. Washington followed up his victory at Trenton with another over British regulars at Princeton in early January.

    The British retreated back to New York City and its environs, which they held until the peace treaty of Washington s victories wrecked the British carrot-and-stick strategy of showing overwhelming force then offering generous terms. The Americans would not negotiate for anything short of independence. Washington and Congress reorganized the army with increased rewards for staying and punishment for desertion, which raised troop numbers effectively for subsequent battles. Trenton and Princeton were Fabian examples.

    By summer , however, Washington had rebuilt his strength and his confidence; he stopped using raids and went for large-scale confrontations, as at Brandywine, Germantown, Monmouth and Yorktown. It was a major strategic mistake for the British, and Washington rushed to Philadelphia to engage Howe, while closely following the action in upstate New York. In pitched battles that were too complex for his relatively inexperienced men, Washington was defeated. At the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, , Howe outmaneuvered Washington, and marched into the American capital at Philadelphia unopposed on September Washington s army unsuccessfully attacked the British garrison at Germantown in early October.

    Meanwhile, Burgoyne, out of reach from help from Howe, was trapped and forced to surrender his entire army at Saratoga, New York. France responded to Burgoyne s defeat by entering the war, openly allying with America and turning the Revolutionary War into a major worldwide war. Washington s loss of Philadelphia prompted some members of Congress to discuss removing Washington from command. This attempt failed after Washington s supporters rallied behind him.

    Posteriormente, Washington se vio obligado a retirarse en el East River en la noche. Los estadounidenses no negociar nada por debajo de la independencia. Trenton y Princeton fueron ejemplos Fabian. En batallas campales que eran demasiado complejas para sus hombres relativamente inexpertos, Washington fue derrotado. Over the next six months, the deaths in camp numbered in the thousands the majority being from disease ,[82] with historians death toll estimates ranging from [82] to ,[83][84] to over men.

    Washington attacked them at Monmouth, fighting to an effective draw in one of the war s largest battles. The surrender at Yorktown on October 17, , marked the end of major fighting in continental North America. They still had 26, troops occupying New York City, Charleston and Savannah, together with a powerful fleet. The French army and navy departed, so the Americans were on their own in — Washington dispelled unrest among officers by suppressing the Newburgh Conspiracy in March , and Congress came up with the promise of a five-year bonus.

    On May 2, , the Commander in Chief submitted his Sentiments on a Peace Establishment[93] to the Committee, essentially providing an official Continental Army position. The original proposal was defeated in Congress in two votes May , October with a truncated version also being rejected in April of Washington disbanded his army and, on November 2, gave an eloquent farewell address to his soldiers. At Fraunces Tavern on December 4, Washington formally bade his officers farewell and on December 23, , he resigned his commission as commander-in-chief. Historian Gordon Wood concludes that the greatest act in his life was his resignation as commander of the armies—an act that stunned aristocratic Europe.

    He made an exploratory trip to the western frontier in ,[66] was persuaded to attend the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in the summer of , and was unanimously elected president of the Convention. He participated little in the debates though he did vote for or against the various articles , but his high prestige maintained collegiality and kept the delegates at their labors.

    The delegates designed the presidency with Washington in mind, and allowed him to define the office once elected. An indissoluble union of the states under one federal head. A sacred regard to public justice. The adoption of a proper peace establishment. The prevalence of that pacific and friendly disposition among the people of the United States which will induce them to forget their local prejudices and policies, to make those mutual concessions which are requisite to the general prosperity, and in some instances, to sacrifice their individual advantages to the interest of the community.

    To his equals he was condescending, to his inferiors kind, and to the dear object of his affections exemplarily tender; correct throughout, vice shuddered in his presence, and virtue always felt his fostering hand; the purity of his private character gave effulgence to his public virtues. His last scene comported with the whole tenor of his life —although in extreme pain, not a sigh, not a groan escaped him; and with undisturbed serenity he closed his well-spent life.

    Such was the man America has lost—such was the man for whom our nation mourns. Lee s words set the standard by which Washington s overwhelming reputation was impressed upon the American memory. Washington set many precedents for the national government, and the presidency in particular, and was called the "Father of His Country" as early as The Weems version was very widely reprinted throughout the 19th century, for example in McGuffey Readers. Moralistic adults wanted children to learn moral lessons from the past from history, especially as taught by great national heroes like Washington.

    After however, historians insisted on scientific research methods to validate every story, and there was no evidence for this anecdote apart from Weems report. Joseph Rodman in noted that Weems plagiarized other Washington tales from published fiction set in England. No one has found an alternative source for the cherry tree story, thus Weems credibility is questioned.

    Washington crear muchos precedentes para el Gobierno nacional y la Presidencia, en particular y fue llamado el "padre de la patria" ya en George, however, apparently did not get along well with his mother, Mary Ball Washington Augustine s second wife , who was a very demanding and difficult person. However, Washington did not wear a wig; instead, he powdered his hair,[] as is represented in several portraits, including the well-known, unfinished Gilbert Stuart depiction, The Athenaeum portrait. Jefferson called Washington "the best horseman of his age", and both American and European observers praised his riding; the horsemanship benefited his hunting, a favorite hobby.

    Washington was an excellent dancer and frequently attended the theater, often referencing Shakespeare in letters. Although he grew tobacco, he eventually stopped smoking, and considered drunkenness a man s worst vice; Washington was glad that post-Revolutionary Virginia society was less likely to "force [guests] to drink and to make it an honor to send them home drunk.

    He lost his first adult tooth when he was twenty-two and had only one left by the time he became President. He had several sets of false teeth made, four of them by a dentist named John Greenwood. The set made when he became President was carved from hippopotamus and elephant ivory, held together with gold springs. He was attracted by the movement s dedication to the Enlightenment principles of rationality, reason and fraternalism; the American lodges did not share the anticlerical perspective that made the European lodges so controversial.

    Death On Thursday, December 12, , Washington spent several hours inspecting his plantation on horseback, in snow, hail and freezing rain—later that evening eating his supper without changing from his wet clothes. That Friday he awoke with a severe sore throat either quinsy or acute epiglottitis and became increasingly hoarse as the day progressed. Sometime around 3 a. Following common medical practice at the time, he was bled—initially by an employee and later again by physicians. Couriers were dispatched to Dr.

    Craik, the family, and Drs. Dick and Brown, the consulting physicians, all of whom came with speed. The proper remedies were administered, but without producing their healing effects; while the patient, yielding to the anxious looks of all around him, waived his usual objections to medicines, and took those which were prescribed without hesitation or remark. The last words in his diary were " Tis well. Napoleon ordered 10 days of mourning throughout France; in the United States, thousands wore mourning clothes for months.

    Only a total of five letters between the couple are known to have survived, two letters from Martha to George and three from him to Martha. Southern opposition to the plan defeated the measure because they felt it was best to have his body remain at Mount Vernon. That year, an unsuccessful attempt was made to steal the body of Washington. Southern opposition was intense, antagonized by an evergrowing rift between North and South.

    Congressman Wiley Thompson of Georgia expressed the fear of Southerners when he said: Remove the remains of our venerated Washington from their association with the remains of his consort and his ancestors, from Mount Vernon and from his native State, and deposit them in this capitol, and then let a severance of the Union occur, and behold the remains of Washington on a shore foreign to his native soil.

    Se enviaron mensajeros a Dr. Craik, la familia y los Drs. He also regarded the divisiveness of his countrymen s feelings about slavery as a potentially mortal threat to the unity of the nation. At the time of his marriage to Martha Custis in , he personally owned at least 36 slaves, which meant he had achieved the status of a major planter historians defined this in the Upper South as owning 20 or more slaves.

    The wealthy widow Martha brought at least 85 "dower slaves" to Mount Vernon by inheriting a third of her late husband s estate. Using his wife s great wealth, Washington bought more land, tripling the size of the plantation at Mount Vernon, and purchased the additional slaves needed to work it. By , he paid taxes on slaves this figure does not include the "dowers". The last record of a slave purchase by him was in , although he later received some slaves in repayment of debts. Before the American Revolution, he had expressed no moral reservations about slavery.

    But by , he would tell his manager at Mount Vernon that he wished to sell his slaves when the war ended, if the Americans were victorious. He circumvented that provision of the law by maintaining that he was not a Pennsylvania resident and ensuring that neither he nor any of his slaves stayed in the state for more than six months at a time.

    Martha urged Washington to advertise a reward for her capture, but, wanting to avoid any public knowledge of the episode, he chose not to. When the escaped former slave was spotted in New Hampshire, she said that she would agree to return out of affection for the Washington family, but only if they would guarantee her freedom, a proposal the Washingtons refused.

    They were still trying, surreptitiously, to recapture her two years later. Wood writes in his review of Joseph Ellis biography of Washington, "He did this in the teeth of opposition from his relatives, his neighbors, and perhaps even Martha. It was a courageous act, and one of his greatest legacies. The will also provided for the training of the younger former-slaves in useful skills and for the creation of an old-age pension fund for the older ones. Fue un acto valiente y uno de sus grandes legados.

    Surveyor and Mapmaker retrieved 1 November ] 2. Ron Chernow on George Washington Podcast. The father of the nation". The New York Times. The Papers of George Washington. Hill and Wang, , p. Mount Vernon Ladies Association. George Washington Birthplace National Monument. Archived from the original on Burke s Peerage and Gentry. Western Lands and the Bounty of War". Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Historic Alexandria Quarterly Virginia: Office of Historic Alexandria. Papers of the War Department, — Center for History and New Media. Jensen s Web Guides.

    University of Illinois at Chicago. George Washington and the Conway Cabal". American History 40 5: Pennsylvania Center for the Book. Valley Forge National Historical Park. God s Man for America". Missouri University of Science and Technology. American Revolution — June 18, , British abandon Philadelphia". America and the Coup d Etat". Soldier-statesmen of the Constitution. Army Center of Military History U. George Washington Papers, — Series 3b Varick Transcripts. Freedom and Slavery in the Making of a New Nation". Independence National Historical Park. The Charters of Freedom.

    National Archives and Records Administration. Words of the Founding Fathers. The Federalist System, — New York and London: A Study in Administrative History. Permanent Capital Site Selected". In Crew, Harvey W. Centennial History of the City of Washington, D. United Brethren Publishing House. The Journal of American History 59 3: Federalists and the Jay Treaty Debate". Journal of the Early Republic 20 3: George Washington and the Jay Treaty".

    The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 2: Foreign Policies of the Founding Fathers. Michigan State University Press. Religion and the Federal Government". Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Library of Congress Exhibition. The Life of Napoleon Bonaparte. Visitors Guide to Mount Vernon 16th ed. Washington, The editor; Philadelphia, W. The New York Times: Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. Historical papers and addresses of the Lancaster County Historical Society. Germantown and the Germans. Library Company of Philadelphia. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 99 2: Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

    The Making of an American Symbol. The Man and the Mason. An Illustrated Guide to the Lost Symbol. Starr Center for the Study of the American Experience. National League of Cities. Home of the American Civil War. The Papers of George Washington: Washington in the News. Alderman Library, University of Virginia. Did George Washington wear a wig? The Book of General Ignorance. Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery. Lincoln s Relentless Struggle to End Slavery. The Summer of Washington s Role in the Controversy Over Slavery".

    The New Republic carried at powells. Washington s decision to stop selling slaves: Influence of war and Wheatley: Dilemma of selling slaves: The Confederation Series, Volume 4. From Controversy to Cooperation". Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory. University of North Carolina Press. In The Hands of a Good Providence. University of Virginia Press.

    The Life of George Washington. Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum and Library. Claude August 25, October 19, — July 4, was the second President of the United States — , having earlier served as the first Vice President of the United States. An American Founding Father,[2] he was a statesman, diplomat, and a leader of American independence from Great Britain. Well educated, he was an Enlightenment political theorist who promoted republicanism and wrote prolifically about his often seminal ideas, both in published works and in letters to his wife and key adviser Abigail as well as to other Founding Fathers.

    Adams came to prominence in the early stages of the American Revolution. A lawyer and public figure in Boston, as a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, he played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence. He assisted Thomas Jefferson in drafting the Declaration of Independence in , and was its primary advocate in the Congress.

    Later, as a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain, and was responsible for obtaining vital governmental loans from Amsterdam bankers. A political theorist and historian, Adams largely wrote the Massachusetts Constitution in , which together with his earlier Thoughts on Government, influenced American political thought. One of his greatest roles was as a judge of character: Adams revolutionary credentials secured him two terms as George Washington s vice president and his own election in as the second president. During his one term, he encountered ferocious attacks by the Jeffersonian Republicans, as well as the dominant faction in his own Federalist Party led by his bitter enemy Alexander Hamilton.

    Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts, and built up the army and navy especially in the face of an undeclared naval war called the "Quasi-War" with France, — In , Adams was defeated for re-election by Thomas Jefferson and retired to Massachusetts. He later resumed his friendship with Jefferson. He and his wife, Abigail Adams, founded an accomplished family line of politicians, diplomats, and historians now referred to as the Adams political family.

    His achievements have received greater recognition in modern times, though his contributions were not initially as celebrated as those of other Founders. Americans protested vehemently that it violated their traditional rights as Englishmen. Popular resistance, he later observed, was sparked by an oft-reprinted sermon of the Boston minister, Jonathan Mayhew, interpreting Romans 13 to elucidate the principle of just insurrection.

    In the letter he suggested that there was a connection between the Protestant ideas that Adams Puritan ancestors brought to New England and the ideas behind their resistance to the Stamp Act. In the former he explained that the opposition of the colonies to the Stamp Act was because the Stamp Act deprived the American colonists of two basic rights guaranteed to all Englishmen, and which all free men deserved: The "Braintree Instructions" were a succinct and forthright defense of colonial rights and liberties, while the Dissertation was an essay in political education.

    Not surprisingly, they had trouble finding legal counsel to represent them. Finally, they asked Adams to defend. He accepted, though he feared it would hurt his reputation. In their defense, Adams made his now famous quote regarding making decisions based on the evidence: Two who had fired directly into the crowd were charged with murder but were convicted only of manslaughter. Adams was paid eighteen guineas by the British soldiers, or about the cost of a pair of shoes. Boston radicals protested and asked Adams to explain their objections.

    In "Two Replies of the Massachusetts House of Representatives to Governor Hutchinson" Adams argued that the colonists had never been under the sovereignty of Parliament. Their original charter was with the person of the king and their allegiance was only to him. If a workable line could not be drawn between parliamentary sovereignty and the total independence of the colonies, he continued, the colonies would have no other choice but to choose independence. In Novanglus Adams gave a point-by-point refutation of Leonard s essays, and then provided one of the most extensive and learned arguments made by the colonists against British imperial policy.

    It was a systematic attempt by Adams to describe the origins, nature, and jurisdiction of the unwritten British constitution. Adams used his wide knowledge of English and colonial legal history to argue that the provincial legislatures were fully sovereign over their own internal affairs, and that the colonies were connected to Great Britain only through the King. Los americanos protestaron vehementemente que violaba sus derechos tradicionales como ingleses.

    En su defensa, Adams hizo su famosa cita sobre tomar decisiones basadas en la evidencia: The painting can be found on the back of the U. The original hangs in the US Capitol rotunda. Cuadro del pintor estadounidense John Trumbull. Se encuentra en la rotonda del capitolio de los Estados Unidos Washington D. The full document was, as Adams put it, "independence itself"[29] and set the stage for the formal passage of the Declaration of Independence.

    Once the combined document passed in May, independence became inevitable, though it still had to be declared formally. On June 7, , Adams seconded the resolution of independence introduced by Richard Henry Lee which stated, "These colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states," and championed the resolution until it was adopted by Congress on July 2, Livingston and Roger Sherman, to draft the Declaration of Independence, which was to be ready when congress voted on independence.

    Because the committee left no minutes, there is some uncertainty about how the drafting process proceeded—accounts written many years later by Jefferson and Adams, although frequently cited, are contradictory and not entirely reliable. After editing the document further, congress approved it on July 4. Many years later, Jefferson hailed Adams as "the pillar of [the Declaration s] support on the floor of Congress, its ablest advocate and defender against the multifarious assaults it encountered.


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    • Orb of Wounded Souls.
    • Adams appears to be a decided character. Adams continued not just the Washington cabinet but all the major programs of the Washington Administration as well. Adams continued to strengthen the central government, in particular by expanding the navy and army. His economic programs were a continuation of those of Hamilton, who regularly consulted with key cabinet members, especially the powerful Secretary of the Treasury, Oliver Wolcott, Jr.

      Though they were very close to Hamilton, their retention ensured a smoother succession. It was out of this management style that he avoided war with France, despite a strong desire among his cabinet secretaries for war. The Quasi-War with France resulted in the disentanglement with European affairs that Washington had sought.

      It also, like other conflicts, had enormous psychological benefits, as America saw itself as holding its own against a European power. Historian George Herring argues that Adams was the most independent-minded of all the founders. Adams combative spirit did not always lend itself to presidential decorum, as Adams himself admitted in his old age: I sighed, sobbed, and groaned, and sometimes screeched and screamed. And I must confess to my shame and sorrow that I sometimes swore. Here lies John Adams, who took upon himself the responsibility of the peace with France in the year Indeed, the intense battle over the Jay Treaty in permanently polarized politics up and down the nation, marking the start of the First Party System.

      Americans remained pro-French, due to France s assistance during the Revolutionary War. Because of this, Americans wouldn t rally behind Adams, nor anyone else, to stop France. Before this event, Americans mostly supported France, but after the event, most opposed France. The Jeffersonians, who were friends to France, were embarrassed and quickly became the minority as Americans began to demand full scale war.

      Adams and his advisers knew that America would be unable to win such a conflict, as France at the time was successfully fighting much of Europe. Instead, Adams pursued a strategy whereby American ships would harass French ships in an effort to stop the French assaults on American interests. This was the undeclared naval war between the U.

      There was danger of invasion from the much larger and more powerful French forces, so Adams and the Federalist congress built up the army, bringing back Washington at its head. Washington wanted Hamilton to be his second-in-command and, given Washington s fame, Adams reluctantly gave in. To pay for the new Army and Navy, Congress imposed new taxes on property: Taxpayers were angry, nowhere more so than in southeast Pennsylvania, where the bloodless Fries s Rebellion broke out among rural German-speaking farmers who protested what they saw as a threat to their republican liberties and to their churches.

      They acted as though Hamilton were president by demanding that he control the army. They also refused to recognize the necessity of giving prominent Democratic-Republicans positions in the army, which Adams wanted to do in order to gain Democratic-Republican support. By building a large standing army, Hamilton s supporters raised popular alarms and played into the hands of the DemocraticRepublicans. They also alienated Adams and his large personal following. They shortsightedly viewed the Federalist party as their own tool and ignored the need to pull together the entire nation in the face of war with France.

      Adams knew victory in an all out war against imperial France would be impossible, so despite the threats to his popularity, he sought peace. In February , he stunned the country by sending diplomat William Vans Murray on a peace mission to France. Napoleon, realizing that the conflict was pointless, signaled his readiness for friendly relations. At the Convention of the Treaty of Alliance of was superseded and the United States could now be free of foreign entanglements, as Washington advised in his farewell address.

      He brought in John Marshall as Secretary of State and demobilized the emergency army. As he suspected would happen, peace hurt his popularity. Nevertheless, Adams was extremely proud of having kept the nation out of war; later in life he even asked that his tombstone Los estadounidenses permanecieron afrancesados, debido a la asistencia de Francia durante la guerra de independencia. My best wishes, in the joys, and festivities, and the solemn services of that day on which will be completed the fiftieth year from its birth, of the independence of the United States: Told that it was the Fourth, he answered clearly, "It is a great day.

      It is a good day. His death left Charles Carroll of Carrollton as the last surviving signatory of the Declaration of Independence. John Adams died while his son John Quincy Adams was president. Originally, he was buried in Hancock Cemetery, across the road from the Church. Until his record was broken by Ronald Reagan in , he was the nation s longest-living President 90 years, days maintaining that record for years. Originalmente, fue enterrado en el cementerio de Hancock, enfrente de la Iglesia. Hasta que su record A Public Life, a Private Life. America s First Dynasty. The Free Press, , p.

      Barker-Benfield, "Stillbirth and Sensibility: On Adams attribution to Rev. Mayhew refer to the TeachingAmericanHistory. Ferling, Setting the World Ablaze: Washington, Adams, Jefferson, and the American Revolution p. Retrieved August 1, For the full text of the May 10 resolve see the Journals of the Continental Congress. You ought to do it. Reason second, I am obnoxious, suspected, and unpopular. You are very much otherwise.

      Reason third, you can write ten times better than I can. When you have drawn it up, we will have a meeting. Putnam s Sons, The Howe Brothers and the American Revolution. Retrieved March 2, Embassy The Hague, Netherlands". Tis Treason, My Good Man! Four Revolutionary Presidents and a Piccadilly Bookshop. New Life at Newington". The Massachusetts Constitution of A Social Compact p 13 says Adams was its "principal architect.

      Defence of the Constitutions, ". The Political Writings of John Adams: Representative Selections p. Notes on the history of slavery in Massachusetts, pages — What Made the Founders Different. History of American Presidential Elections, — Vol 1 , essay and primary sources on Herring, From colony to superpower: Wood, Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, — Federalists and Republicans The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution Davis, Huffington Post, July 18, Retrieved July 16, Kent Newmyer, and Mary Sarah Bilder, eds.

      Cambridge University Press, A Life p. Oxford University Press, , 73— At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress, representing Virginia and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia — Just after the war ended, from mid Jefferson served as a diplomat, stationed in Paris. With his close friend James Madison he organized the Democratic-Republican Party, and subsequently resigned from Washington s cabinet. Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of , he oversaw the purchase of the vast Louisiana Territory from France , and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition — to explore the new west.

      His second term was beset with troubles at home, such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr. With escalating trouble with Britain who was challenging American neutrality and threatening shipping at sea, he tried economic warfare with his embargo laws which only damaged American trade.

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      In , President Jefferson signed into law a bill that banned the importation of slaves into the United States. In scholarly surveys Jefferson remains rated as one of the greatest U. He designed his own large mansion on a 5, acre plantation near Charlottesville, Virginia, which he named Monticello. While not a notable orator, Jefferson was a skilled writer and corresponded with many influential people in America and Europe throughout his adult life.

      Historians are in disagreement with how much Jefferson was committed to the anti-slavery cause. After Martha Jefferson, his wife of eleven years, died in , Jefferson remained a widower for the rest of his life; their marriage produced six children, of whom two survived to adulthood. In , allegations surfaced that he was also the father of his slave Sally Hemings children. In , DNA tests revealed a match between her last child and the Jefferson male family line. Although some historians have noted that the evidence can also support other possible fathers, most have concluded that Jefferson had a long relationship with Hemings and fathered at least one and likely all of her six children, four of whom survived to adulthood.

      En , alegaciones Jefferson fue el primer Secretario de estado — bajo el Presidente George Washington. Jefferson moved into the South Pavilion an outbuilding in , where his new wife, Martha, joined Turning Monticello into a neoclassical masterpiece after the Palladian style would be his continuing project. In , following his service as Secretary of State —93 , he began rebuilding Monticello based on the ideas he had acquired in Europe.

      The remodeling continued throughout most of his presidency — The most notable change was the addition of the octagonal dome. These were later expanded into A Summary View of the Rights of British America, in which he expressed his belief that people had the right to govern themselves. This image is a version of the William Stone facsimile — Stone may well have used a wet pressing process that removed ink from the original document onto a contact sheet for the purpose of making the engraving. It is possible that this image is not covered by this exemption because it is not a work of the federal government.

      The federal government did not exist until the ratification of the Constitution in Also, although this paragraph previously stated that the image s creation coincides exactly with the The vote to declare independence was on July 2, , but the vote on the exact text of the declaration was on July 4, However, if there was ever a valid copyright, then.

      He didn t know many people in the congress, but sought out John Adams who, along with his cousin Samuel, had emerged as a leader of the convention. When Congress began considering a resolution of independence in June , Adams ensured that Jefferson was appointed to the five-man committee to write a declaration in support of the resolution. Adams persuaded the committee to choose Jefferson, who was reluctant to take the assignment, and promised to consult with the younger man.

      Over the next seventeen days, Jefferson had limited time for writing and finished the draft quickly. The other committee members made some changes. Most notably Jefferson had written, "We hold these truths to be sacred and un-deniable. Over three days of debate, Congress made changes and deleted nearly a fourth of the text, most notably a passage critical of the slave trade. On July 4, , the Congress ratified the Declaration of Independence and the delegates signed the document. The Declaration would eventually be considered one of Jefferson s major achievements; his preamble has been considered an enduring statement of human rights.

      This view was notably promoted by Abraham Lincoln, who based his philosophy on it, and argued for the Declaration as a statement of principles through which the United States Constitution should be interpreted.

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      Jefferson hoped to avoid national humiliation on the one hand, and war on the other. In the event, he got both war and national humiliation; the economy of the entire Northeast suffered severely, Jefferson was vehemently denounced, and his party lost support. Instead of retreating, Jefferson sent federal agents to secretly track down smugglers and violators. For the most part, it effectively throttled American overseas trade.

      All areas of the United States suffered. In commercial New England and the Middle Atlantic states, ships rotted at the wharves, and in the agricultural areas, particularly in the South, farmers and planters could not export their crops. Jefferson s Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin was against the embargo, foreseeing correctly the impossibility of enforcing the policy and the negative public reaction.

      The presidential election of , which Madison won, showed that the Federalists were regaining strength, and helped to convince Congress that the Embargo would have to be repealed.