TD 0856 - Padrão de Consumo, Distribuição de Renda e o Meio Ambiente no Brasil (Portuguese Edition)

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These measures typically have a form of conformal invariance, Full Text Available We consider a data set of locations where people in Central Bohemia have been infected by tick-borne encephalitis TBE, and where population census data and covariates concerning vegetation and altitude are available. The aims are to estimate the risk map of the disease and to study the dependence of the risk on the covariates.

Instead of using the common area level approaches we base the analysis on a Bayesian approach for a log Gaussian Cox point process with covariates.

Posterior characteristics for a discretized version of the log Gaussian Cox process are computed using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The risk map shows a clear dependency with the population intensity models and the basic model which is adopted for the population intensity determines what covariates influence the risk of TBE.

Model validation is based on the posterior predictive distribution of various summary statistics. Mean-field inference of Hawkes point processes. We propose a fast and efficient estimation method that is able to accurately recover the parameters of a d-dimensional Hawkes point-process from a set of observations. We exploit a mean-field approximation that is valid when the fluctuations of the stochastic intensity are small.

We show that this is notably the case in situations when interactions are sufficiently weak, when the dimension of the system is high or when the fluctuations are self-averaging due to the large number of past events they involve. In such a regime the estimation of a Hawkes process can be mapped on a least-squares problem for which we provide an analytic solution.

Though this estimator is biased, we show that its precision can be comparable to the one of the maximum likelihood estimator while its computation speed is shown to be improved considerably. We give a theoretical control on the accuracy of our new approach and illustrate its efficiency using synthetic datasets, in order to assess the statistical estimation error of the parameters.

Corner- point criterion for assessing nonlinear image processing imagers. Range performance modeling of optronics imagers attempts to characterize the ability to resolve details in the image. Today, digital image processing is systematically used in conjunction with the optoelectronic system to correct its defects or to exploit tiny detection signals to increase performance. In order to characterize these processing having adaptive and non-linear properties, it becomes necessary to stimulate the imagers with test patterns whose properties are similar to the actual scene image ones, in terms of dynamic range, contours, texture and singular points.

The evaluation procedure considers the actual image as its multi-resolution CP transformation, taking the role of Ground Truth GT. After a spatial registration between the degraded image and the original one, the degradation is statistically measured by comparing the GT with the degraded image CP transformation, in terms of localized PCR at the region of interest.

The paper defines this CP criterion and presents the developed evaluation techniques, such as the measurement of the number of CP resolved on the target, the transformation CP and its inverse transform that make it possible to reconstruct an image of the perceived CPs. Then, this criterion is compared with the standard Johnson criterion, in the case of a linear blur and noise degradation. The evaluation of an imaging system integrating an image display and a visual perception is considered, by proposing an analysis scheme combining two methods: Multiplicative point process as a model of trading activity.

In this paper, we generalize the model of interevent time to reproduce a variety of self-affine time series exhibiting power spectral density S f scaling as a power of the frequency f. Furthermore, we analyze the relation between the power-law correlations and the origin of the power-law probability distribution of the signal intensity.

We introduce a stochastic multiplicative model for the time intervals between point events and analyze the statistical properties of the signal analytically and numerically. Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained.

The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity. The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades.

A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics. Full Text Available This work sets forth criteria on determining factors which influence the desing of buildings groups, focused on from the general and conceptual point of view and it points out several concepts and Instruments which allow measuring the relations between the components and the stages which constitute the process of designing educational building groups.

As part of the work on these determinants, the following aspects are studied: Growth is a point to be taken into account in the process of analyzing the building group design so that it could maintain its integrity, considering certain degrees of flexibility which would permit adaptation to prospective changes in educational Systems. These determinants can be interpreted and reflected in the examples which constitute a practical Cuban experiment. Como parte del trabajo de dichas determinantes , se desarrollan los aspectos siguientes: Motor activity of humans displays complex temporal fluctuations which can be characterised by scale-invariant statistics, thus demonstrating that structure and fluctuations of such kinetics remain similar over a broad range of time scales.

Previous studies on humans regularly deprived of sleep or suffering from sleep disorders predicted a change in the invariant scale parameters with respect to those for healthy subjects. In this study we investigate the signal patterns from actigraphy recordings by means of characteristic measures of fractional point processes.

We analyse spontaneous locomotor activity of healthy individuals recorded during a week of regular sleep and a week of chronic partial sleep deprivation. Behavioural symptoms of lack of sleep can be evaluated by analysing statistics of duration times during active and resting states, and alteration of behavioural organisation can be assessed by analysis of power laws detected in the event count distribution, distribution of waiting times between consecutive movements and detrended fluctuation analysis of recorded time series.

We claim that among different measures characterising complexity of the actigraphy recordings and their variations implied by chronic sleep distress, the exponents characterising slopes of survival functions in resting states are the most effective biomarkers distinguishing between healthy and sleep-deprived groups.

A scalable and multi-purpose point cloud server PCS for easier and faster point cloud data management and processing. In addition to more traditional geographical data such as images rasters and vectors, point cloud data are becoming increasingly available. Such data are appreciated for their precision and true three-Dimensional 3D nature. However, managing point clouds can be difficult due to scaling problems and specificities of this data type.

Several methods exist but are usually fairly specialised and solve only one aspect of the management problem. In this work, we propose a comprehensive and efficient point cloud management system based on a database server that works on groups of points patches rather than individual points. This system is specifically designed to cover the basic needs of point cloud users: Moreover, the proposed system fully integrates metadata like sensor position and can conjointly use point clouds with other geospatial data, such as images, vectors, topology and other point clouds.

Point cloud parallel processing can be done in-base with fast prototyping capabilities. Lastly, the system is built on open source technologies; therefore it can be easily extended and customised. We test the proposed system with several billion points obtained from Lidar aerial and terrestrial and stereo-vision. Equivalence of functional limit theorems for stationary point processes and their Palm distributions. Let P be the distribution of a stationary point process on the real line and let P0 be its Palm distribution.

In this paper we consider two types of functional limit theorems, those in terms of the number of points of the point process in 0, t] and those in terms of the location of the nth point. The product was, however, classified under category III with respect to risk and the significance of monitoring and evaluation of quality using the hazard analysis critical control point. Discussion of "Modern statistics for spatial point processes ". Waagepetersen is based on a special invited lecture given by the authors at the 21st Nordic Conference on Mathematical Statistics, held at Rebild, Denmark, in June At the conference, Antti Geometric anisotropic spatial point pattern analysis and Cox processes.

In particular we study Cox process models with an elliptical pair correlation function, including shot noise Cox processes and log Gaussian Cox processes , and we develop estimation procedures using summary statistics and Bayesian methods. Our methodology is illustrated on real and synthetic datasets of spatial Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data. A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer.

Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure.

Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations.

The vectors, points , and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation. We illustrate the method in cases whre the likelihood is given by a Markov point process model. Particularly, we consider semi-parametric Bayesian inference in connection to both inhomogeneous Markov point process models Full Text Available In the literature on point processes the by far most popular option for introducing inhomogeneity into a point process model is the location dependent thinning resulting in a second-order intensity-reweighted stationary point process.

This produces a very tractable model and there are several fast estimation procedures available. Nevertheless, this model dilutes the interaction or the geometrical structure of the original homogeneous model in a special way. When concerning the Markov point processes several alternative inhomogeneous models were suggested and investigated in the literature. But it is not so for the Cox point processes , the canonical models for clustered point patterns.

In the contribution we discuss several other options how to define inhomogeneous Cox point process models that result in point patterns with different types of geometric structure. We further investigate the possible parameter estimation procedures for such models. Marked point process for modelling seismic activity case study in Sumatra and Java. Earthquake is a natural phenomenon that is random, irregular in space and time. Until now the forecast of earthquake occurrence at a location is still difficult to be estimated so that the development of earthquake forecast methodology is still carried out both from seismology aspect and stochastic aspect.

To explain the random nature phenomena, both in space and time, a point process approach can be used. There are two types of point processes: The temporal point process relates to events observed over time as a sequence of time, whereas the spatial point process describes the location of objects in two or three dimensional spaces. The points on the point process can be labelled with additional information called marks. A marked point process can be considered as a pair x, m where x is the point of location and m is the mark attached to the point of that location.

This study aims to model marked point process indexed by time on earthquake data in Sumatra Island and Java Island. This model can be used to analyse seismic activity through its intensity function by considering the history process up to time before t. Based on data obtained from U. Geological Survey from to with magnitude threshold 5, we obtained maximum likelihood estimate for parameters of the intensity function. The estimation of model parameters shows that the seismic activity in Sumatra Island is greater than Java Island. Lasso and probabilistic inequalities for multivariate point processes.

Due to its low computational cost, Lasso is an attractive regularization method for high-dimensional statistical settings. In this paper, we consider multivariate counting processes depending on an unknown function parameter to be estimated by linear combinations of a fixed dictionary. Motivated by problems of neuronal activity inference, we finally carry out a simulation study for multivariate Hawkes processes and compare our We observe an excellent behavior of our procedure.

We rely on theoretical aspects for the essential question of tuning our methodology. Unlike adaptive Lasso of J. Modelling financial high frequency data using point processes. In this chapter written for a forthcoming Handbook of Financial Time Series to be published by Springer-Verlag, we review the econometric literature on dynamic duration and intensity processes applied to high frequency financial data, which was boosted by the work of Engle and Russell Tonchev, Anton; Tsoneva, N. Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding s- process nucleosynthesis.

However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. This observable becomes an essential ingredient in the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model for calculations of capture cross sections on Pb. The newly obtained photoabsorption information is also used to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged radiative cross section of Pb n,g Pb at 30 keV. The astrophysical impact of this measurement on s- process nucleosynthesis will be discussed.

The Hinkley Point decision: An analysis of the policy process. In , the British government launched a policy to build nuclear power reactors based on a claim that the power produced would be competitive with fossil fuel and would require no public subsidy. A decade later, it is not clear how many, if any, orders will be placed and the claims on costs and subsidies have proved false. Despite this failure to deliver, the policy is still being pursued with undiminished determination.

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The finance model that is now proposed is seen as a model other European countries can follow so the success or otherwise of the British nuclear programme will have implications outside the UK. This paper contends that the checks and balances that should weed out misguided policies, have failed. It argues that the most serious failure is with the civil service and its inability to provide politicians with high quality advice — truth to power.

It concludes that the failure is likely to be due to the unwillingness of politicians to listen to opinions that conflict with their beliefs. Other weaknesses include the lack of energy expertise in the media, the unwillingness of the public to engage in the policy process and the impotence of Parliamentary Committees. Full Text Available Over the past few years, LiDAR systems have been established as a leading technology for the acquisition of high density point clouds over physical surfaces.

These point clouds will be processed for the extraction of geo-spatial information. Local point density is one of the most important properties of the point cloud that highly affects the performance of data processing techniques and the quality of extracted information from these data. Therefore, it is necessary to define a standard methodology for the estimation of local point density indices to be considered for the precise processing of LiDAR data. Current definitions of local point density indices, which only consider the 2D neighbourhood of individual points , are not appropriate for 3D LiDAR data and cannot be applied for laser scans from different platforms.

In order to resolve the drawbacks of these methods, this paper proposes several approaches for the estimation of the local point density index which take the 3D relationship among the points and the physical properties of the surfaces they belong to into account. In the simplest approach, an approximate value of the local point density for each point is defined while considering the 3D relationship among the points.

In the other approaches, the local point density is estimated by considering the 3D neighbourhood of the point in question and the physical properties of the surface which encloses this point. The physical properties of the surfaces enclosing the LiDAR points are assessed through eigen-value analysis of the 3D neighbourhood of individual points and adaptive cylinder methods.

This paper will discuss these approaches and highlight their impact on various LiDAR data processing activities i. Experimental results from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data verify the efficacy of considering local point density variation for. Quantum entanglement and geometry of determinantal varieties.

Quantum entanglement was first recognized as a feature of quantum mechanics in the famous paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Recently it has been realized that quantum entanglement is a key ingredient in quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum cryptography. In this paper, we introduce algebraic sets, which are determinantal varieties in the complex projective spaces or the products of complex projective spaces, for the mixed states on bipartite or multipartite quantum systems as their invariants under local unitary transformations.

These invariants are naturally arised from the physical consideration of measuring mixed states by separable pure states. Our construction has applications in the following important topics in quantum information theory: Development and evaluation of spatial point process models for epidermal nerve fibers.

We propose two spatial point process models for the spatial structure of epidermal nerve fibers ENFs across human skin. In both cases, we derive distributional properties for observable quantities of direct interest to neurologists such as the number of fibers per base, and the direction and range of fibers on the skin. We contrast both models by fitting them to data from skin blister biopsy images of ENFs and provide inference regarding physiological properties of ENFs. Determination of the critical control points in the processing of cassava tuber into Ighu was carried out.

The critical control points were determined according to the Codex guidelines for the application of the HACCP system by conducting hazard analysis. Hazard analysis involved proper examination of each processing step Distinguishing different types of inhomogeneity in Neyman-Scott point processes. The importance of topographically corrected null models for analyzing ecological point processes. Analyses of point process patterns and related techniques e.

Ecologists working with point process data often assume that points exist on a two-dimensional x-y plane or within a three-dimensional volume, when in fact many observed point patterns are generated on a two-dimensional surface existing within three-dimensional space. For many surfaces, however, such as the topography of landscapes, the projection from the surface to the x-y plane preserves neither area nor distance. As such, when these point patterns are implicitly projected to and analyzed in the x-y plane, our expectations of the point pattern's statistical properties may not be met.

When used in hypothesis testing, we find that the failure to account for the topography of the generating surface may bias statistical tests that incorrectly identify clustering and, furthermore, may bias coefficients in inhomogeneous point process models that incorporate slope as a covariate. We demonstrate the circumstances under which this bias is significant, and present simple methods that allow point processes to be simulated with corrections for topography.

These point patterns can then be used to generate "topographically corrected" null models against which observed point processes can be compared. Novel evaluation metrics for sparse spatio-temporal point process hotspot predictions - a crime case study. Many physical and sociological processes are represented as discrete events in time and space. These spatio-temporal point processes are often sparse, meaning that they cannot be aggregated and treated with conventional regression models.

Models based on the point process framework may be employed instead for prediction purposes. Evaluating the predictive performance of these models poses a unique challenge, as the same sparseness prevents the use of popular measures such as the root mean squ Efficient point cloud data processing in shipbuilding: Reformative component extraction method and registration method. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point.

By experiments conducted at the shipyard, curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation. Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice.

Edit distance for marked point processes revisited: An implementation by binary integer programming. We implement the edit distance for marked point processes [Suzuki et al. Bifurcation Chaos 20, — ] as a binary integer program. Compared with the previous implementation using minimum cost perfect matching, the proposed implementation has two advantages: The cylindrical K-function and Poisson line cluster point processes. Poisson line cluster point processes , is also introduced. Parameter estimation based on moment methods or Bayesian inference for this model is discussed when the underlying Poisson line process and the cluster memberships are treated as hidden processes.

To illustrate the methodologies, we analyze two Bridging the gap between a stationary point process and its Palm distribution. In the context of stationary point processes measurements are usually made from a time point chosen at random or from an occurrence chosen at random. In this paper an approach is presented to. Hierarchical spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity.

A complex multivariate spatial point pattern of a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a maxim Definition of distance for nonlinear time series analysis of marked point process data. Marked point process data are time series of discrete events accompanied with some values, such as economic trades, earthquakes, and lightnings.

A distance for marked point process data allows us to apply nonlinear time series analysis to such data. We propose a distance for marked point process data which can be calculated much faster than the existing distance when the number of marks is small. Furthermore, under some assumptions, the Kullback—Leibler divergences between posterior distributions for neighbors defined by this distance are small. We performed some numerical simulations showing that analysis based on the proposed distance is effective.

POINT is a project about how indicators are used in practice; to what extent and in what way indicators actually influence, support, or hinder policy and decision making processes , and what could be done to enhance the positive role of indicators in such processes. The project needs an analytical Examples in Immunofluorescence Histology. We discuss Bayesian modelling and computational methods in analysis of indirectly observed spatial point processes. The context involves noisy measurements on an underlying point process that provide indirect and noisy data on locations of point outcomes.

We are interested in problems in which the spatial intensity function may be highly heterogenous, and so is modelled via flexible nonparametric Bayesian mixture models. Analysis aims to estimate the underlying intensity function and the abundance of realized but unobserved points. Our motivating applications involve immunological studies of multiple fluorescent intensity images in sections of lymphatic tissue where the point processes represent geographical configurations of cells.

We are interested in estimating intensity functions and cell abundance for each of a series of such data sets to facilitate comparisons of outcomes at different times and with respect to differing experimental conditions. The analysis is heavily computational, utilizing recently introduced MCMC approaches for spatial point process mixtures and extending them to the broader new context here of unobserved outcomes. Further, our example applications are problems in which the individual objects of interest are not simply points , but rather small groups of pixels; this implies a need to work at an aggregate pixel region level and we develop the resulting novel methodology for this.

Two examples with with immunofluorescence histology data demonstrate the models and computational methodology. Some determinantal inequalities for Hadamard and Fan products of matrices. Characterization results and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms including exact simulation for some spatial point processes. The area-interaction process and the continuum random-cluster model are characterized in terms of certain functional forms of their respective conditional intensities.

In certain cases, these two point process models can be derived from a bivariate point process model which in many respects Using this correspondence we devise a two-component Gibbs sampler, which can be used for fast and exact simulation by extending the recent ideas of Propp and Wilson. We further introduce a Swendsen-Wang type algorithm. The relevance of the results within spatial statistics Full Text Available Tree detection and reconstruction is of great interest in large-scale city modelling.

In this paper, we present a marked point process model to detect single trees from airborne laser scanning ALS data. Unlike traditional marked point process , we sample the model in a constraint configuration space by making use of image process techniques. A Gibbs energy is defined on the model, containing a data term which judge the fitness of the model with respect to the data, and prior term which incorporate the prior knowledge of object layouts.

We search the optimal configuration through a steepest gradient descent algorithm. The presented hybrid framework was test on three forest plots and experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Second-order analysis of structured inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes. Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy. We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for first general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and second inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes.

One is second-order spatio-temporal independence and relates e. Another concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data the UK epidemic foot and mouth disease data From point process observations to collective neural dynamics: Nonlinear Hawkes process GLMs, low-dimensional dynamics and coarse graining. This review presents a perspective on capturing collective dynamics in recorded neuronal ensembles based on multivariate point process models, inference of low-dimensional dynamics and coarse graining of spatiotemporal measurements.

A general probabilistic framework for continuous time point processes reviewed, with an emphasis on multivariate nonlinear Hawkes processes with exogenous inputs. A point process generalized linear model PP-GLM framework for the estimation of discrete time multivariate nonlinear Hawkes processes is described. The approach is illustrated with the modeling of collective dynamics in neocortical neuronal ensembles recorded in human and non-human primates, and prediction of single-neuron spiking.

A complementary approach to capture collective dynamics based on low-dimensional dynamics "order parameters" inferred via latent state-space models with point process observations is presented. The approach is illustrated by inferring and decoding low-dimensional dynamics in primate motor cortex during naturalistic reach and grasp movements. Finally, we briefly review hypothesis tests based on conditional inference and spatiotemporal coarse graining for assessing collective dynamics in recorded neuronal ensembles. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Determination of the impact of RGB points cloud attribute quality on color-based segmentation process.

Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the effect that radiometric quality of point cloud RGB attributes have on color-based segmentation. The application was based on public Point Cloud Libraries PCL and allowed to extract subsets of points fulfilling the criteria of segmentation from the source point cloud using region growing method.

Using the developed application, the segmentation of four tested point clouds containing different RGB attributes from various images was performed. Evaluation of segmentation process was performed based on comparison of segments acquired using the developed application and extracted manually by an operator. The following items were compared: The best correctness of segmentation and most identified objects were obtained using the data with RGB attribute from Nikon D3X images.

Based on the results it was found that quality of RGB attributes of point cloud had impact only on the number of identified objects. In case of correctness of the segmentation, as well as its error no apparent relationship between the quality of color information and the result of the process was found. Probabilistic safety assessment and optimal control of hazardous technological systems.

A marked point process approach. The thesis models risk management as an optimal control problem for a stochastic process. The approach classes the decisions made by management into three categories according to the control methods of a point process: The approach is used for optimization of plant shutdown criteria and surveillance test strategies of a hypothetical nuclear power plant. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

Apparatus and method for implementing power saving techniques when processing floating point values. An apparatus and method are described for reducing power when reading and writing graphics data. For example, one embodiment of an apparatus comprises: Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed. Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful.

In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press. The processing conditions employed were moisture content 4. Results showed that the oil point pressure increased with increase in seed moisture content, but decreased with increase in heating temperature and heating time within the above ranges. Highest oil point pressure value of 1. The lowest oil point pressure obtained was 0.

Explicit expressions for the power spectra in the low-frequency limit and for the distribution density of the interevent time are obtained. The counting statistics of the events is analyzed analytically and numerically, as well. The specific interest of our analysis is related with the financial markets, where long-range correlations of price fluctuations largely depend on the number of transactions. We analyze the spectral density and counting statistics of the number of transactions. The model reproduces spectral properties of the real markets and explains the mechanism of power-law distribution of trading activity.

The study provides evidence that the statistical properties of the financial markets are enclosed in the statistics of the time interval between trades. A multiplicative point process serves as a consistent model generating this statistics. Full Text Available This work sets forth criteria on determining factors which influence the desing of buildings groups, focused on from the general and conceptual point of view and it points out several concepts and Instruments which allow measuring the relations between the components and the stages which constitute the process of designing educational building groups.

As part of the work on these determinants, the following aspects are studied: Growth is a point to be taken into account in the process of analyzing the building group design so that it could maintain its integrity, considering certain degrees of flexibility which would permit adaptation to prospective changes in educational Systems. These determinants can be interpreted and reflected in the examples which constitute a practical Cuban experiment.

Como parte del trabajo de dichas determinantes , se desarrollan los aspectos siguientes: Motor activity of humans displays complex temporal fluctuations which can be characterised by scale-invariant statistics, thus demonstrating that structure and fluctuations of such kinetics remain similar over a broad range of time scales. Previous studies on humans regularly deprived of sleep or suffering from sleep disorders predicted a change in the invariant scale parameters with respect to those for healthy subjects. In this study we investigate the signal patterns from actigraphy recordings by means of characteristic measures of fractional point processes.

We analyse spontaneous locomotor activity of healthy individuals recorded during a week of regular sleep and a week of chronic partial sleep deprivation. Behavioural symptoms of lack of sleep can be evaluated by analysing statistics of duration times during active and resting states, and alteration of behavioural organisation can be assessed by analysis of power laws detected in the event count distribution, distribution of waiting times between consecutive movements and detrended fluctuation analysis of recorded time series.

We claim that among different measures characterising complexity of the actigraphy recordings and their variations implied by chronic sleep distress, the exponents characterising slopes of survival functions in resting states are the most effective biomarkers distinguishing between healthy and sleep-deprived groups. A scalable and multi-purpose point cloud server PCS for easier and faster point cloud data management and processing. In addition to more traditional geographical data such as images rasters and vectors, point cloud data are becoming increasingly available.

Such data are appreciated for their precision and true three-Dimensional 3D nature. However, managing point clouds can be difficult due to scaling problems and specificities of this data type. Several methods exist but are usually fairly specialised and solve only one aspect of the management problem. In this work, we propose a comprehensive and efficient point cloud management system based on a database server that works on groups of points patches rather than individual points.

This system is specifically designed to cover the basic needs of point cloud users: Moreover, the proposed system fully integrates metadata like sensor position and can conjointly use point clouds with other geospatial data, such as images, vectors, topology and other point clouds. Point cloud parallel processing can be done in-base with fast prototyping capabilities.

Lastly, the system is built on open source technologies; therefore it can be easily extended and customised. We test the proposed system with several billion points obtained from Lidar aerial and terrestrial and stereo-vision. Equivalence of functional limit theorems for stationary point processes and their Palm distributions.

Let P be the distribution of a stationary point process on the real line and let P0 be its Palm distribution. In this paper we consider two types of functional limit theorems, those in terms of the number of points of the point process in 0, t] and those in terms of the location of the nth point. The product was, however, classified under category III with respect to risk and the significance of monitoring and evaluation of quality using the hazard analysis critical control point.

Discussion of "Modern statistics for spatial point processes ". Waagepetersen is based on a special invited lecture given by the authors at the 21st Nordic Conference on Mathematical Statistics, held at Rebild, Denmark, in June At the conference, Antti Geometric anisotropic spatial point pattern analysis and Cox processes. In particular we study Cox process models with an elliptical pair correlation function, including shot noise Cox processes and log Gaussian Cox processes , and we develop estimation procedures using summary statistics and Bayesian methods.

Our methodology is illustrated on real and synthetic datasets of spatial Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data. A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys.

The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points , and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

We illustrate the method in cases whre the likelihood is given by a Markov point process model. Particularly, we consider semi-parametric Bayesian inference in connection to both inhomogeneous Markov point process models Full Text Available In the literature on point processes the by far most popular option for introducing inhomogeneity into a point process model is the location dependent thinning resulting in a second-order intensity-reweighted stationary point process. This produces a very tractable model and there are several fast estimation procedures available.

Nevertheless, this model dilutes the interaction or the geometrical structure of the original homogeneous model in a special way. When concerning the Markov point processes several alternative inhomogeneous models were suggested and investigated in the literature. But it is not so for the Cox point processes , the canonical models for clustered point patterns. In the contribution we discuss several other options how to define inhomogeneous Cox point process models that result in point patterns with different types of geometric structure.

We further investigate the possible parameter estimation procedures for such models. Marked point process for modelling seismic activity case study in Sumatra and Java. Earthquake is a natural phenomenon that is random, irregular in space and time. Until now the forecast of earthquake occurrence at a location is still difficult to be estimated so that the development of earthquake forecast methodology is still carried out both from seismology aspect and stochastic aspect.

To explain the random nature phenomena, both in space and time, a point process approach can be used. There are two types of point processes: The temporal point process relates to events observed over time as a sequence of time, whereas the spatial point process describes the location of objects in two or three dimensional spaces.

The points on the point process can be labelled with additional information called marks. A marked point process can be considered as a pair x, m where x is the point of location and m is the mark attached to the point of that location. This study aims to model marked point process indexed by time on earthquake data in Sumatra Island and Java Island. This model can be used to analyse seismic activity through its intensity function by considering the history process up to time before t.

Based on data obtained from U. Geological Survey from to with magnitude threshold 5, we obtained maximum likelihood estimate for parameters of the intensity function. The estimation of model parameters shows that the seismic activity in Sumatra Island is greater than Java Island.

Lasso and probabilistic inequalities for multivariate point processes. Due to its low computational cost, Lasso is an attractive regularization method for high-dimensional statistical settings. In this paper, we consider multivariate counting processes depending on an unknown function parameter to be estimated by linear combinations of a fixed dictionary. Motivated by problems of neuronal activity inference, we finally carry out a simulation study for multivariate Hawkes processes and compare our We observe an excellent behavior of our procedure.

We rely on theoretical aspects for the essential question of tuning our methodology. Unlike adaptive Lasso of J. Modelling financial high frequency data using point processes. In this chapter written for a forthcoming Handbook of Financial Time Series to be published by Springer-Verlag, we review the econometric literature on dynamic duration and intensity processes applied to high frequency financial data, which was boosted by the work of Engle and Russell Tonchev, Anton; Tsoneva, N.

Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding s- process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. This observable becomes an essential ingredient in the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model for calculations of capture cross sections on Pb.

The newly obtained photoabsorption information is also used to estimate the Maxwellian-averaged radiative cross section of Pb n,g Pb at 30 keV. The astrophysical impact of this measurement on s- process nucleosynthesis will be discussed. The Hinkley Point decision: An analysis of the policy process. In , the British government launched a policy to build nuclear power reactors based on a claim that the power produced would be competitive with fossil fuel and would require no public subsidy.

A decade later, it is not clear how many, if any, orders will be placed and the claims on costs and subsidies have proved false. Despite this failure to deliver, the policy is still being pursued with undiminished determination. The finance model that is now proposed is seen as a model other European countries can follow so the success or otherwise of the British nuclear programme will have implications outside the UK.

This paper contends that the checks and balances that should weed out misguided policies, have failed. It argues that the most serious failure is with the civil service and its inability to provide politicians with high quality advice — truth to power. It concludes that the failure is likely to be due to the unwillingness of politicians to listen to opinions that conflict with their beliefs. Other weaknesses include the lack of energy expertise in the media, the unwillingness of the public to engage in the policy process and the impotence of Parliamentary Committees.

Full Text Available Over the past few years, LiDAR systems have been established as a leading technology for the acquisition of high density point clouds over physical surfaces. These point clouds will be processed for the extraction of geo-spatial information. Local point density is one of the most important properties of the point cloud that highly affects the performance of data processing techniques and the quality of extracted information from these data.

Therefore, it is necessary to define a standard methodology for the estimation of local point density indices to be considered for the precise processing of LiDAR data. Current definitions of local point density indices, which only consider the 2D neighbourhood of individual points , are not appropriate for 3D LiDAR data and cannot be applied for laser scans from different platforms.

In order to resolve the drawbacks of these methods, this paper proposes several approaches for the estimation of the local point density index which take the 3D relationship among the points and the physical properties of the surfaces they belong to into account. In the simplest approach, an approximate value of the local point density for each point is defined while considering the 3D relationship among the points.

In the other approaches, the local point density is estimated by considering the 3D neighbourhood of the point in question and the physical properties of the surface which encloses this point. The physical properties of the surfaces enclosing the LiDAR points are assessed through eigen-value analysis of the 3D neighbourhood of individual points and adaptive cylinder methods. This paper will discuss these approaches and highlight their impact on various LiDAR data processing activities i.

Experimental results from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data verify the efficacy of considering local point density variation for. Quantum entanglement and geometry of determinantal varieties. Quantum entanglement was first recognized as a feature of quantum mechanics in the famous paper of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen.

Recently it has been realized that quantum entanglement is a key ingredient in quantum computation, quantum communication, and quantum cryptography. In this paper, we introduce algebraic sets, which are determinantal varieties in the complex projective spaces or the products of complex projective spaces, for the mixed states on bipartite or multipartite quantum systems as their invariants under local unitary transformations. These invariants are naturally arised from the physical consideration of measuring mixed states by separable pure states.

Our construction has applications in the following important topics in quantum information theory: Development and evaluation of spatial point process models for epidermal nerve fibers. We propose two spatial point process models for the spatial structure of epidermal nerve fibers ENFs across human skin. In both cases, we derive distributional properties for observable quantities of direct interest to neurologists such as the number of fibers per base, and the direction and range of fibers on the skin. We contrast both models by fitting them to data from skin blister biopsy images of ENFs and provide inference regarding physiological properties of ENFs.

Determination of the critical control points in the processing of cassava tuber into Ighu was carried out. The critical control points were determined according to the Codex guidelines for the application of the HACCP system by conducting hazard analysis. Hazard analysis involved proper examination of each processing step Distinguishing different types of inhomogeneity in Neyman-Scott point processes. The importance of topographically corrected null models for analyzing ecological point processes.

Analyses of point process patterns and related techniques e. Ecologists working with point process data often assume that points exist on a two-dimensional x-y plane or within a three-dimensional volume, when in fact many observed point patterns are generated on a two-dimensional surface existing within three-dimensional space. For many surfaces, however, such as the topography of landscapes, the projection from the surface to the x-y plane preserves neither area nor distance. As such, when these point patterns are implicitly projected to and analyzed in the x-y plane, our expectations of the point pattern's statistical properties may not be met.

When used in hypothesis testing, we find that the failure to account for the topography of the generating surface may bias statistical tests that incorrectly identify clustering and, furthermore, may bias coefficients in inhomogeneous point process models that incorporate slope as a covariate. We demonstrate the circumstances under which this bias is significant, and present simple methods that allow point processes to be simulated with corrections for topography.

These point patterns can then be used to generate "topographically corrected" null models against which observed point processes can be compared. Novel evaluation metrics for sparse spatio-temporal point process hotspot predictions - a crime case study. Many physical and sociological processes are represented as discrete events in time and space. These spatio-temporal point processes are often sparse, meaning that they cannot be aggregated and treated with conventional regression models.

Models based on the point process framework may be employed instead for prediction purposes. Evaluating the predictive performance of these models poses a unique challenge, as the same sparseness prevents the use of popular measures such as the root mean squ Efficient point cloud data processing in shipbuilding: Reformative component extraction method and registration method. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point. By experiments conducted at the shipyard, curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation.

Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice. Edit distance for marked point processes revisited: An implementation by binary integer programming. We implement the edit distance for marked point processes [Suzuki et al. Bifurcation Chaos 20, — ] as a binary integer program. Compared with the previous implementation using minimum cost perfect matching, the proposed implementation has two advantages: The cylindrical K-function and Poisson line cluster point processes.

Poisson line cluster point processes , is also introduced. Parameter estimation based on moment methods or Bayesian inference for this model is discussed when the underlying Poisson line process and the cluster memberships are treated as hidden processes. To illustrate the methodologies, we analyze two Bridging the gap between a stationary point process and its Palm distribution.

In the context of stationary point processes measurements are usually made from a time point chosen at random or from an occurrence chosen at random. In this paper an approach is presented to.

Hierarchical spatial point process analysis for a plant community with high biodiversity. A complex multivariate spatial point pattern of a plant community with high biodiversity is modelled using a hierarchical multivariate point process model. In the model, interactions between plants with different post-fire regeneration strategies are of key interest. We consider initially a maxim Definition of distance for nonlinear time series analysis of marked point process data. Marked point process data are time series of discrete events accompanied with some values, such as economic trades, earthquakes, and lightnings.

A distance for marked point process data allows us to apply nonlinear time series analysis to such data. We propose a distance for marked point process data which can be calculated much faster than the existing distance when the number of marks is small. Furthermore, under some assumptions, the Kullback—Leibler divergences between posterior distributions for neighbors defined by this distance are small. We performed some numerical simulations showing that analysis based on the proposed distance is effective.

POINT is a project about how indicators are used in practice; to what extent and in what way indicators actually influence, support, or hinder policy and decision making processes , and what could be done to enhance the positive role of indicators in such processes. The project needs an analytical Examples in Immunofluorescence Histology. We discuss Bayesian modelling and computational methods in analysis of indirectly observed spatial point processes.

The context involves noisy measurements on an underlying point process that provide indirect and noisy data on locations of point outcomes. We are interested in problems in which the spatial intensity function may be highly heterogenous, and so is modelled via flexible nonparametric Bayesian mixture models.

Analysis aims to estimate the underlying intensity function and the abundance of realized but unobserved points. Our motivating applications involve immunological studies of multiple fluorescent intensity images in sections of lymphatic tissue where the point processes represent geographical configurations of cells. We are interested in estimating intensity functions and cell abundance for each of a series of such data sets to facilitate comparisons of outcomes at different times and with respect to differing experimental conditions.

The analysis is heavily computational, utilizing recently introduced MCMC approaches for spatial point process mixtures and extending them to the broader new context here of unobserved outcomes. Further, our example applications are problems in which the individual objects of interest are not simply points , but rather small groups of pixels; this implies a need to work at an aggregate pixel region level and we develop the resulting novel methodology for this.

Two examples with with immunofluorescence histology data demonstrate the models and computational methodology. Some determinantal inequalities for Hadamard and Fan products of matrices. Characterization results and Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms including exact simulation for some spatial point processes.

The area-interaction process and the continuum random-cluster model are characterized in terms of certain functional forms of their respective conditional intensities. In certain cases, these two point process models can be derived from a bivariate point process model which in many respects Using this correspondence we devise a two-component Gibbs sampler, which can be used for fast and exact simulation by extending the recent ideas of Propp and Wilson. We further introduce a Swendsen-Wang type algorithm.

The relevance of the results within spatial statistics Full Text Available Tree detection and reconstruction is of great interest in large-scale city modelling. In this paper, we present a marked point process model to detect single trees from airborne laser scanning ALS data. Unlike traditional marked point process , we sample the model in a constraint configuration space by making use of image process techniques.

A Gibbs energy is defined on the model, containing a data term which judge the fitness of the model with respect to the data, and prior term which incorporate the prior knowledge of object layouts. We search the optimal configuration through a steepest gradient descent algorithm. The presented hybrid framework was test on three forest plots and experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Second-order analysis of structured inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes. Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy.

We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for first general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and second inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes. One is second-order spatio-temporal independence and relates e. Another concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data the UK epidemic foot and mouth disease data From point process observations to collective neural dynamics: Nonlinear Hawkes process GLMs, low-dimensional dynamics and coarse graining.

This review presents a perspective on capturing collective dynamics in recorded neuronal ensembles based on multivariate point process models, inference of low-dimensional dynamics and coarse graining of spatiotemporal measurements. A general probabilistic framework for continuous time point processes reviewed, with an emphasis on multivariate nonlinear Hawkes processes with exogenous inputs. A point process generalized linear model PP-GLM framework for the estimation of discrete time multivariate nonlinear Hawkes processes is described.

The approach is illustrated with the modeling of collective dynamics in neocortical neuronal ensembles recorded in human and non-human primates, and prediction of single-neuron spiking.

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A complementary approach to capture collective dynamics based on low-dimensional dynamics "order parameters" inferred via latent state-space models with point process observations is presented. The approach is illustrated by inferring and decoding low-dimensional dynamics in primate motor cortex during naturalistic reach and grasp movements.

Finally, we briefly review hypothesis tests based on conditional inference and spatiotemporal coarse graining for assessing collective dynamics in recorded neuronal ensembles. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Determination of the impact of RGB points cloud attribute quality on color-based segmentation process. Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the effect that radiometric quality of point cloud RGB attributes have on color-based segmentation.

The application was based on public Point Cloud Libraries PCL and allowed to extract subsets of points fulfilling the criteria of segmentation from the source point cloud using region growing method. Using the developed application, the segmentation of four tested point clouds containing different RGB attributes from various images was performed.

Evaluation of segmentation process was performed based on comparison of segments acquired using the developed application and extracted manually by an operator. The following items were compared: The best correctness of segmentation and most identified objects were obtained using the data with RGB attribute from Nikon D3X images. Based on the results it was found that quality of RGB attributes of point cloud had impact only on the number of identified objects.

In case of correctness of the segmentation, as well as its error no apparent relationship between the quality of color information and the result of the process was found. Probabilistic safety assessment and optimal control of hazardous technological systems. A marked point process approach. The thesis models risk management as an optimal control problem for a stochastic process.

The approach classes the decisions made by management into three categories according to the control methods of a point process: The approach is used for optimization of plant shutdown criteria and surveillance test strategies of a hypothetical nuclear power plant. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author. Apparatus and method for implementing power saving techniques when processing floating point values. An apparatus and method are described for reducing power when reading and writing graphics data.

For example, one embodiment of an apparatus comprises: Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed. Seed oil expression is an important economic venture in rural Nigeria. The traditional techniques of carrying out the operation is not only energy sapping and time consuming but also wasteful. In order to reduce the tedium involved in the expression of oil from moringa oleifera seed and develop efficient equipment for carrying out the operation, the oil point pressure of the seed was determined under different processing conditions using a laboratory press.

The processing conditions employed were moisture content 4. Results showed that the oil point pressure increased with increase in seed moisture content, but decreased with increase in heating temperature and heating time within the above ranges. Highest oil point pressure value of 1. The lowest oil point pressure obtained was 0. Tukey's test and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis successfully separated the means and a multiple regression equation was used to express the relationship existing between the oil point pressure of moringa oleifera seed and its moisture content, processing temperature, heating time and their interactions.

The model yielded coefficients that enabled the oil point pressure of the seed to be predicted with very high coefficient of determination. Linear and quadratic models of point process systems: In the 's Volterra characterised a nonlinear system using a functional series connecting continuous input and continuous output. Norbert Wiener, in the 's, circumvented problems associated with the application of Volterra series to physical problems by deriving from it a new series of terms that are mutually uncorrelated with respect to Gaussian processes.

Subsequently, Brillinger, in the 's, introduced a point-process analogue of Volterra's series connecting point-process inputs to the instantaneous rate of point-process output. We derive here a new series from this analogue in which its terms are mutually uncorrelated with respect to Poisson processes. This new series expresses how patterned input in a spike train, represented by third-order cross-cumulants, is converted into the instantaneous rate of an output point-process. Given experimental records of suitable duration, the contribution of arbitrary patterned input to an output process can, in principle, be determined.

Solutions for linear and quadratic point-process models with one and two inputs and a single output are investigated. Our theoretical results are applied to isolated muscle spindle data in which the spike trains from the primary and secondary endings from the same muscle spindle are recorded in response to stimulation of one and then two static fusimotor axons in the absence and presence of a random length change imposed on the parent muscle.

For a fixed mean rate of input spikes, the analysis of the experimental data makes explicit which patterns of two input spikes contribute to an output spike. The hydrological science requires the emergence of a consistent theoretical corpus driving the relationships between dominant physical processes at different spatial and temporal scales. However, the strong spatial heterogeneities and non-linearities of these processes make difficult the development of multiscale conceptualizations. Therefore, scaling understanding is a key issue to advance this science.

This work is focused on the use of virtual experiments to address the scaling of vertical infiltration from a physically based model at point scale to a simplified physically meaningful modeling approach at grid-cell scale. Numerical simulations have the advantage of deal with a wide range of boundary and initial conditions against field experimentation. The aim of the work was to show the utility of numerical simulations to discover relationships between the hydrological parameters at both scales, and to use this synthetic experience as a media to teach the complex nature of this hydrological process.

The Green-Ampt model was used to represent vertical infiltration at point scale; and a conceptual storage model was employed to simulate the infiltration process at the grid-cell scale. Lognormal and beta probability distribution functions were assumed to represent the heterogeneity of soil hydraulic parameters at point scale. The linkages between point scale parameters and the grid-cell scale parameters were established by inverse simulations based on the mass balance equation and the averaging of the flow at the point scale.

Results have shown numerical stability issues for particular conditions and have revealed the complex nature of the non-linear relationships between models' parameters at both scales and indicate that the parameterization of point scale processes at the coarser scale is governed by the amplification of non-linear effects. The findings of these simulations have been used by the students to identify potential research questions on scale issues. Putting to point the production process of iodine by dry distillation Preoperational tests. With the purpose of putting to point the process of production of I, one of the objectives of carrying out the realization of operational tests of the production process of iodine, it was of verifying the operation of each one of the following components: Emerging technologies, such as ultrasound US , used for food and drink production often cause hazards for product safety.

Classical quality control methods are inadequate to control these hazards. The report also sets forth, on an individual basis for each item, the remuneration for the executive duties entrusted to the executive directors of the Bank. All such information is contained in note 5 to the Group s annual accounts. The Rules and Regulations expressly include the duties of diligent management and loyalty and the duty to refrain from taking any action should the director come into the possession of inside or privileged information.

The duty of diligent management includes the directors duty to adequately inform themselves of the Bank s business and to dedicate the time and effort needed to effectively carry out their duties, and also to adopt the measures needed to ensure the sound management and control of the Bank. Some measures taken by the board The main new developments with regard to the previous policy are as follows: Alignment with the objectives announced at Investor day held in September ; a new set of objectives linked to variable remuneration which includes the four categories on which the Bank s strategy is based: Closer alignment with shareholder interests by setting a mandatory requirement for senior executives to invest in shares and increasing the weighting of remuneration pegged to long-term targets, specifically earnings per share, total shareholder return, capital targets and profitability: These changes are intended to: Streamlining the system of metrics and indicators so that only most relevant remain in the policy.

In relation to individual remuneration, increasing the weighting of corporate behaviours that reflect the Simple, Personal and Fair culture of the Santander Group Annual report. These transactions will require board authorisation, based on a favourable report from the audit committee, except for those cases where by law approval is required by the shareholders at the general shareholders meeting. All affected directors, those representing shareholders affected or who are related parties must abstain from the deliberation and voting on the resolution in question.

Such transactions will be evaluated from the point of view of equality of treatment and of market conditions, and will be included in the annual corporate governance report and in the periodic public information under the terms envisaged in applicable regulations. By way of exception, when advisable for reasons of urgency, related transactions may be authorised by the executive committee and subsequently ratified by the board. The audit committee has verified that all transactions completed with related parties during the year were fully compliant with the Rules and Regulations of the Board and did not require approval from the governing bodies; otherwise, approval was duly obtained following a positive report issued by the committee, once the agreed consideration and other terms and conditions were found to be within market parameters.

Control mechanisms As provided in the Rules and Regulations of the Board article 30 , directors must inform the board of any direct or indirect conflict of interest between their own interests, or those of their related parties, and those of the Bank. If the conflict relates to a transaction, the director may not carry it out without the approval of the board, following a report from the audit committee.

The director involved must abstain from participating in the discussion and voting on the transaction to which the conflict refers, the body in charge of resolving any disputes being the board of directors itself. In , there were 95 occasions in which directors abstained from participating in discussions and voting on matters at the meetings of the board of directors or of its committees.

The breakdown of the 95 cases is as follows: The board also has other committees with powers of supervision, information, advice and proposal the audit, appointments, remuneration, risk supervision, regulation and compliance, international, and innovation and technology committees. The committees of the board hold their meetings in accordance with an annual calendar and there is a suggested agenda of annual matters to be discussed for committees with supervisory powers. The board is tasked with promoting and encouraging communication between the various committees, especially between the risk supervision, regulation and compliance committee and the audit committee, and also between the former and the remuneration committee.

At the annual general shareholders meeting of 18 March , a proposal was put forward to amend articles 53, 54, Executive committee The executive committee is key to ensuring the proper functioning of the Bank s corporate governance, and that of its Group. It exercises by delegation all the powers of the board except those which cannot be delegated pursuant to the law, the Bylaws or the Rules and Regulations of the Board.

It reports to the board on the principal matters dealt with and resolutions adopted and provides directors with a copy of the minutes of its meetings. It generally meets once a week and in it held 52 meetings. There are currently eight directors sitting on the committee, four of whom are executive and the other four are non-executive, two of which are independent.

Its duties, composition and functioning are established in the Bylaws article 51 and in the Rules and Regulations of the Board article 14 Annual report Banco Santander s board of directors Audit committee The audit committee, among other functions, reviews the Group s financial information and its internal control systems, serves as a communication channel between the board and the external auditor, ensuring the independent exercise of the latter s duty, and supervises work regarding the Internal Audit function.

It typically meets on a monthly basis and met 10 times in As provided in the Bylaws article 53 and the Rules and Regulations of the Board article 16 , the committee must comprise nonexecutive directors, the majority of whom must be independent, including the chairman. The committee currently comprises four independent non-executive directors. Lastly, and so as to ensure that the audit committee exercises its decision-making powers properly when commissioning the external auditor to provide non-audit services, it was agreed at the audit committee meeting held on 20 April to approve the policy for approving non-audit services provided by the external auditor.

In line with the latest national and international practices, this policy contains the proper procedure for approving non-audit services provided by the Group s financial auditor, as well as the system governing the maximum fees payables. The committee must endorse any decision to arrange non-audit services insofar as not prohibited by applicable regulations, having first properly assessed any threats to the auditor s independence and the safeguard measures applied in accordance with said regulations.

Appointments committee The appointments committee, among other duties, proposes appointments of members of the board, including executive directors, and those of the other members of senior management and the Group s key personnel. The committee met on 10 occasions in The Bylaws article 54 and the Rules and Regulations of the Board article 17 state that this committee is also to be made up exclusively of non-executive directors and that its chairman and the majority of its members must be independent directors.

The committee currently comprises five non-executive directors, five of whom are independent. Remuneration committee Among other duties, the remuneration committee proposes the director remuneration policy to the board, drawing up the corresponding report, and proposes the remuneration of board members, including executive directors. It also proposes the remuneration of other members of senior management and draws up their remuneration policy. The committee met on nine occasions in The Bylaws article 54 bis and the Rules and Regulations of the Board arti-cle 17 bis state that the remuneration committee is also to be made up exclusively of non-executive directors and that its chairman and the majority of its members must be independent.

The committee currently comprises five non-executive directors, three of whom are independent. Risk supervision, regulation and compliance committee The risk supervision, regulation and compliance committee, among other duties, supports and advises the board on the definition and assessment of the risk strategy and policies and on its relationship with authorities and regulators in the various countries in which the Group has a presence, assists the board with its capital and liquidity strategy, and monitors compliance with the General Code of Conduct and, in general, with the Bank s governance rules and compliance and criminal risk prevention programmes.

Matters such as sustainability, communication and relations with the Bank s stakeholders, as well as matters regarding corporate governance and regulation, are also discussed at committee meetings. The committee met on 12 occasions in As provided in the Bylaws article 54 ter and the Rules and Regulations of the Board article 17 ter , the committee must be made up of non-executive directors, the majority of whom must be independent, including the chairman.

The committee currently comprises seven non-executive directors, five of whom are independent. International committee The international committee has the following functions article 17 of the Rules and Regulations of the Board: This committee comprises six directors, of whom three are executive and three are non-executive, one of which is independent Annual report. The international advisory board s objective is to provide strategic advice to the Group, with a special focus on innovation, digital transformation, cybersecurity and new technologies.

It also provides its views on trends in capital markets, corporate governance, brand and reputation, regulation and compliance, and global financial services with a customer-based approach. The board is expected to meet two times per year. The committee met on three occasions in This committee comprises nine directors, of whom four are executive and five are non-executive. Three of these five non-executive directors are independent. Additionally, all board members who are not also members of the executive committee may attend its meetings, whatever the chairman s reason is for calling such meeting.

In , directors with no seat on the executive committee attended an average of First meeting of the international advisory board held on 26 April in Boston US. Chairman Mr Larry Summers Former US Treasury Secretary and President Emeritus of Harvard University Members The audit, appointments, remuneration and risk supervision, regulation and compliance committees have prepared reports on their activities in The remuneration committee s report also includes the director remuneration policy.

The average attendance rate at board meetings in was No meetings held in Director since 27 September Withdrawal from position of director effective 27 September Innovation and technology International a The Bank continues to increase the role played by board committees by broadening their functions and arranging joint meetings to address matters that fall within the remit of more than one such committee. Improvements were made to the functioning of the board and its committees.

These include the use of devices and technological tools in order to make the documents relating to each item on the agenda available to board members, thereby enhancing their knowledge and awareness of the matters to be addressed, the ensuing discussions, and their ability to challenge any proposals or motions made by the directors Annual report Group structure and governance framework 4.

Group structure and governance framework The structure of the Santander Group is one of a model of subsidiaries whose parent is Banco Santander, S. The Santander Group s subsidiaries model has the following features: The governing bodies of each subsidiary shall see to it that their company is managed rigorously and prudently, while ensuring their economic solvency and upholding the interests of their shareholders and other stakeholders.

Management of the subsidiaries is a local affair carried out by local management teams who provide immense knowledge and experience in relation to local customers and markets, while also benefiting from the synergies and advantages of belonging to the Santander Group. The subsidiaries are subject to the regulation and supervision of their respective local authorities, without prejudice to the global supervision of the Group by the European Central Bank.

Customer funds are secured by virtue of the deposit guarantee funds in place in the relevant country. Subsidiaries finance themselves autonomously when it comes to both capital and liquidity. The Group s capital and liquidity positions are coordinated by the corporate committees. Intragroup exposure is limited and transparent and any such transactions are invariably arranged under arm s length conditions. Moreover, the Group has listed subsidiaries in certain countries, in which it always retains a controlling stake.

The subsidiaries autonomy limits the contagion risk between the Group s different units, which reduces systemic risk. Each subsidiary has its own resolution plan. The corporate centre adds value to the Group by: Making the Group s governance more robust, through policies, models and control frameworks that allow the Group to implement corporate criteria and ensure effective supervision over the Group. Making the Group s units more efficient by unlocking cost management synergies, economies of scale and achieving a common brand. Sharing the best commercial practices, focusing on global connectivity, launching global commercial initiatives and fostering digitalisation.

On the governing bodies of the subsidiaries, where the Group has devised rules and procedures regulating the structure, composition, make-up and functioning of the boards and their committees audit, appointments, remuneration and risks , in accordance with international standards and good governance practices, as well as other rules and regulations concerning the appointment, remuneration and succession planning of members of governing bodies.

Between the CEOs Chief Executive Officers and country heads and the Group and between the officers and teams deemed fit to exercise control functions within the Group and at the subsidiaries: It also explains how Group officers and their counterparts at the subsidiaries should liaise and interact. The way of exercising oversight and control by the Group over the subsidiaries. The Group is convinced of the need to establish an organisational structure that includes a proper and clear separation of functions, with well-defined responsibilities that are both transparent and consistent so as to ensure the healthy and prudent management of the Group and all its companies.

The Group relies on a risk management and control model based on three lines of defence: There is a sufficient degree of segregation between the risk control function, the compliance function and the internal audit function, and also between them and other functions which control or supervise them. The risks control function, the compliance function and the internal audit function are headed by the following group chief executives, each of whom has independent and direct access to the directors and committees for the purpose of reporting on their verification and inspection work.

Furthermore, and given the Group s structure, a further two functions are considered relevant at Group level, entrusted with financial control functions. Reporting directly to the Group s chief executive officer, they are themselves headed by a group chief executive: Financial Accounting and Control function: The Group s involvement in certain of the subsidiaries important decisions, as well as the subsidiaries involvement in the Group s decision-making processes. The aforementioned governance model and corporate frameworks effectively comprise the internal governance framework and have been approved by the board of directors of Banco Santander, S.

Separate decision-making functions from control functions; Strengthen the responsibility of the first line of defence in decision-making; Ensure that all decisions concerning risk follow a formal approval process. Ensure there is an overall vision of all types of risks, including those outside the scope of control of the risk function. Strengthen the role of risk control committees, affording them additional powers.

To simplify the committee structure. There are currently two internal risk committees not specifically envisaged in the Bylaws: This organisational model is compliant with best risk governance practices. The Bank s risk supervision, regulation and compliance committee was set up in June with general powers to support and advise the board of directors on risk supervision and control, on determining the Group s risk policies, on relations with supervisory authorities, on regulation and compliance, corporate social responsibility and corporate governance.

This committee held 12 meetings in , the estimated time devoted by each member of the committee to preparing and taking part in those meetings was approximately 10 hours per meeting. The executive committee held 52 meetings in and devoted a very significant amount of its time to discussions on the Group s risks. The audit committee met 10 times in , the estimated time devoted by each member of the committee to preparing and taking part in those meetings was approximately 10 hours per meeting, it received the report of the head of internal audit and discussed matters relating to conduct risk and the financial reporting process Annual report.

No defensive mechanisms in the Bylaws The Bank does not have any defensive mechanisms in the Bylaws, fully conforming to the principle of one share, one vote, one dividend. The Bylaws of Banco Santander provide for only one class of shares common shares , granting all holders thereof the same rights. There are no non-voting or multiple-voting shares, or shares giving preferential treatment in the distribution of dividends, or shares that limit the number of votes that can be cast by a single shareholder, or quorum requirements or qualified majorities other than those established by law.

Any individual is eligible for a director position, subject, exclusively, to the limitations established by law. The forum, which the Bank has set up on the corporate website allows shareholders to post supplementary proposals to the agenda announced in the call notice, along with requests for support for those proposals, initiatives aimed at reaching the percentage required to exercise any of the minority shareholder rights provided for at law, as well as offers or requests to act as a voluntary proxy.

Furthermore, remote attendance at the shareholders meetings has been made possible and shareholders are now able to exercise their information and voting rights in real time. Quorum at annual general shareholders meetings The following data are expressed as percentages of the Bank s share capital at the date of the annual general shareholders meeting: Of this percentage 0.

The percentage of share capital that granted proxies through the Internet was 1. Of this percentage At that meeting, 12 of the board s 15 directors at that date exercised, in accordance with article of the Spanish Corporate Enterprises Act, the right to vote on behalf of a total of 6,,, shares, equivalent to the same number of votes, the breakdown being as follows: In addition, Shareholder Relations maintained direct contact with the Bank s main shareholders during the year to offer them information on Group policies relating to sustainability and governance.

During the event, the senior management reviewed the objectives presented at the Investor Day in relation to both the Group and its main business units. Over delegates took part in the various Group Strategy Update events, including the Group s main analysts and investors. In line with CNMV recommendations, announcements of meetings to be held with analysts and investors and the documentation to be used at those meetings are published sufficiently in advance.

This policy is published on the Group s corporate website The policy contains the general principles governing communication and contact between the Bank and its shareholders, institutional investors and proxy advisors. It also explains the main channels and procedures in a bid to improve the Bank s existing relations with those stakeholders. In accordance with the principles of transparency, equal treatment and protection of shareholder interests and within the framework of the new Simple, Personal and Fair culture, the Bank makes available to its shareholders and investors the information and communication channels set out in the Shareholder section of this annual report.

Information on 31 December Subsequent to that date it was announced: Those appointments are subject, where appropiate, to clearance of supervisor. To whom the Group Chief Risk Officer reports. This appointment is subject authorisation and other formalities Annual report Transparency and independence Santander has been included in the DJSI and FTSE4Good indices since and , respectively, and its corporate governance model is recognised by socially responsible investment indices.

To such end, this information is reviewed by the audit committee prior to being released. Other relevant information Pursuant to the provisions of the Code of Conduct in Securities Markets, the Compliance area is responsible for informing the CNMV of the relevant information generated in the Group.

Such communication is simultaneous to the release of relevant information to the market or to the media and occurs as soon as the decision in question is made or the resolution in question has been signed or carried out. Relevant information shall be disseminated in a true, clear, complete and equitable fashion and on a timely basis and, whenever practicable, such information shall be quantified.

In , the Bank published 57 significant events, which are available on the Group s corporate website and from the website of the CNMV Relationship with the auditor Independence of the auditor In line with good corporate governance recommendations regarding the rotation of the external auditor, the annual general shareholders meeting held on 18 March agreed to designate PricewaterhouseCoopers Auditores, S.

In addition, the Rules and Regulations of the Board imposes certain restrictions when arranging non-audit services with the audit firm insofar these could jeopardise the independence of the auditor. In this regard, the audit committee must approve such services. They also require the board to make public the overall fees paid by the Bank to the auditor for non-audit services.

The information for is contained in note 48 to the Group s annual accounts. The Rules and Regulations of the Board set out the mechanisms used to prepare the accounts so as to ensure that an unqualified audit report is eventually issued. Nevertheless, the Bylaws and the Rules and Regulations also provide that, whenever the board believes that its opinion must prevail, it shall provide an explanation, through the chairman of the audit committee, of the content and scope of the discrepancy and shall endeavour to ensure that the auditor issue a report in this regard.

The financial statements of the Bank and of the consolidated Group for are submitted without qualifications. At its meeting of 15 February , the audit committee received written confirmation from the external auditor of its independence in respect of the Bank and the entities directly or indirectly related thereto, as well as information regarding additional services of any kind provided to such entities by the auditors or by entities related thereto, in accordance with that provided in legislation governing financial audits.

At that same meeting, the audit committee issued a report expressing a favourable opinion regarding the independence of the external auditors and reporting, among other matters, on the provision of additional services as mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The report, which was issued prior to the financial audit report, can be viewed on the Group s corporate website as part of the annual report on the activities of the audit committee Annual report Goals for The Bylaws, the Rules and Regulations for the General Shareholders Meeting and the Rules and Regulations of the Board were amended in to bring them in line with both legislative changes and best practices in corporate governance.

Banco Santander follows the good governance recommendations and best practices for credit institutions, such as the corporate governance principles for banks of the Basel Committee and the recommendations of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and also takes into account the good governance codes of the stock markets on which its shares are listed. The Group s website, which is presented with specific sections for institutional investors and shareholders and can be viewed in Spanish, English and Portuguese, receives approximately , visits per week.

The information available on such website includes: The Rules and Regulations of the Board. The composition of the board and its committees. Professional profiles and other information on the directors. The annual corporate governance report and the annual report on director remuneration. The Code of Conduct in Securities Markets. The General Code of Conduct. The reports of the board committees. Pillar III disclosures report. The call notice for the annual general shareholders meeting may be viewed as from the date of publication thereof, together with the information relating thereto, which shall include the proposed resolutions and mechanisms for exercising rights to receive information, to grant proxies and to vote, including an explanation of the mechanisms for exercising such rights by means of data transmission and the rules applicable to the electronic shareholders forum that the Bank will make available on the Group s corporate website Annual report.

Goals for The board s goals for with regard to corporate governance are as follows: Disseminating the culture and corporate values of Simple, Personal and Fair across the entire organisation. Consolidating the governance model so as to further strengthen the relations between the parent bank and its subsidiaries, especially with regard to corporate governance, ensuring gradual implementation of the model at all of the Group s main units.

The purpose here is to ensure the consistency and soundness of decision-making processes, control systems, information flows and control mechanisms on a Group scale. Consolidating interaction between board members, especially between non-executive directors and the management team. Arranging and encouraging joint meetings between the risk supervision, regulation and compliance committee and the audit committee, and also between the former and the remuneration committee, so as to ensure an effective and efficient exchange of information and proper coverage of all risks.

Incorporate into the functioning of the board the improvements resulting from the self-assessment process by counteracting the growing number of matters the board must address -especially regulatory affairs- with an agile and effective system for making well-informed decisions Annual report A Espanha e Portugal, por sua vez, ainda se encontram em processo de desalavancagem e os E. Rigoroso controle de despesas pelo terceiro ano consecutivo.

As dez principais unidades cresceram. Os impactos foram muito diferentes nas principais unidades do Grupo: Em foram realizadas por diferentes unidades do Grupo: Aumento em todos os trimestres do ano. O crescimento teve uma ampla base, mas apoiou-se novamente na demanda interna. Isso se reflete em: Continuamos liderando os segmentos de banco de atacado e private banking. Potencializar os canais digitais. Promovemos os canais digitais, melhorando o nosso banco digital mediante: Crescer acima dos concorrente em volumes, ganhando cota de mercado. A demanda interna se manteve e a taxa de desemprego continuou caindo.

O Banco da Inglaterra minimizou o impacto da incerteza provocada pelo voto no referendo da U. Para tanto, em Isso leva a um crescimento de mais de clientes vinculados, empresas e PMEs em doze meses. O crescimento foi moderado, quando medido em termos reais. Isso sugere que o PIB esteja a ponto de recuperar taxas de crescimento positivas.

Bom desempenho dos indicadores de qualidade dos ativos: Esse aumento foi afetado pela maior taxa fiscal. Crescer significativamente em recursos de clientes, especialmente em fundos de investimento. Melhorar a rentabilidade do Santander Bank. Com tudo isso, o Centro Corporativo aporta valor ao Grupo de diversas maneiras: Equity Follow-On of the Year: Pillars of the risk function B.

determinantal point processes: Topics by qexefiducusu.tk

Risk control and management model - Advanced Risk Management B1. Risk map B2. Risk governance B3. Management processes and tools B4. Risk culture - Risk Pro C. Background and upcoming challenges D. Risk profile D1. Credit risk D2. Trading market risk and structural risks D3. Liquidity risk and funding D4. Operational risk D5. Compliance and conduct risk D6. Model risk D7.

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Strategic risk D8. Capital risk Appendix: A risk culture integrated throughout the organisation, comprising attitudes, values, skills and guidelines for action to cope with all risks. Business strategy determined by a comprehensive review of risk appetite. Forward-looking vision of all risk types.

Independence of risk function from business functions. Best in class for processes and infrastructure. Risks managed by units which generate them, using advanced models and tools. Significant geographic and sector diversification. Continuing improvement in main credit quality indicators, which at December stood at: Group NPL ratio falls further to 3. Annual provisions are down to EUR 9, million, with the biggest reduction in Spain. Cost of credit drops to 1.

Trading market risk and structural risks pages to Due to customer service operations and geographical diversification, average VaR in the SGCB trading business remains at low levels. An appropriate balance sheet structure ensures that the impact of changes in interest rates on net interest income and equity value are contained. The liquidity reserve amounted to EUR , million. Market environment similar to in terms of costs, although because of the ECB s and BoE s monetary policies, there has been less use of medium and long-term wholesale funding: Non-financial risks pages to Operational risk Transformation project for the advanced measurement approach to risk.

Investing in measures against cyber-risk, data security and fraud. Roll-out of new risk self-assessment process and controls throughout the organisation. Compliance and conduct risk Increased consumer protection not only driven by regulatory requirements but also reinforced with our internal policies aligned to SPF culture. Development of reputational risk model and elements used to mitigate it. New challenges associated with digitalisation. Santander demonstrated great resilience, due to its retail and commercial banking model and geographic diversification.

In the adverse scenario, Santander is the bank wich destroys the least capital among its peers Annual report The report also provides details of the actions taken by the entity to minimise the occurrence of such risks and mitigate their severity. Following best practice in the market, the following navigation map is a guide to the main issues addressed in this risk management report through the various documents the Group publishes: To further foster transparency, the PRR also includes a glossary of the basic risk terminology used in this section and the PRR itself.

The appendix to the risk management report includes a table indicating the location of the recommendations of the EDTF Enhanced Disclosure Task Force, fostered by the Financial Stability Board in the information published by Grupo Santander Annual report. Business continuity plan Pag. Risk control and management model - Advanced Risk Management C. Pillars of the risk function Seeking to achieve excellence in risk management has been a priority for Grupo Santander throughout its year history. In , it continued to evolve to stay one step ahead of economic, social and regulatory changes affecting its activities.

Through its forward-looking risk management, Grupo Santander ensures it maintains robust control whilst continuing to build its future. Risk management is one of the key functions in ensuring that the Group remains a robust, safe and sustainable bank, trusted by its employees, customers, shareholders and society as a whole.