The Ecstasy of Movement (A Neo-Romantic Fantasy)
At the same time, discussion of dreams reached a new level of public awareness in the Western world due to the work of Sigmund Freud, who introduced the notion of the subconscious mind as a field of scientific inquiry. Freud greatly influenced the 20th-century Surrealists, who combined the visionary impulses of Romantics and Expressionists with a focus on the unconscious as a creative tool, and an assumption that apparently irrational content could contain significant meaning, perhaps more so than rational content.
The invention of film and animation brought new possibilities for vivid depiction of nonrealistic events, but films consisting entirely of dream imagery have remained an avant-garde rarity. Comic books and comic strips have explored dreams somewhat more often, starting with Winsor McCay's popular newspaper strips; the trend toward confessional works in alternative comics of the s saw a proliferation of artists drawing their own dreams.
Dream material continues to be used by a wide range of contemporary artists for various purposes. This practice is considered by some to be of psychological value for the artist—independent of the artistic value of the results—as part of the discipline of "dream work". Artists associated with Dream art include: Visionary art From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Visionary art is art that purports to transcend the physical world and portray a wider vision of awareness including spiritual or mystical themes, or is based in such experiences.
Both trained and self-taught or outsider artists have, and continue to create visionary works. Many visionary artists are actively engaged in spiritual practices, and some have drawn inspiration from psychedelic drug experiences. Walter Schurian, professor at the University of Munster, is quick to point out the difficulties in describing visionary art as if it were a discrete genre, since "it is difficult to know where to start and where to stop.
Recognized trends have all had their fantastic component, so demarcation is apt to be fuzzy.
Despite this ambiguity, there does seem to be emerging some definition to what constitutes the contemporary visionary art 'scene' and which artists can be considered especially influential. Symbolism, Surrealism and Psychedelic art are also direct precursors to contemporary visionary art. The Vienna School of Fantastic Realism , which includes Ernst Fuchs and Arik Brauer, is also to be considered an important technical and philosophical catalyst in its strong influence upon the contemporary visionary culture.
During the 20th century, two notable groups organized to champion the mission of visionary art. On the internet, the Society for the Art of Imagination, founded by Brigid Marlin serves as an important portal for visionary art events. Laurence Caruana's Paris-based The Visionary Revue brings attention to lesser-known visionary artists and analyses aspects of visionary art from an erudite scholarly perspective.
Artists associated with Visionary Art include: Neo-Surrealism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Neosurrealism or Neo-Surrealism is an artistic genre that illustrates the complex imagery of dream or subconscious visions and irrational space and form combinations.
The term has been given to the reappearance of well-known surrealism movement in the late s. Initially, the movement focused on relating surrealism with pop-art, but lately modern artists have been exploring extra directions similar to fantastic, visionary, and fantasy art within the present genre. Neosurrealism frequently called "modern surrealism" due to a noticeable visual resemblance of these two genres. Any art movement is defined as a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time.
This definition may be applied to Neosurrealism but it does not have a particular founder or group. The movement is still not clearly defined, but it develops rapidly adding more professional and amateur art enthusiasts every day.
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As it was suggested above, the field of neosurrealism is a highly intricate and fiercely contested one, and there is no universal consensus on precisely what constitutes neosurrealism. The name itself remains very unstable, shifting in meaning according to who uses it, when, where, and in what context. Whether or not this merely multiplies problems of definition is a debatable point, but it certainly reflects the dynamically conflicted, constantly developing, and heterogeneous nature of the movement itself.
Neosurrealism and Realism in art are visual dramas diametrically opposite in intent. Neosurrealism expresses interior poetic states of being, envisaged in irrational space and form. Realism, illuminated by objectivity and directed by rational representation, appeals to recognizable truth. Neosurrealism is a combined imagery of dreams, fantasies, and subconscious mind visions in fine art painting, digital art graphic, and photography.
In the mid s, modern computer technologies brought tons of additional depicting power to contemporary artists. The arrival of desktop publishing and the introduction of software applications introduced a generation of artists to computer image manipulation and 3D image creation that had previously been unachievable. There are thousands of artists, digital and traditional fine art media, who create neo-surrealistic, surreal fantasy, and fantasy realism artworks comparable to Neosurrealism. Artists associated with Neo-surrealism include: George Grie Mirko Sevic. Magic realism From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Magic realism or magical realism is an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting.
As used today the term is broadly descriptive rather than critically rigorous. The term was initially used by German art critic Franz Roh to describe painting which demonstrated an altered reality, but was later used by Venezuelan Arturo Uslar-Pietri to describe the work of certain Latin American writers. The Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier a friend of Uslar-Pietri used the term "lo real maravilloso" roughly "marvelous reality" in the prologue to his novel The Kingdom of this World Carpentier's conception was of a kind of heightened reality in which elements of the miraculous could appear while seeming natural and unforced.
Carpentier's work was a key influence on the writers of the Latin American "boom" that emerged in the s. The term magic realism was first used by the German art critic Franz Roh to refer to a painterly style also known as Neue Sachlichkeit. It was later used to describe the unusual realism by American painters such as Ivan Albright, Paul Cadmus, George Tooker and other artists during the s and s.
It should be noted though that unlike the term's use in literature, in art it is describing paintings that do not include anything fantastic or magical, but are rather extremely realistic and often mundane. Six Magic Realists, — which will be on display until September 18, The exhibition will focus on the art and friendships of the American artists Gertrude Abercrombie — , Sylvia Fein b.
The show will include works of art objects by each artist dating between and A selection of archival material—sketchbooks, postcards with original drawings, letters, photographs, and scrapbooks—will also be included. The exhibition, which will be the first intensive study of this close-knit group, will explore the artistic and personal relationships they shared. The exhibition and accompanying catalogue will provide insight into a figurative branch of postwar American modernism that has been often neglected in favor of abstract expressionism.
Magic Realism Style of painting popular in Europe and the USA mainly from the s to s, with some followers in the s. It occupies a position between Surrealism and Photorealism, whereby the subject is rendered with a photographic naturalism, but where the use of flat tones, ambiguous perspectives and strange juxtapositions suggest an imagined or dreamed reality.
The term was introduced by art historian Frank Roh in his book Nach-Expressionismus: Magischer Realismus to describe a style deriving from Neue Sachlichkeit , but rooted in late 19th-century German Romantic fantasy. It had strong connections with the Italian Pittura Metafisica of which the work of Giorgio de Chirico was exemplary in its quest to express the mysterious. The work of Giuseppe Capogrossi and the Scuola Romana of the s is also closely related to the visionary elements of Magic Realism.
Later artists associated with Magic Realism include the American George Tooker b , whose best-known work Subway ; New York, Whitney captures the alienation of strangers gathered in public, and the German Christian Schad, who also used the style in the s. The later use of the term for types of non-Western, particularly Latin American fiction was not connected with the artistic application. Magic realism is a style of visual art which brings extreme realism to the depiction of mundane subject matter. In painting, magical realism is a term often used interchangeably with post-expressionism.
In , art critic Franz Roh used this term to describe painting which signaled a return to realism after expressionism's extravagances which sought to redesign objects to reveal the spirits of those objects. Magical realism, according to Roh, instead faithfully portrays the exterior of an object, and in doing so the spirit, or magic, of the object reveals itself. Artists associated with Magic Realism include: Psychedelic art is art inspired by the psychedelic experience induced by drugs such as LSD, Mescaline, and Psilocybin. The word "psychedelic" coined by British psychologist Humphrey Osmond means "mind manifesting".
By that definition all artistic efforts to depict the inner world of the psyche may be considered "psychedelic". However, in common parlance "Psychedelic Art" refers above all to the art movement of the s counterculture. Psychedelic visual arts were a counterpart to psychedelic rock music. Concert posters, album covers, lightshows, murals, comic books, underground newspapers and more reflected not only the kaleidoscopically swirling patterns of LSD hallucinations, but also revolutionary political, social and spiritual sentiments inspired by insights derived from these psychedelic states of consciousness.
Psychedelic Art is informed by the notion that altered states of consciousness produced by psychedelic drugs are a source of artistic inspiration. The psychedelic art movement is similar to the surrealist movement in that it prescribes a mechanism for obtaining inspiration. Whereas the mechanism for surrealism is the observance of dreams, the psychedelic artist turns to his drug induced hallucinations. Both movements have strong ties to important developments in science.
Whereas the surrealist was fascinated by Freud's theory of the unconscious, the psychedelic artist has been literally "turned on" by Albert Hofmann's discovery of LSD. The early examples of "Psychedelic Art" are literary rather than visual. It should also be noted that these came from writers involved in the Surrealist movement.
Henri Michaux wrote "Miserable Miracle" , to describe his experiments with Mescaline and also hashish. Aldous Huxley's "The Doors of Perception" , and "Heaven and Hell" , remain definitive statements on the psychedelic experience. Albert Hofmann and his colleagues at Sandoz Laboratories were convinced immediately after its discovery in of the power and promise of LSD.
For two decades following its discovery LSD was marketed by Sandoz as an important drug for psychological and neurological research. Hofmann saw the drug's potential for poets and artists as well, and took great interest in the German poet, Ernst Junger's psychedelic experiments. Janiger asked a group of 50 different artists to each do a painting from life of a subject of the artist's choosing. They were subsequently asked to do the same painting while under the influence of LSD. The two paintings were compared by Janiger and also the artist.
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The artists almost unanimously reported LSD to be an enhancement to their creativity. Ultimately it seems that psychedelics would be most warmly embraced by the American counterculture. Beatnik poets Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs became fascinated by psychedelic drugs as early as the s as evidenced by "The Yage Letters" The Beatniks recognized the role of psychedelics as sacred inebriants in Native American religious ritual, and also had an understanding of the philosophy of the surrealist and symbolist poets who called for a "complete disorientation of the senses" to paraphrase Arthur Rimbaud.
They knew that altered states of consciousness played a role in Eastern Mysticism. They were hip to psychedelics as psychiatric medicine. LSD was the perfect catalyst to electrify the eclectic mix of ideas assembled by the Beats into a cathartic, mass-distributed panacea for the soul of the succeeding generation. Psychedelic Art in s Counterculture.
Leading proponents of the s Psychedelic Art movement were San Francisco poster artists such as: Richly saturated colors in glaring contrast, elaborately ornate lettering, strongly symmetrical composition, collage elements, and bizarre iconography are all hallmarks of the San Francisco psychedelic poster art style. The style flourished from about - Their work was immediately influential to album cover art, and indeed all of the aforementioned artists also created album covers.
Although San Francisco remained the hub of psychedelic art into the early s, the style also developed internationally: Pink Floyd worked extensively with London based designers, Hipgnosis to create graphics to support the concepts in their albums. Psychedelic light-shows were a new art-form developed for rock concerts. Using oil and dye in an emulsion that was set between large convex lenses upon overhead projectors the lightshow artists created bubbling liquid visuals that pulsed in rhythm to the music. This was mixed with slideshows and film loops to create an improvisational motion picture art form to give visual representation to the improvisational jams of the rock bands and create a completely "trippy" atmosphere for the audience.
The Brotherhood of Light were responsible for many of the light-shows in San Francisco psychedelic rock concerts. Out of the psychedelic counterculture also arose a new genre of comic books: Underground Comix were ribald, intensely satirical, and seemed to pursue weirdness for the sake of weirdness. Gilbert Shelton created perhaps the most enduring of underground cartoon characters, "The Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers," whose drugged out exploits held a hilarious mirror up to the hippy lifestyle of the s.
Psychedelic art was also applied to the LSD itself. LSD began to be put on blotter paper in the early s and this gave rise to a specialized art form of decorating the blotter paper. In the period following German unification in , naturalism rejected Romantic literature as a misleading, idealistic distortion of reality. Naturalism in turn came to be regarded as incapable of filling the "void" of modern existence.
Along with other phrases such as "new tonality", this term has been criticised for lack of precision because of the diversity among these composers, whose leading member is Wolfgang Rihm Hentschel , In British art history, the term "neo-romanticism" is applied to a loosely affiliated school of landscape painting that emerged around and continued until the early s.
This movement was motivated in part as a response to the threat of invasion during World War II. The aesthetic philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer and Friedrich Nietzsche has contributed greatly to neo-romantic thinking. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with New Romantic. This article needs additional citations for verification. This movement was led by France, with Balzac and Flaubert in literature and Courbet in painting; Stendhal and Goya were important precursors of Realism in their respective media.
However, Romantic styles, now often representing the established and safe style against which Realists rebelled, continued to flourish in many fields for the rest of the century and beyond. In music such works from after about are referred to by some writers as "Late Romantic" and by others as "Neoromantic" or "Postromantic", but other fields do not usually use these terms; in English literature and painting the convenient term "Victorian" avoids having to characterise the period further.
In northern Europe, the Early Romantic visionary optimism and belief that the world was in the process of great change and improvement had largely vanished, and some art became more conventionally political and polemical as its creators engaged polemically with the world as it was. Elsewhere, including in very different ways the United States and Russia, feelings that great change was underway or just about to come were still possible.
Displays of intense emotion in art remained prominent, as did the exotic and historical settings pioneered by the Romantics, but experimentation with form and technique was generally reduced, often replaced with meticulous technique, as in the poems of Tennyson or many paintings. If not realist, late 19th-century art was often extremely detailed, and pride was taken in adding authentic details in a way that earlier Romantics did not trouble with.
Many Romantic ideas about the nature and purpose of art, above all the pre-eminent importance of originality, remained important for later generations, and often underlie modern views, despite opposition from theorists. In literature, Romanticism found recurrent themes in the evocation or criticism of the past, the cult of " sensibility " with its emphasis on women and children, the isolation of the artist or narrator, and respect for nature.
Romanticism tended to regard satire as something unworthy of serious attention, a prejudice still influential today. Some authors cite 16th century poet Isabella di Morra as an early precursor of Romantic literature. Her lyrics covering themes of isolation and loneliness, which reflected the tragic events of her life, are considered "an impressive prefigurement of Romanticism",  differing from the Petrarchist fashion of the time based on the philosophy of love.
The precursors of Romanticism in English poetry go back to the middle of the 18th century, including figures such as Joseph Warton headmaster at Winchester College and his brother Thomas Warton , Professor of Poetry at Oxford University. Thomas Chatterton is generally considered the first Romantic poet in English. Both Chatterton and Macpherson's work involved elements of fraud, as what they claimed was earlier literature that they had discovered or compiled was, in fact, entirely their own work.
The Gothic novel , beginning with Horace Walpole 's The Castle of Otranto , was an important precursor of one strain of Romanticism, with a delight in horror and threat, and exotic picturesque settings, matched in Walpole's case by his role in the early revival of Gothic architecture. Tristram Shandy , a novel by Laurence Sterne —67 introduced a whimsical version of the anti-rational sentimental novel to the English literary public. An early German influence came from Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , whose novel The Sorrows of Young Werther had young men throughout Europe emulating its protagonist, a young artist with a very sensitive and passionate temperament.
At that time Germany was a multitude of small separate states, and Goethe's works would have a seminal influence in developing a unifying sense of nationalism. Heidelberg later became a center of German Romanticism, where writers and poets such as Clemens Brentano , Achim von Arnim , and Joseph Freiherr von Eichendorff Aus dem Leben eines Taugenichts met regularly in literary circles. Important motifs in German Romanticism are travelling, nature, for example the German Forest , and Germanic myths.
The later German Romanticism of, for example E. The significance to Romanticism of childhood innocence, the importance of imagination, and racial theories all combined to give an unprecedented importance to folk literature , non-classical mythology and children's literature , above all in Germany. Brentano and von Arnim were significant literary figures who together published Des Knaben Wunderhorn "The Boy's Magic Horn" or cornucopia , a collection of versified folk tales, in — One of the brothers, Jacob , published in Deutsche Mythologie , a long academic work on Germanic mythology.
The publication in of Lyrical Ballads , with many of the finest poems by Wordsworth and Coleridge, is often held to mark the start of the movement. The majority of the poems were by Wordsworth, and many dealt with the lives of the poor in his native Lake District , or his feelings about nature—which he more fully developed in his long poem The Prelude , never published in his lifetime. The longest poem in the volume was Coleridge's The Rime of the Ancient Mariner , which showed the Gothic side of English Romanticism, and the exotic settings that many works featured. In the period when they were writing, the Lake Poets were widely regarded as a marginal group of radicals, though they were supported by the critic and writer William Hazlitt and others.
In contrast Lord Byron and Walter Scott achieved enormous fame and influence throughout Europe with works exploiting the violence and drama of their exotic and historical settings; Goethe called Byron "undoubtedly the greatest genius of our century". Both were set in the distant Scottish past, already evoked in Ossian ; Romanticism and Scotland were to have a long and fruitful partnership. Byron had equal success with the first part of Childe Harold's Pilgrimage in , followed by four "Turkish tales", all in the form of long poems, starting with The Giaour in , drawing from his Grand Tour , which had reached Ottoman Europe, and orientalizing the themes of the Gothic novel in verse.
These featured different variations of the " Byronic hero ", and his own life contributed a further version. Scott meanwhile was effectively inventing the historical novel , beginning in with Waverley , set in the Jacobite rising , which was an enormous and highly profitable success, followed by over 20 further Waverley Novels over the next 17 years, with settings going back to the Crusades that he had researched to a degree that was new in literature. In contrast to Germany, Romanticism in English literature had little connection with nationalism, and the Romantics were often regarded with suspicion for the sympathy many felt for the ideals of the French Revolution , whose collapse and replacement with the dictatorship of Napoleon was, as elsewhere in Europe, a shock to the movement.
Though his novels celebrated Scottish identity and history, Scott was politically a firm Unionist, but admitted to Jacobite sympathies. Several spent much time abroad, and a famous stay on Lake Geneva with Byron and Shelley in produced the hugely influential novel Frankenstein by Shelley's wife-to-be Mary Shelley and the novella The Vampyre by Byron's doctor John William Polidori. The lyrics of Robert Burns in Scotland and Thomas Moore , from Ireland reflected in different ways their countries and the Romantic interest in folk literature, but neither had a fully Romantic approach to life or their work.
Byron is now most highly regarded for his short lyrics and his generally unromantic prose writings, especially his letters, and his unfinished satire Don Juan. Wordsworth was by respectable and highly regarded, holding a government sinecure , but wrote relatively little. In the discussion of English literature, the Romantic period is often regarded as finishing around the s, or sometimes even earlier, although many authors of the succeeding decades were no less committed to Romantic values.
The most significant novelist in English during the peak Romantic period, other than Walter Scott, was Jane Austen , whose essentially conservative world-view had little in common with her Romantic contemporaries, retaining a strong belief in decorum and social rules, though critics [ who? Most notably Charlotte's Jane Eyre and Emily's Wuthering Heights , both published in , which also introduced more gothic themes. While these two novels were written and published after the Romantic period is said to have ended, their novels were heavily influenced by Romantic literature they'd read as children.
Byron, Keats and Shelley all wrote for the stage, but with little success in England, with Shelley's The Cenci perhaps the best work produced, though that was not played in a public theatre in England until a century after his death. Byron's plays, along with dramatizations of his poems and Scott's novels, were much more popular on the Continent, and especially in France, and through these versions several were turned into operas, many still performed today.
If contemporary poets had little success on the stage, the period was a legendary one for performances of Shakespeare , and went some way to restoring his original texts and removing the Augustan "improvements" to them. The greatest actor of the period, Edmund Kean , restored the tragic ending to King Lear ;  Coleridge said that, "Seeing him act was like reading Shakespeare by flashes of lightning.
Although after union with England in Scotland increasingly adopted English language and wider cultural norms, its literature developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an international reputation. Allan Ramsay — laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian , he published translations that acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics.
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Fingal , written in , was speedily translated into many European languages, and its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, and especially in German literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Robert Burns —96 and Walter Scott — were highly influenced by the Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is widely regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major influence on the Romantic movement. His poem and song " Auld Lang Syne " is often sung at Hogmanay the last day of the year , and " Scots Wha Hae " served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country.
His first prose work, Waverley in , is often called the first historical novel. Scott probably did more than any other figure to define and popularise Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century. Scotland was also the location of two of the most important literary magazines of the era, The Edinburgh Review founded in and Blackwood's Magazine founded in , which had a major impact on the development of British literature and drama in the era of Romanticism.
Scottish "national drama" emerged in the early s, as plays with specifically Scottish themes began to dominate the Scottish stage. Theatres had been discouraged by the Church of Scotland and fears of Jacobite assemblies. In the later eighteenth century, many plays were written for and performed by small amateur companies and were not published and so most have been lost. Towards the end of the century there were " closet dramas ", primarily designed to be read, rather than performed, including work by Scott, Hogg, Galt and Joanna Baillie — , often influenced by the ballad tradition and Gothic Romanticism.
Romanticism was relatively late in developing in French literature , more so than in the visual arts. The 18th-century precursor to Romanticism, the cult of sensibility, had become associated with the Ancien regime , and the French Revolution had been more of an inspiration to foreign writers than those experiencing it at first-hand. After the Bourbon Restoration , French Romanticism developed in the lively world of Parisian theatre , with productions of Shakespeare , Schiller in France a key Romantic author , and adaptations of Scott and Byron alongside French authors, several of whom began to write in the late s.
Cliques of pro- and anti-Romantics developed, and productions were often accompanied by raucous vocalizing by the two sides, including the shouted assertion by one theatregoer in that "Shakespeare, c'est l'aide-de-camp de Wellington" "Shakespeare is Wellington's aide-de-camp ". Victor Hugo published as a poet in the s before achieving success on the stage with Hernani —a historical drama in a quasi-Shakespearian style that had famously riotous performances on its first run in The preface to his unperformed play "Cromwell" gives an important manifesto of French Romanticism, stating that "there are no rules, or models".
Alfred de Vigny remains best known as a dramatist, with his play on the life of the English poet Chatterton perhaps his best work. George Sand was a central figure of the Parisian literary scene, famous both for her novels and criticism and her affairs with Chopin and several others;  she too was inspired by the theatre, and wrote works to be staged at her private estate.
Stendhal is today probably the most highly regarded French novelist of the period, but he stands in a complex relation with Romanticism, and is notable for his penetrating psychological insight into his characters and his realism, qualities rarely prominent in Romantic fiction. As a survivor of the French retreat from Moscow in , fantasies of heroism and adventure had little appeal for him, and like Goya he is often seen as a forerunner of Realism. Romanticism in Poland is often taken to begin with the publication of Adam Mickiewicz 's first poems in , and end with the crushing of the January Uprising of against the Russians.
It was strongly marked by interest in Polish history. This close connection between Polish Romanticism and Polish history became one of the defining qualities of the literature of Polish Romanticism period, differentiating it from that of other countries. They had not suffered the loss of national statehood as was the case with Poland. The Polish intelligentsia, along with leading members of its government, left Poland in the early s, during what is referred to as the " Great Emigration ", resettling in France, Germany, Great Britain, Turkey, and the United States.
Their art featured emotionalism and irrationality , fantasy and imagination, personality cults, folklore and country life, and the propagation of ideals of freedom. In the second period, many of the Polish Romantics worked abroad, often banished from Poland by the occupying powers due to their politically subversive ideas. Their work became increasingly dominated by the ideals of political struggle for freedom and their country's sovereignty. Elements of mysticism became more prominent. There developed the idea of the poeta wieszcz the prophet. The wieszcz bard functioned as spiritual leader to the nation fighting for its independence.
The most notable poet so recognized was Adam Mickiewicz. Zygmunt Krasinski also wrote to inspire political and religious hope in his countrymen. Unlike his predecessors, who called for victory at whatever price in Poland's struggle against Russia, Krasinski emphasized Poland's spiritual role in its fight for independence, advocating an intellectual rather than a military superiority.
His works best exemplify the Messianic movement in Poland: Pushkin's work influenced many writers in the 19th century and led to his eventual recognition as Russia's greatest poet. Influenced heavily by Lord Byron, Lermontov sought to explore the Romantic emphasis on metaphysical discontent with society and self, while Tyutchev's poems often described scenes of nature or passions of love.
Tyutchev commonly operated with such categories as night and day, north and south, dream and reality, cosmos and chaos, and the still world of winter and spring teeming with life. Baratynsky's style was fairly classical in nature, dwelling on the models of the previous century. Romanticism in Spanish literature developed a well-known literature with a huge variety of poets and playwrights. Spanish Romanticism also influenced regional literatures. There are scholars who consider Spanish Romanticism to be Proto-Existentialism because it is more anguished than the movement in other European countries.
According to Richard Caldwell, the writers that we now identify with Spain's romanticism were actually precursors to those who galvanized the literary movement that emerged in the s. Alexandre, bishop of Angra , in the precepts of Neoclassicism , which can be observed in his early work. Almeida Garrett had participated in the Liberal Revolution , which caused him to exile himself in England in and then in France, after the Vila-Francada. He was also deeply interested in Portuguese folkloric verse, which resulted in the publication of Romanceiro "Traditional Portuguese Ballads" , that recollect a great number of ancient popular ballads, known as "romances" or "rimances", in redondilha maior verse form, that contained stories of chivalry , life of saints , crusades , courtly love , etc.
He too was forced to exile to Great Britain and France because of his liberal ideals. All of his poetry and prose are unlike Almeida Garrett's entirely Romantic, rejecting Greco-Roman myth and history. He became an unquestionable master for successive Ultra-Romantic generations, whose influence would not be challenged until the famous Coimbra Question. He also created polemics by translating Goethe 's Faust without knowing German, but using French versions of the play.
An early Portuguese expression of Romanticism is found already in poets such as Manuel Maria Barbosa du Bocage especially in his sonnets dated at the end of the 18th century and Leonor de Almeida Portugal, Marquise of Alorna. Before that date, Ugo Foscolo had already published poems anticipating Romantic themes.
Better known authors such as Alessandro Manzoni and Giacomo Leopardi were influenced by Enlightenment as well as by Romanticism and Classicism. His writings were influenced by his hatred for the Argentine dictator Juan Manuel de Rosas , and filled with themes of blood and terror, using the metaphor of a slaughterhouse to portray the violence of Rosas' dictatorship. Brazilian Romanticism is characterized and divided in three different periods.
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The first one is basically focused on the creation of a sense of national identity, using the ideal of the heroic Indian. The second period, sometimes called Ultra-Romanticism , is marked by a profound influence of European themes and traditions, involving the melancholy, sadness and despair related to unobtainable love. Goethe and Lord Byron are commonly quoted in these works. American Romantic Gothic literature made an early appearance with Washington Irving 's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle , followed from onwards by the Leatherstocking Tales of James Fenimore Cooper , with their emphasis on heroic simplicity and their fervent landscape descriptions of an already-exotic mythicized frontier peopled by " noble savages ", similar to the philosophical theory of Rousseau , exemplified by Uncas , from The Last of the Mohicans.
There are picturesque "local color" elements in Washington Irving's essays and especially his travel books.
Edgar Allan Poe 's tales of the macabre and his balladic poetry were more influential in France than at home, but the romantic American novel developed fully with the atmosphere and melodrama of Nathaniel Hawthorne 's The Scarlet Letter Later Transcendentalist writers such as Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson still show elements of its influence and imagination, as does the romantic realism of Walt Whitman.
The poetry of Emily Dickinson —nearly unread in her own time—and Herman Melville 's novel Moby-Dick can be taken as epitomes of American Romantic literature. By the s, however, psychological and social realism were competing with Romanticism in the novel. The European Romantic movement reached America in the early 19th century. American Romanticism was just as multifaceted and individualistic as it was in Europe.