Apple IIc and IIe Assembly Language (Tertiary Level Biology)
A 18 time speed-up! Writing assembly is not always easy, but it is definitely worth it! However, as I mentioned in my previous post, this CPU is primitive by today standards. Its resources are scarce and I have to admit that I was not used to 8 bit arithmetic: The provides very efficient conditional branching instructions. The drawback is that you can only jump bytes backwards and bytes forward.
As most instructions are 2 or 3 byte long, you have to code tight and carefully layout your instructions if you want to use them! Remember that most of the code all the logic, state machine, textual displays… is still written in C. This remaining of code is less systematic and would be much more difficult to write in ASM.
But it does not matter much, as the time spent in these parts is also much smaller. To conclude, I would therefore say that nowadays it is not too difficult to write a program for Apple II computers. Thanks to cc65, you can write the whole program in C and, if you require more performance, rewrite the most time consuming function in ASM.
And thanks to modern editors and emulators, the process of writing, testing and debugging is way more easy and pleasant than it was thirty years ago! When coding such a small project in C, I could live without a debugger. But such was not the case anymore when I started to rewrite some parts in assembly. But I did not want to rewrite all my program, only the inner loops. And return from it… Fortunately, this part is well documented.
The only caveat I could not overcome was to access the symbols declared in C. For that purpose, I used AppleCommander. And one bright spot is that it can be used from the command line, thus allowing to invoke it as a build step in the Makefile. In order to test my program and debug it, I used an emulator: It is quite accurate, but most important, it also features a competent debugger!
In the meantime, European colonists had introduced M. By the late s, it had also been introduced to southern and eastern Asia, where it supplanted the Chinese soft apple, M. In the Americas, M. Spanish and Portuguese colonists continued to introduce apples to their settlements in the suitable temperate climate zones of Central and South America, and European settlers brought seeds to establish orchards in the eastern parts of the U. By the s, the first apple orchards were recorded in New England, and likewise during the s, French colonists established orchards in Canada, along the St.
As settlers moved westwards in North America, apple orchards became a requirement for homesteading, and by the late s apples were grown on the west coast of North America as well AAFC ; Hancock et al. Very hardy cultivars such as the Wealthy were developed in the late s for cold areas of the US great plains Luby and Fennell Eventually, a new group of new American cultivars was established, such as 'Jonathan', 'Wagener' and 'Golden Delicious', which were successful in the more extreme American climates and also subsequently did well in South Africa, Australia and the Mediterranean Juniper et al.
By the early s, the U. By the late s, the former Soviet Union was also an important world producer, and by the turn of the 21st century, China was the largest apple producer, with a large proportion of the crop being exported as concentrated juice. Today, world production of apples exceeds 70 million metric tons, with China, the U. Major southern hemisphere production occurs in Brazil, Chile, Argentina, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, much of it for export to northern hemisphere countries during their spring and summer FAO ; Hancock et al.
Although there are regionally important cultivars and land races recognized across the world, global trade is dominated by just a few cultivars; primarily 'Delicious', 'Golden Delicious', 'McIntosh' and 'Jonagold' from North America, 'Braeburn' and 'Gala' from New Zealand, 'Granny Smith' from Australia and 'Fuji' from Japan Hancock et al. The native range of M. Its primary ancestor isnative to the foothills between western China and the former Soviet Union Hancock et al. Production in tropical Asia is limited to high altitudes; in India this includes the temperate North Western Hills region and to a lesser extent the North Eastern Hills region Papademetriou and Herath Also naturalized in Canada and the United States Brouillet et al.
Reported throughout Europe as "often escaping and occasionally naturalized" Tutin et al. Apple Association ; M. Cold hardiness and length of growing season requirements vary significantly between different cultivars of M. It has a more northern range than many other fruit crops due to its relatively late blooming and cold hardiness Rieger It is also grown to a lesser extent in semi-arid, subtropical and tropical areas, where irrigation, altitude, and various cultural strategies are used to overcome climatic limitations Hampson and Kemp ; Westwood An example of the range of temperatures over which apples are successfully produced is provided by Jackson The primary climatic constraints for M.
If the dormancy requirement is not met, budbreak is sporadic and light, and cropping is poor. High summer temperatures e.
The level of damage caused by low temperatures is dependent on the stage of dormancy of the trees; trees are most hardy in the middle of winter and more vulnerable in the late fall and early spring. Frost-free springs are particularly important Webster b. Apple trees begin to harden in the fall from the outer shoots down the trunk, so that buds and shoots are less sensitive to frost injury than roots.
Climatic tolerance varies significantly among cultivars of M. For example, 'McIntosh' and 'Antonkova' are considered outstanding for winter hardiness and can withstand the very low winter temperatures of continental climates e. By contrast, large-scale production in countries such as Egypt is based on varieties 'Anna' and 'Dorset Golden', which have been selectively bred for warmer climates and require less winter chilling to achieve budbreak e.
Another important factor related to climate suitability is length of growing season, and this also varies greatly between cultivars of M. On average, apples reach maturity about days after flowering, but some cultivars may mature in as little as 70 days and others may require as long as days Rieger Time to maturity varies with temperature e.
Short-season cultivars tend to have a wide climatic tolerance; they do well in colder, northerly apple-producing regions such as Canada e.
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Long -season cultivars like 'Braeburn', 'Fuji', 'Cripp's Pink', and 'Granny Smith' cannot generally be grown successfully in northern areas, and do best in the milder climates of the southern hemisphere Hampson and Kemp ; Jackson Cloud cover associated with rainfall is noted as a negative factor reducing the availability of solar radiation in many fruit-growing areas Jackson Jackson provides the range of solar radiation during a 5-month growing season for five different apple-growing areas, with Wilhelminadorp, the Netherlands at 2.
Rieger notes that the red skin colour of the fruit of many varieties is stimulated by sunlight; however overexposure of the fruit to sun can cause sunscald. In Canada, summer droughts can negatively affect tree health and fruit production, and excessive direct sunlight and a thin ozone layer can also lead to fruit scorch, a phenomenon most often recorded in British Columbia, but also occasionally in Ontario AAFC Conversely, high humidity and rainfall are also problematic, as the moisture can promote infections and diseases e. Sandy soils produce less vigorous growth and require more irrigation, as they have less organic matter and are prone to leaching.panicni-poremecaj.com.ba/components/jyrexyl/484.php
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Clay soils are higher in organic matter and produce more vigorous growth, but provide poor drainage and are less suitable for root growth AAFC Like most fruit crops, M. Orchards are often located on hillsides, allowing cool air to flow down the slope, and avoiding spring frosts and waterlogged soil conditions Webster b. Outside of cultivation, M.
Most cultivars rely on pollination to produce fertilized seeds but some cultivars can produce unfertilized apomictic seeds Westwood Some cultivars can also reproduce vegetatively by root suckering Hancock et al. The majority of cultivars cannot self-pollinate due to a multi-allelic S-locus S-RNase - mediated gametophytic self-incompatibility mechanism Sassa et al. Because of this self-incompatibility, the majority of cultivars display high levels of allelic heterozygosity and thus when propagated from seed, are not true-to-type, in that they are extremely variable and generally bear fruits of poor size, appearance and quality Webster and Wertheim Incompatibility genes are sufficiently disparate between cultivars that almost all cultivars are cross-fertile.
Much study has gone into this area of research and compatibility lists are generally available Kemp These pollinizer cultivars can be either another compatible apple cultivar or a specialized crabapple pollinizer cultivar Maggs et al. Crabapples are commonly used as an alternative or additive source of pollen because they are heavy bloomers and provide a large source of compatible pollen. Mature pollen grains have 3 germinal furrows and are rugulate, having folds or wrinkles Pratt Pollen grains are large and heavy resulting in very little wind pollination.
Flower development takes roughly 10 months, beginning with the transition from vegetative to reproductive development late June in the Northern Hemisphere and ending with anthesis late April to the beginning of May in the subsequent year Dennis ; Kotoda et al. Flowering occurs in early spring when white to deep pink flowers develop in a cyme-like inflorescence of flowers. The centre flower which opens first is often referred to as the "king bloom". Most flowers are borne terminally on spurs and less frequently, laterally on long shoots.
Flowers borne on short spurs begin the transformation from vegetative buds to flower buds weeks before lateral buds Jackson The flowers are hermaphroditic with the ovary embedded in the floral cup and flower parts located above the ovary. A normal flower contains five carpels each with two ovules, five sepals, petals and styles and usually 20 stamens Dennis ; Rieger Flowering can be affected by many biotic endogenous phytohormones, previous year's crop load, pathogens and pests and abiotic light, water stress, nutrients, temperature and exogenously applied chemicals factors as well as cultural practices including: The stigma produces extracellular secretions which provide a moist environment for pollen deposition and germination Jackson Once the pollen grains have germinated, the pollen tubes grow down the style into an ovule where fertilization of the egg cell to form a zygote and polar nuclei of the egg sac to form the endosperm occur Dennis The period of flowering during which viable pollen is produced varies depending on weather conditions and generally lasts from 7 to 30 days.
The effective pollination time, the period during which the ovule is capable of being fertilized minus the time required for the pollen tube to grow from the stigma to the ovule, varies from 2 to 9 days Pratt Thus the longevity of ovules is a limiting factor in fruit set. Fruit reach maturity days after bloom for most cultivars and weigh about grams Rieger Fruit development can be divided into three stages: The others fail because of lack of pollination, competition between fruits or cultural practices i.
Biennial bearing results from heavy cropping in one year which acts to inhibit flower bud initiation and reduce flowering in the second year Jackson Fruit is picked between early August and late November in north temperate zones and can be stored for up to a year depending on the cultivar. A large, mature, cultivated apple tree can produce in the order of fruits per year, potentially yielding 10, seeds, and may live for 50 years or longer, theoretically producing , seeds in its lifetime. Commercial apple trees are composed of genetically distinct portions.
The rootstock constitutes the root system including a small portion of the lower trunk, while the scion comprises the majority of the above-ground tissues, including the fruit bearing portion of the tree. Grafting or budding techniques are typically the process by which the scion is joined to the rootstock Webster and Wertheim As mentioned in section 4.
Instead, the cultivation and maintenance of M. The principal reason for the use of rootstocks is for the clonal propagation of desirable cultivars Webster and Wertheim There are also other important factors conferred to the grafted tree from the rootstock. Rootstocks can affect the vigour of vegetative growth, fruit size, fruit growth, precocity and yield of the scion portion of the tree. The rootstock can also play a role in the susceptibility of a tree to biotic and abiotic stresses Webster and Wertheim As cultivated apple is a composite, some cultivars are bred based on selection of their qualities to the fruiting scion portion and others are developed focusing on the important attributes of desirable rootstock.
Some cultivars are available in various strains, which differ from the original cultivar in growth habit, fruit color or time to maturity. Strains are thought to occur from natural bud mutations in established cultivars that are selected and propagated for improved characteristics. Some cultivars have many strains, for example approximately different strains of Red Delicious have been described and cultivated Penn State University In modern breeding programs, major objectives include increasing the quality or marketability of fruit, reducing production costs and increasing resistance to pests Hancock et al.
There are several characteristics of M. The traditional breeding method that is most commonly used is a modified backcross, where a different recurrent parent is used in each generation of backcrossing. This process is laborious and time consuming; for example, it took several decades to successfully introgress a scab resistance trait from crabapple into a commercial cultivar Gessler and Pertot Some traits, for instance fruit quality, are affected by many environmental and genetic factors, making breeding efforts towards their development and improvement even more difficult Brown ; Kumar et al.
There are several advantages to using a marker-assisted approach over a phenotypic evaluation, namely removing the environmental influences from the screening process and early screening typically at the seedling stage which translates into savings in overall breeding costs i.
While marker-assisted selection has been effective in integrating large-effect loci e. The genome of M. This has led to an increase in trait-marker linkage efforts. Of note, large-scale, multi-year projects aimed at bridging the gap between molecular genetic research and breeding e. Development of such tools allows for novel methods of genetic improvement, such as Genomic Selection, a statistical approach to estimate breeding potential. Genomic Selection has been effective at directing breeding for complex polygenic traits Jannink et al.
Recent developments using transgenic approaches are addressing some of the breeding bottlenecks. Successful reduction of the juvenile period was reported using a transgenic approach Flachowsky et al. Integration and constitutive expression of the mads4 gene from silver birch resulted in a significant decrease in age at flowering, with transformed tissue flowering in tissue culture and a generational turnover of one year. The usefulness of this early-flowering trait in expediting plant breeding was further demonstrated by using a marker-assisted approach to increasing resistance to pyramid fire blight, apple scab and powdery mildew over a very short two year span Flachowsky et al.
This technology is currently being implemented as a tool to reduce trait introgression time for cultivar development by the Fruit Breedomics Consortium Fruit breedomics consortium Another recent targeted gene transfer approach to breeding involved the development of marker-free scab resistance events in the non- resistant cultivar 'Gala' Vanblaere et al. This study is significant because the research was designed using a cisgenic approach, the first successful report of such an approach in any crop. Cisgenic differs from transgenic recombinant DNA technology, in that the entirety of the introduced genes including the flanking regions, promoter, introns, exons and terminator sequences in sense orientation are derived from a crossable donor plant, in this case from M.
The majority of trees planted in commercial apple orchards are produced in specialized fruit tree nurseries. However, there are some growers who produce their own nursery trees. Rootstocks may be chosen that reduce the vigour of the scions, although the ultimate size of a cultivated apple tree at maturity is also influenced by the inherent vigour of the scion as well as environmental conditions and pruning Webster and Wertheim The advantages of dwarf trees are that they can be planted at higher densities, trained, pruned and harvested from the ground, have greater pesticide application efficiency and produce fruit earlier than standard trees, which is appealing to growers as there is an increased economic benefit from earlier production Parker and Unrath In Canada, there has been a shift towards planting high density commercial apple orchards over the last decade AAFC There is more initial cost and labour associated with high density orchards, as the smaller branch framework of the dwarf trees cannot support the heavy crop.
Although the general trend in recent years is high density planting of dwarf trees, some semi-dwarf and standard trees are still planted in areas where the climate and soil conditions are unsuited to dwarfing rootstock Webster and Wertheim In addition to rootstock and training system, there are a number of other factors that are considered when planting an orchard, including main cultivar and pollinating cultivar s , soil type and fertility, irrigation, soil drainage, and the spacing between rows of trees as well as between trees in a row.
Trees must transition from a juvenile phase to an adult phase in order to flower and bear fruit. There are several physiological and morphological characteristics that define the juvenile phase including: Mature grafts or buds are typically used for scion propagation and the subsequent vegetative growth consists of mature phase tissue Westwood However, newly planted nursery trees undergo a non-flowering phase known as the vegetative adult phase Westwood The type of rootstock used has a direct effect on the precocity of the scion portion, though the exact mechanism by which this process occurs is still uncertain Webster and Wertheim Scions on dwarfing rootstocks begin to bear fruit approximately 2 to 4 years after planting, scions on semi-dwarfing rootstocks at approximately 2 to 6 years after planting and scions on vigorous rootstocks at approximately 6 to 10 years after planting Parker Although no commercial crop is produced during the adult vegetative phase, there are still a number of agronomic issues that must be properly managed to ensure good tree growth including nutrition through fertigation or soil application , pest control, irrigation, weed control and pruning Sanders Table 1 outlines the highlights of a typical management schedule for apple production in Canada.
The purpose of the table is to highlight the typical management schedule for apple production in Canada. It describes the actions taken in each season, winter, spring, summer, and fall, to cultivate apples in Canada. The average life expectancy of a commercial high-density apple orchard is less than 20 years, although many orchards do maintain an adequate level of production beyond this age Nova Scotia Department of Agriculture ; H. The life expectancy of a commercial orchard is dependent on a number of factors, such as tree health, apple cultivar, soil quality, environmental location i.
Changes in consumer preferences for certain apple varieties may also play a role in the decision to replant an orchard. Once harvested, the fruit can be stored in controlled atmosphere storage for up to a year Janick et al. Apples are also used for juice and juice concentrate, alcoholic cider, fresh apple slices, pie filling, apple sauce, fruit leather, dehydrated fruit bars and other products. By-products of manufacturing, such as pomace left over from juice production, may be fed to livestock, wild animals or used as a food ingredient in, for example, baked goods, for extraction of ester flavours, etc.
The apple fruit is notable for its nutritional qualities. There is evidence that regular consumption of apples as part of a healthy diet may aid in the maintenance of good health and prevention of chronic disease Boyer and Liu In Canada, apple fruit from commercial orchards is marketed locally, nationally and internationally. Insects, most notably honeybees but also bumblebees, other wild bees and to a lesser extent some flies, are the primary vectors for pollination in commercial apple orchards as apple pollen is heavy and not easily carried by the wind Dennis ; Jackson In apple orchards, the majority of honeybee foraging flights are between flowers on the same tree and secondarily between adjacent trees in the same row and to a lesser extent across rows Free ; Free and Spencer-Booth Growers typically rent honey bees while an orchard is in bloom, and it is recommended that they be placed at a density of four or five strong colonies per hectare in a mature orchard Dennis Spacing of these pollinizer trees in the orchard can vary, being planted as entire rows, interspersed trees or grafts.
If pollinizer trees are unable to produce an adequate supply of pollen, pollen may alternatively be introduced by placing flowering branches, also known as bouquets, from other cultivars throughout the orchard. Pollen transfer has been studied both for optimizing the layout of an orchard Kron et al. Using the 'Baskatong' cultivar, which carries a dominant gene for red leaf colour, Wertheim monitored gene flow in apple orchards by observing the percentages of red leafed seedlings borne from trees at increasing distances from the 'Baskatong' pollinizer.
Findings from this study suggest that the majority of cross-pollination occurs within 15 m from the pollinizer tree. A similar approach, using red leaf colour as a marker to monitor gene flow in an orchard-like scenario, was taken by Reim et al. An allozyme marker from the cultivar 'Idared' was chosen to screen seeds from open pollinated fruit resulting on other cultivars at increasing distances from the 'Idared' cultivar rows. Monitoring for beta-glucuronidase GUS activity in seeds borne from trees located at increasing distances from a row of transgenic GUS -expressing 'Gala' trees was used to track pollen flow in an orchard setting Tyson et al.
Taken together, these data suggest that the majority of cross-pollination in commercial apple orchards occurs between receptive flowers and proximate pollen sources; however some of these studies have also observed pollen flow at much greater distances. Pollen dispersal distances were reported up to 40 m Wertheim , 86 m Kron et al. In-hive transfer of viable pollen between bees foraging in geographically distant areas may explain long-range pollen flow DeGrandi-Hoffman et al. In all of these aforementioned studies, distance from the pollen source was a significant factor affecting pollination.
Other important factors include weather, pollinator presence, cultivar compatibility and flowering synchrony Kron et al. The authors further use the model to examine the effect of buffer rows and isolation distances on outcrossing rates. The model demonstrates that the level of outcrossing is affected by the relative sizes of the transgenic and conventional orchards. As the size of the conventional orchard becomes smaller relative to the transgenic orchard, the isolation distance required to limit the frequency of outcrossing is increased. Furthermore, incorporation of buffer rows between the two orchard types generally reduces the isolation distance required in order to limit outcrossing frequency Tyson et al.
Generally, volunteer plants originating from seed in apple orchards are very rare due to the perennial nature of the crop and associated orchard management practices, including herbicide treatment of the tree row and mowing of the alley between rows. In a study conducted in New York state, M. The roots must be killed by physical removal of the stump in order to prevent regeneration through suckering.
Similarly to the cultural method mentioned above, apple trees can be removed by cutting at the base of the stump. In order to eliminate re-growth, a herbicide is applied to the exposed cambium area of the stump. Typically in commercial orchards, herbicide is applied to the tree row to control weeds that would compete with the tree roots for moisture and nutrients. This herbicide application would also control any volunteer apple that may have germinated. There are different herbicide options, comprising different modes of action, available for use in commercial apple production for a more detailed list, refer to Table 13 in AAFC Integrated weed management IWM incorporates mechanical, chemical and cultural weed control methods to achieve optimal crop yields Swanton and Weise As volunteer apple trees are not a concern in commercial production, IWM methods have not been developed for control.
Volunteer apple trees are not a concern in commercial production, thus methods of biological control for apple have not been developed. The main means of movement and dispersal of apple seeds in natural settings is through frugivorous mammals, such as bears, foxes and deer Myers et al. The seeds are small enough to sometimes avoid mastication during consumption by white-tailed deer and can pass unaffected through the digestive system and remain germinable Myers et al.
White-tailed deer travel a range of many hectares on a daily basis and are considered dispersers of low numbers of apple seeds Myers et al. Aside from the natural means of movement and dispersal, apple seeds are dispersed by humans as a result of the sale of marketable fruit. As mentioned earlier, the number of species in the genus Malus varies widely, with different taxonomic treatments recognizing anywhere from 8 to 78 primary species see Section 2. Many of the crabapple species can be difficult to differentiate due to the lack of distinguishing characters Dickson et al. Within Canada, there are two native species: In addition, there are three introduced species that are considered naturalized in Canadian floras: The distribution of these species in Canada is shown in Table 2.
The purpose of the table is to illustrate the provincial distribution of Malus species present in Canada outside of cultivation. The table describes whether the species is native to Canada or introduced and the species distribution by province. Distribution collated from reports of synonyms Malus pumila Mill. Return to table note 1 referrer. In the United States, there are two additional native species, the southern crabapple, M. Wood Britton, as well as 14 additional introduced species and hybrids that are reported in floras: In addition, there are a large number of species that are grown and traded for ornamental purposes in North America Bailey and Bailey , as well as several crabapple species that are grown as pollen donors in commercial apple orchards Kron and Husband An online search of nursery databases indicates that, in addition to M.
Barbier Rehder , M. Most species in the genus Malus can be readily hybridized Hancock et al. The capacity for inter-species hybridization within the genus Malus is evident by the numerous named hybrids among Malus spp. The majority of Malus spp. Reports of natural hybrids are common and artificial interspecific hybrids are easily produced Luby Interest in controlled hybridization for the improvement of cultivated apples dates back to the s, and reports of successful experimental interspecific hybridizations began in the late s Korban Since then, interspecific hybridization has played a major role in genetic improvement and a large number of crosses have been made among Malus spp.
A list of experimental interspecific hybrids that have been documented in the genus Malus is provided by Korban , and includes about 60 different species combinations. Those involving species known in Canada are provided in Table 3 for the full list see Korban The purpose of the table is to highlight reports of experimental interspecific hybrid crosses reported for the Malus species present in Canada.
It describes the cross, the number of pollinations and matured fruits, as well as provides references for each cross. Outside of the genus Malus , the potential for natural hybridization with other genera appears to be limited. While there has been extensive intergeneric hybridization reported among closely related taxa e. This has been further supported by recent taxonomic work Qian et al.
There does appear to be potential for gene introgression from M. A study conducted by Kron and Husband in southern Ontario examined populations of the introduced diploid M. This suggests that inter-crossing does happen in natural populations, and that there is potential for gene flow from domestic apples into native crabapple populations.
However, the ability of the resulting hybrid plants to survive and backcross with M. This correlates with a number of European studies, which have suggested that the gene pools between wild and cultivated Malus spp. These studies used molecular and other analyses on adult trees from natural populations and showed that hybridization between M.
In the case of Larsen et al. Results showed that interspecific hybridization yielded viable seeds which exhibited normal growth and development up to young seedlings and the authors note that it could be expected that substantial hybridization will occur given the overlap in geographical distribution and flowering time of the two species.
However, the authors also note that the lack of observed hybrid individuals in natural populations suggests the possibility of some other type of reproductive barrier operating to maintain genetically distinct populations Larsen et al.
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The nature of this potential barrier is unknown at this time. There are four Malus species present in Canada in addition to M. Two of these are native to North America M.
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It is considered "uncommon to common" within this zone Little It is reported from 23 U. Its habitat is described as "low ground, thickets, and clearings" Scoggan and "woods and thickets" Gleason and Cronquist In Ontario, it occurs in areas that have been subject to European farming practices for at least years, and where feral populations of M. Today, about half of its range falls within major commercial fruit-growing regions, and in about two thirds of this area M.
It is adapted to wet, often disturbed habitats, described as "moist woods, streambanks, swamps and bogs" Scoggan and "moist to wet, open forests, streambanks, upper beaches, shoreline thickets, estuary fringes, swamps and bogs in the lowland zone" E-Flora BC It is reported from 13 northeastern U.
Coding in Assembly for an Apple II
It occurs in thickets and clearings, and along the banks of rivers and old abandoned railways Scoggan It has a similar range in the U. It occurs along roadsides, and in thickets and riverbanks Scoggan The most economically important disease of apples in North America is apple scab Jones and Aldwinckle caused by the fungal pathogen, Venturia inaequalis Cooke Wint. Another significant disease reported as having widespread yearly occurrence with high pest pressure in Ontario is fireblight caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora Burrill Winslow et al.
Other significant diseases reported as having localized yearly occurrence with high pest pressure or widespread sporadic occurrence with high pest pressure in Canada include black rot in Ontario , caused by the fungal pathogen Botryosphaeria obtusa Schwein. Salmon, replant disease complex in Nova Scotia, Quebec and British Columbia , a combination of fungal and bacterial soilborne organisms, as well as nematodes, which affects newly planted apples in locations previously planted as apple orchards AAFC Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh and codling moth, Cydia pomonella L.
Other significant insect pests reported as having widespread yearly occurrence across the major apple producing regions in Canada include: Chemical, biological and cultural control methods are used to limit or eradicate disease and insect pests on apple AAFC Some vertebrates can also be considered pests to apple growers. Birds can become a nuisance by pecking holes in the fruit or wood AAFC Various mammals, including rodents, rabbits and deer have been associated with various damage to tree tissues including girdling of bark and feeding on young branches, leaves and buds AAFC Bears will also eat the fruit and can damage trees in doing so.
For a list of species associated with M. Crop profile for apple in Canada, A snapshot of the Canadian apple industry, Australian National Botanic Gardens. Australian plant name index APNI. Integrated botanical information system IBIS database. Breeding and characteristics of symmetric intergeneric hybrids between apple and pear. Home garden factsheets - apples in your garden.
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