Gólgota y lucero. (Spanish Edition)
The annual bibliography also serves as a supplement to my Modem Drama Scholarship and Criticism The present installment, for example, includes over entries dating from to - a great many of them garnered from the sumptuous volumes of Romanische Bibliographie, edited by Gustav Ineichen. The checklist is divided as follows: Beginning in this issue, some items that I have just been able to examine are repeated from previous listings in the volume as well as the journal for the purpose of "expanding" them - indexing relevant sections under further subjects - or simply to correct them.
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Notes Additional Physical Form: Also available on microfilm from the Library of Congress, Photoduplication Service. Electronic reproduction of copy from George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida also available. Dates or Sequential Designation: Record Information Source Institution: Spanish conquest beginning in led to the consolidation of the people through the following process: The entry into the country of the spirit of the European Medieval Period 12th century and the Golden Age of Spanish Literature 17th century contributed to the acculturation process.
The early missionary poets seemed to have been more familiar with the poetry of the Medieval Period and found it more useful for their missionary purposes. The friars who came later continued to use the same models for the same reason. By the 18th century, Spanish reduction of the people was clearly evident in both the prose and poetry of the period until the emergence of such independent spirits as Francisco Baltazar and the writers of the Reform Movement of the s.
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Poetry Religious poetry is exemplified by the complimentary verses, the dalit, and the pasyon; secular poetry, by the awit and korido metrical romances and the lyric poems. In 17th-century Spain, a poem in sonnet form, called complimentary verses, usually appeared in a book in order to encourage people to read it. The fusion of the indigenous and Spanish poetic traditions are evident in this poem, which consists of lines alternating between Spanish and the Tagalog translation.
San Jose called these poems awit. So much will be known, and a thousand things will be known by my followers, those my students. Such is their joy, they do right to rejoice, their parents, their fathers and mothers, and even those not like them, for they are of another kind, they are not crazy, not savage brutes. However, unlike folk poetry whose stanzas are independent units, this poem is composed of interdependent stanzas.
Bless Me, Ultima
Said to contain the biggest collection of 17th-century poems by a single writer, the book is divided into five chapters, each called a dalit on a particular theme. Thus, the dalit came to refer to meditative poetic pieces attached to religious works like novenas, catechisms, and books of meditations.
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The pasyon is an account of the life of Christ, particularly his passion and crucifixion. It consists of octosyllabic quintillas, or five-line stanzas with eight syllables per line. This was criticized by Fr. According to literary historian Nicanor G.
Tiongson , these three pasyon paralleled the three stages of the Spanish colonization process: The Pasyong Genesis was meant to correct errors in doctrine committed by de Belen, to make the language more familiar to the 19th-century Filipino, and to open the narrative with Genesis, or the story of the Creation. About half of it, however, was copied directly from de Belen.
Nevertheless, folk beliefs still found their way into this pasyon: The result was a language that was utilitarian, discursive or explanatory rather than metaphorical or expressive. This was to prove useful in the s, however, for discursive verse became the language of the Reform and Revolutionary Movements of the s. As the pasyon settled in the popular consciousness, it moved toward secularization and was appropriated by the Filipino people for anticolonial purposes. There are other versions of the pasyon: Many of these were translations of the Pasyong Genesis.
The Spanish romance or ballad and the libros de caballeria or metrical romance, were two very popular forms during the Spanish medieval period. These had evolved from long narrative folk poems called the cantares de gesta or songs of heroic deeds.
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The Spanish ballad may have been brought to the Philippines through the Mexican corrido. The libros de caballeria in Spain were stories about war and the adventures of legendary heroes, princes, and knights. But these were set against the backdrop of the European wars against the African Moors. Hence, they were created by the specific historical circumstances of Spain. In the Philippines, however, their popularity began to rise only at the turn of the 18th century.
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The first known printed Philippine metrical romance, however, is dated The metrical romance with 12 syllables per line was called an awit, whereas that with 8 syllables per line was called a korido. The dodecasyllabic quatrain, which was the verse form of the awit, was called the plosa. The octosyllabic quatrain, which characterized the Spanish romance, came to be called romance or hakira in the Philippines, the last from the Spanish word jacara.
Most of the awit and korido were adaptations of European metrical romances.
One korido, Dama Ines, comes from Portuguese history. As a metrical romance, it makes allusions to its European models, including Greek and Roman mythology, but its plot, characters, and themes are original.