Diplomatic Missions (1498-1527)
Starting out as a clerk, he quickly rose in the ranks because he understood balance of power issues involved in many of his diplomatic missions. His political pursuits quickly ended after he was imprisoned by the Medici family. He is best known for The Prince, his guide to power attainment and cutthroat leadership. He also wrote poetry and plays, including a comedy named Mandragola. He died on June 21, at the age of Heralded as one of the founders of modern political science, and more specifically political ethics, he was for many years an official in the Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance.
Heralded as one of the founders of modern political science, and more specifically political ethics, he was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs, He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. She was the second child of Wikramawardhana by a concubine who was the daughter of Wirabhumi. The reign of Suhita was the second time Majapahit was reigned by a queen regnant after her great grandmother Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi.
Her reign is immortalized in Javanese legend of Damarwulan , as it involves a maiden queen named Prabu Kenya in the story, and during Suhita's reign there was a war with Blambangan as stated in the legend. In , Suhita died and was succeeded by Kertawijaya , her brother. After Kertawijaya died, Bhre Pamotan became a king with formal name Rajasawardhana.
He died in A three-year kingless period was possibly the result of a succession. Girisawardhana , son of Kertawijaya, came to power in He died in and was succeeded by Singhawikramawardhana. In Prince Kertabhumi rebelled against Singhawikramawardhana, promoting himself as the king of Majapahit. Singhawikramawardhana continued his rule until he was succeeded by his son Girindrawardhana Ranawijaya in In the western part of the crumbling empire, Majapahit found itself unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca that in the midth century began to gain effective control of Malacca Strait and expand its influence to Sumatra.
Several other former Majapahit vassals and colonies began to release themselves from Majapahit domination and suzerainty. But Kertabhumi managed to reverse this event, under his rule he allied Majapahit with Muslim merchants, giving them trading rights on the north coast of Java, with Demak as its centre and in return he asked for their loyalty to Majapahit. This policy boosted the Majapahit treasury and power but weakened Hindu-Buddhism as its main religion because Islam spread faster. Hindu-Buddhist followers' grievances later paved the way for Ranawijaya to defeat Kertabumi.
Dates for the end of the Majapahit Empire range from that is, Saka , the ends of centuries being considered a time when changes of dynasty or courts normally ended  pp37 and to Demak sent reinforcements under Sunan Ngudung , who later died in battle and was replaced by Sunan Kudus , but they came too late to save Kertabumi although they managed to repel the Ranawijaya army. This event is mentioned in Trailokyapuri Jiwu and Petak inscription, where Ranawijaya claimed that he already defeated Kertabhumi and reunited Majapahit as one Kingdom.
This event led to the war between the Sultanate of Demak and Daha , since Demak rulers were descendants of Kertabhumi.
In , there was a turning point when Girindrawardhana was deposed by his vice regent, Udara. After this coup, the war between Demak and Daha receded, with some sources saying Raden Patah , Sultan of Demak, left Majapahit alone as his father had done before, while others said Udara agreed to become a vassal of Demak, even marrying Raden Patah's youngest daughter. In the west, Malacca was captured by Portuguese in The delicate balance between Demak and Daha ended when Udara asked Portugal for help in Malacca and forced Demak to attack both Malacca and Daha under Adipati Yunus to end this alliance.
The refugees probably fled to avoid Demak retribution for their support for Ranawijaya against Kertabhumi. With the fall of Daha, crushed by Demak in ,  pp36—37 the Muslim emerging forces finally defeated the remnants of the Majapahit kingdom in the early 16th century. Another argument supports Demak as the successor of Majapahit; the rising Demak sultanate was easily accepted as the nominal regional ruler, as Demak was the former Majapahit vassal and located near the former Majapahit realm in Eastern Java.
Demak established itself as the regional power and the first Islamic sultanate in Java.
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After the fall of Majapahit, the Hindu kingdoms in Java only remained in Blambangan on the eastern edge and Pajajaran in the western part. Gradually Hindu communities began to retreat to the mountain ranges in East Java and also to the neighbouring island of Bali. A small enclave of Hindu communities still remain in the Tengger mountain range. The main event of the administrative calendar took place on the first day of the month of Caitra March—April when representatives from all territories paying tax or tribute to Majapahit came to the capital to pay court. Majapahit's territories were roughly divided into three types: The capital Trowulan , was grand and known for its great annual festivities.
Buddhism , Shaivism , and Vaishnavism were all practised: The Nagarakretagama does not mention Islam , but there were certainly Muslim courtiers by this time. The first European record about Majapahit came from the travel log of the Italian Mattiussi , a Franciscan monk. Sumatra, Java, and Banjarmasin in Borneo, between — He was sent by the Pope to launch a mission into the Asian interiors. He then headed to Nicobar island all the way to Sumatra, before visiting Java and Banjarmasin. He returned to Italy by land through Vietnam, China, all the way through the silkroad to Europe in In his book he mentioned that he visited Java without explaining the exact place he had visited.
He said that king of Java ruled over seven other kings vassals. He also mentioned that in this island was found a lot of clove , cubeb , nutmeg and many other spices. He mentioned that the King of Java had an impressive, grand, and luxurious palace. The stairs and palace interior were coated with gold and silver, and even the roofs were gilded. He also recorded that the kings of the Mongol had repeatedly tried to attack Java, but always ended up in failure and managed to be sent back to the mainland. The Javanese kingdom mentioned in this record is Majapahit, and the time of his visit is between — during the reign of Jayanegara.
In Yingya Shenglan — a record about Zheng He 's expedition — Ma Huan describes the culture, customs, various social and economic aspects of Chao-Wa Java during Majapahit period. He describes his travel to Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan Tuban where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong and Chou Chang. Then he sailed east to thriving new trading town of Ko-erh-hsi Gresik , Su-pa-erh-ya Surabaya , and then sailing inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the river port of Chang-ku Changgu.
There are about or foreign families resides in this place, with seven or eight leaders to serve the king. The climate is constantly hot, like summer. Additional silk rope is looped around the waist as a belt, and the belt is inserted with one or two short blades, called pu-la-t'ou belati or more precisely kris dagger , walking barefoot.
When travelling outside, the king riding an elephant or an ox-drawn carriage. They wore clothing on the upper body and wrapped unstitched fabrics around the bottom part, [v] Men from a boy aged three to elders slipped pu-la-t'ou dagger in their belt. The dagger, made entirely of steel with intricate motifs smoothly drawn. Majapahit people, men and women, favoured their head. When the one being stabbed was wounded and dead, the murderer will flee and hide for three days, then he will not lose his life.
But if he was caught during the fight, he will instantly stabbed to death execution by stabbing. The country of Majapahit knows no caning for major or minor punishment. They tied the guilty men on his hands in the back with rattan rope and paraded them, and then stabbed the offender in the back where there is a floating rib which resulted in instant death.
Population of the country did not have a bed or chair to sit, and to eat they do not use a spoon or chopsticks. Men and women enjoy chewing betel nut mixed with, betel leaves, and white chalk made from ground mussels shells. When receiving guests, they will offer the guests, not the tea, but with betel nut. The population consisted of Muslim merchants from the west Arab and Muslim Indians, but mostly those from Muslim states in Sumatra , Chinese claimed to be descendants of Tang dynasty , and unrefined locals.
The king held annual jousting tournaments. While the bride is a matted-hair woman, with uncovered body and barefooted. She wraps herself in embroidered silk, wears a necklace around her neck adorned with gold beads, and bracelets on her wrist with ornaments of gold, silver and other precious ornaments. Family, friends and neighbours decorate a decorative boat with betel leaf, areca nut, reeds and flowers were sewn, and arrange a party to welcome the couple on such a festive occasion.
When the groom arrives home, the gong and drum are sounded, they will drink wine possibly arack or tuak and play music. After a few days the festivities end. About the burial rituals, the dead body was left on beach or empty land to be devoured by dogs for lower-class , cremated, or committed into the waters Javanese: The upper-class performed suttee , a ritual suicide by widowed wives, concubines or female servants, through self immolation by throwing themselves into flaming cremation fire.
In this record, Ma Huan also describes a musical troupes travelling during full moon nights. Numbers of people holding shoulders creating an unbroken line while singing and chanting in unison, while the families whose houses being visited would give them copper coins or gifts. He also describes a class of artisans that draws various images on paper and give a theatrical performance. The narrator tells the story of legends, tales and romance drawn upon a screen of rolled paper.
The literature of Majapahit was the continuation of Javanese Kawi Hindu-Buddhist scholarly tradition that produces kakawin poem that has been developed in Java since the 9th century Medang Mataram era, all the way through Kadiri and Singhasari periods. Notable Javanese literary works dated from earlier period, such as Kadiri's 11th century Kanwa's Arjunawiwaha , 12th century Dharmaja's Smaradahana , Sedah's Bharatayuddha , Panuluh's Hariwangsa also popular Panji cycles are continuously preserved and rewritten by Rakawi Hindu-Buddhist poet or scholar in Majapahit era.
Notable literary works that was produced in Majapahit period among others are Prapanca's Nagarakretagama , Tantular's Sutasoma , and Tantu Pagelaran. Popular tale of Sri Tanjung and Damarwulan also dated from Majapahit period. These Old Javanese kakawins were written and composed by Rakawis poets to worship the king or the gods whose incarnation the king represented.
Nagarakretagama composed by Prapanca in is a vital source of premier historical account of Majapahit historiography. While Sutasoma is an important literature for modern Indonesian nationhood, since the national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika , which is usually translated as Unity in Diversity , was taken from a pupuh canto of this manuscript. Originally, the poem was meant to promote the religious tolerance between the Hindu and Buddhist religions, specifically promote the syncretic Shiva-Buddha doctrine.
There is no paper or pen, they use Chiao-chang kajang or palm leaf lontar , written by scraping it with a sharp knife. They also have a developed language system and grammar. The way the people talk in this country is very beautiful and soft.http://eylabs.net/editor/221/zycom-conocer-hombres.php
Unlike the earlier naturalistic, relaxed and flowing figures of classical Central Java style Sailendra art c. The bas-reliefs were projected rather flat from the background. This style was later preserved in Balinese art, especially in its classical paintings and Balinese wayang. The statues of Hindu gods and Buddhist deities in Majapahit art were also the continuisation of its previous Singhasari art. The statues of East Javanese period tends to be stiffer and frontal-formal pose, compared to the statues of Central Javanese art c.
The stiffer pose of Majapahit gods statues are probably in accordance to the statue's function as the deified portrayal self of the dead Majapahit monarch. The carving however, are richly decorated, especially with fine floral carving of lotus plants carved on the stela behind the statue. Examples of Majapahit statues are the Harihara statue from Simping temple, believed to be the deified portrayal of King Kertarajasa , the statue of Parwati believed to be the portrayal of Queen Tribhuwana , and statue of queen Suhita discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java.
Clay pottery and brick masonry are popular feature in Majapahit art and architecture. The Majapahit Terracotta art also flourished in this period. Significant numbers of terracotta artefacts were discovered in Trowulan. The artefacts ranges from human and animal figurines, jars, vessels, water containers, piggy banks , bas reliefs, architectural ornaments, roof pinnacles, floor tiles, to pipes and roof tiles. One of the most interesting findings is Majapahit piggy bank. Several boar-shaped piggy banks has been discovered in Trowulan.
It is probably the origin of Javanese-Indonesian word to refer for saving or money container. The word celengan in Javanese and Indonesian means both "savings" and "piggy bank". It was derived from the word celeng which means "wild boar", the suffix "-an" was added to denote its likeness. One important specimen is stored in National Museum of Indonesia, it has been reconstructed since this large piggy bank has been found broken to pieces. Terracotta money boxes also has been found in different shapes, such as tubular or boxes, with slits to slip coins.
Another important terracotta artefact is the head figurine of a man popularly thought to be the depiction of Gajah Mada, although it is not certain about who was depicted in these figurines. He describes the king's palace in Majapahit. The king's palace was a two-storey building, each of them 3 or 4 chang high 9— It had wooden plank floors and exposed mats made from rattan or reeds presumably palm leaves , where people sat cross-legged.
The roof was made of hardwood shingles Javanese: The houses of commoners had thatched roofs nipa palm leaves. Every family has a storage shed made of bricks, about 3 or 4 Ch'ih The Majapahit temple architecture follows the east Javanese styles, in contrast of earlier central Javanese style.
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This east Javanese temple style is also dated back from Kediri period c. The shapes of Majapahit temples are tends to be slender and tall, with roof constructed from multiple parts of stepped sections formed a combined roof structure curved upward smoothly creating the perspective illussion that the temple is perceived taller than its actual height.
The pinnacle of the temples are usually cube mostly Hindu temples , sometimes dagoba cylindrical structures Buddhist temples. Although some of temples dated from Majapahit period used andesite or sandstone , the red bricks is also a popular construction material. Although brick had been used in the candi of Indonesia's classical age, it was Majapahit architects of the 14th and 15th centuries who mastered it. Jabung temple was mentioned in Nagarakretagama as Bajrajinaparamitapura, despite some parts of its roof and pinnacles are now missing, it is one of the most well-preserved Majapahit temple architecture.
Another example include Gunung Gangsir temple near Pasuruan. Some of the temples are dated from earlier period but renovated and expanded during Majapahit era, such as Penataran , the largest temple in East Java dated back to Kediri era. This temple was identified in Nagarakretagama as Palah temple and reported being visited by King Hayam Wuruk during his royal tour across East Java. Another notable temple of Eastern Javanese style is Jawi temple in Pandaan — also visited by King Hayam Wuruk, the temple was mentioned in Nagarakretagama as Jajawa, and was dedicated as mortuary temple for his great grandfather, King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Some of typical architectural style are believed to be developed during Majapahit era; such as tall and slender roofed red brick gate commonly called as kori agung or paduraksa , and also split gate of candi bentar. The large split gate of Wringin Lawang located at Jatipasar, Trowulan, Mojokerto, East Java, is one of the oldest and the largest surviving candi bentar dated from Majapahit era.
The candi bentar took shape of typical Majapahit temple structure — consists of three parts; foot, body and tall roof — evenly split into two mirroring structures to make a passage in the centre for people to walk through. This type of split gate has no doors and provides no real defensive purpose but narrowing the passage. It was probably only serve the ceremonial and aesthetic purpose, to create the sense of grandeur, before entering the next compound through tall roof paduraksa gate with enclosed door.
The example of kori agung or paduraksa style gate is the elegant Bajang Ratu gate richly decorated with Kala demon, cyclops and also the bas-relief telling the story of Sri Tanjung. Those typical Majapahit architectural style has deeply influenced the Javanese and Balinese architecture of later period. The current prevalence of Majapahit style pendopo pavilion, candi bentar and paduraksa gates, was owed to the influence of Majapahit aesthetics on Javanese and Balinese architecture.
In later period near the fall of Majapahit, the art and architecture of Majapahit witnessed the revival of indigenous native Austronesian megalithic architectural elements , such as Sukuh and Cetho temples on western slopes of Mount Lawu. Unlike previous Majapahit temples that demonstrate typical Hindu architecture of high-rise towering structure, the shape of these temples are step pyramid , quite similar to Mesoamerican pyramids.
The stepped pyramid structure called Punden Berundak stepped mounds is a common megalithic structure during Indonesian prehistoric era before the adoption of Hindu-Buddhist culture. Rice is harvested twice a year, and its grain is small. They also harvest white sesame and lentils, but there is no wheat. This land produces sapan wood useful to produce red dye , diamond, sandalwood, incense, puyang pepper, cantharides green beetles used for medicine , steel, turtles, tortoise shell, strange and rare birds; such as a large parrot as big as a hen, red and green parrots, five-colored parrots, all of them can imitate the human voice , also guinea fowl, ' bird hanging upside down ', five-coloured pigeon, peacock, 'betel tree bird', pearl bird, and green pigeons.
The beasts here are strange: Pigs, goats, cattle, horses, poultries, and there are all types of ducks, however donkeys and geese are not found. For the fruits, there are all kinds of bananas, coconut, sugarcane, pomegranate, lotus, mang-chi-shi manggis or mangosteen , watermelon and lang Ch'a langsat or lanzones. Mang-chi-shi — is something like a pomegranate, peel it like an orange, it has four lumps of white flesh, sweet and sour taste and very delicious.
Sugarcane has white stems, large and coarse, with roots reaching 3 chang 30 feet 7 inches. In addition, all types of squash and vegetables are there, just a shortage of peach, plum and leek. Taxes and fines were paid in cash. Javanese economy had been partly monetised since the late 8th century, using gold and silver coins.
Previously, the 9th-century Wonoboyo hoard discovered in Central Java shows that ancient Javan gold coins were seed-shaped, similar to corn, while the silver coins were similar to buttons.
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In about the year , in the reign of Majapahit's first king, an important change took place: This was a role for which gold and silver are not well suited. The hole was meant to tie together the money in a string of coins. These small changes—the imported Chinese copper coins—enabled Majapahit further invention, a method of savings by using a slitted earthenware coin containers.
These are commonly found in Majapahit ruins, the slit is the small opening to put the coins in. The most popular shape is boar-shaped celengan piggy bank. Some idea of scale of the internal economy can be gathered from scattered data in inscriptions. The Canggu inscriptions dated mentions 78 ferry crossings in the country mandala Java.
Although many of these occupations had existed in earlier times, the proportion of the population earning an income from non-agrarian pursuits seems to have become even greater during the Majapahit era. The great prosperity of Majapahit was probably due to two factors. Firstly, the northeast lowlands of Java were suitable for rice cultivation , and during Majapahit's prime numerous irrigation projects were undertaken, some with government assistance. Secondly, Majapahit's ports on the north coast were probably significant stations along the route to obtain the spices of Maluku , and as the spices passed through Java they would have provided an important source of income for Majapahit.
The Nagarakretagama states that the fame of the ruler of Wilwatikta a synonym for Majapahit attracted foreign merchants from far and wide, including Indians, Khmers, Siamese, and Chinese among others. While in later period, Yingya Shenglan mentioned that large numbers of Chinese traders and Muslim merchants from west from Arab and India, but mostly from Muslim states in Sumatra and Malay peninsula are settling in Majapahit port cities, such as Tuban, Gresik and Hujung Galuh Surabaya. A special tax was levied against some foreigners, possibly those who had taken up semi-permanent residence in Java and conducted some type of enterprise other than foreign trade.
During the reign of Hayam Wuruk , Majapahit employed a well-organised bureaucratic structure for administrative purposes. The hierarchy and structure relatively remain intact and unchanged throughout Majapahit history. The king holds the highest political authority and legitimacy. During his daily administration, the king is assisted by bureaucratic state officials that also included the close relatives of the kings that hold certain esteemed titles.
The royal order or edict usually transmitted from the king to the high officials well to their subordinates. The officials in Majapahit courts are:. Within the ministers of Rakryan Mantri ri Pakira-kiran there is the most important and the highest minister titled Rakryan Mapatih or Patih Hamangkubhumi. This position is analogous to prime minister , and together with king, they determine the important state policies, including war or peace.
Among the Dharmmadhyaksa officials there is Dharmmadhyaksa ring Kasewan State's highest Hindu Shivaist priest and Dharmmadhyaksa ring Kasogatan State's highest Buddhist priest , both are the religious laws authorities of each dharmic faiths. There is also the board of advisors which consists of the elders within royal family called Bhattara Saptaprabhu. This council consists of seven influential elders—mostly directly related to the king.
They are the Bhres Duke or Duchess acted as regional kings, the rulers of Majapahit provinces. This council congregates, offers advice, gave consideration to the king, and often formed an assembly to judge a certain important case in the court. Example of their office was, their sentence to temporarily suspend Mahamantri Gajah Mada, as a punishment since he was held responsible for the shamefully disastrous Bubat incident.
During its formation, Majapahit traditional realm only consists of lesser vassal kingdoms provinces in eastern and central Java. This region is ruled by provincial kings called Paduka Bhattara with the title Bhre. This title is the highest position below the monarch and similar to duke or duchess. Usually this position reserved for the close relatives of the king. Their duty is to administer their own provinces, collect taxes, send annual tributes to the capital, and manage the defences of their borders.
During the reign of Hayam Wuruk — there were 12 provinces of Majapahit, administered by king's close relatives:. When Majapahit entered the thalassocratic imperial phase during the administration of Gajah Mada, several overseas vassal states were included within the Majapahit sphere of influence, as the result the new larger territorial concept was defined:.
Nagarakretagama mentioned more than 80 places in the archipelago described as the vassal states. Also listed are the states of Tanjungnegara believed to be on Borneo: In Nagarakretagama Canto 14 more lands are noted: Also in Canto 14 are territories east of Java: Badahulu and Lo Gajah part of today's Bali. Hutan Kadali Buru island.
Gurun island, and Lombok Merah. Together with prosperous Sasak central, north and east Lombok are already ruled. Further east are Udamakatraya Sangir and Talaud. The true nature of Majapahit suzerainty is still a subject of study and even has sparked controversy.
Nagarakretagama describes Majapahit as the center of a huge mandala consists of 98 tributaries stretching from Sumatra to New Guinea. Some scholars has discounted this claim as merely a sphere of limited influence, or even just a statement of geographical knowledge. He argued that Majapahit territory was confined only in East and Central Java. Nevertheless, the Javanese overseas prestige and influence during the lifetime of Hayam Wuruk was undoubtedly considerable. All of those three categories—the Negara Agung, Mancanegara and Nusantara , were within the sphere of influence of the Majapahit empire, however Majapahit also recognise the fourth realm that defines its foreign diplomatic relations:.
The model of political formations and power diffusion from its core in the Majapahit capital city that radiates through its overseas possessions, was later identified by historians as " mandala " model. The term mandala derived from Sanskrit "circle" to explain the typical ancient Southeast Asian polity that was defined by its centre rather than its boundaries, and it could be composed of numerous other tributary polities without undergoing administrative integration. These areas usually have their own indigenous rulers, enjoy substantial autonomy and have their own political institution intact without further integration into Majapahit administration.
The same mandala model also applied to previous empires; Srivijaya and Angkor , and also Majapahit's neighbouring mandalas; Ayutthaya and Champa. In later period, Majapahit's hold on its overseas possessions began to wane. According to Wingun Pitu inscription dated it was mentioned that Majapahit consist of 14 provinces, that administrated by the ruler titled Bhre. Majapahit was the largest empire ever to form in Southeast Asia.
Its capital was inhabited by a cosmopolitan population among whom literature and art flourished. Numbers of local legends and folklores in the region had mentioned about the Majapahit kingdom. Most of them mentioned about the incoming Javanese forces to their land, which was probably a local testament of the empire's expansive nature that once dominating the archipelago. The chronicle described that the Majapahit invasion was a punishment for Sultan Ahmad Malik Az-Zahir's crime on ruining a royal marriage between Pasai Prince Tun Abdul Jalil and Raden Galuh Gemerencang, a Majapahit princess — that led to the death of the royal couple.
In West Sumatra, the legend of Minangkabau mentioned an invading foreign prince — associated with Javanese Majapahit kingdom — being defeated in a buffalo fight. Several Javanese legends were originated or become popular during Majapahit period. The Panji cycles , the tale of Sri Tanjung , and the epic of Damarwulan , are popular tales in Javanese and Balinese literatures.
The tales of Panji was dated from older period during Kediri kingdom, while the tale of Sri Tanjung and the epic of Damarwulan took place during Majapahit period. These tales remained a popular theme in Javanese culture of later period during Mataram Sultanate, and often became the source of inspiration for wayang shadow puppet performance, ketoprak and topeng dance drama.
The Panji tales in particular have spread from East Java to become a source of inspiration for literature and dance drama throughout the region, as far as Malay peninsula, Cambodia and Siam where he is known as Raden Inao or Enau Thai: Majapahit had a momentous and lasting influence on Indonesian architecture. The descriptions of the architecture of the capital's pavilions pendopo in the Nagarakretagama evoke the Javanese Kraton also the Balinese temples and palace compounds of today.
The Majapahit architectural style that often employs terracotta and red brick heavily influenced the architecture of Java and Bali in the later period. The Majapahit style candi bentar split gate, the kori or paduraksa towering red brick gate, and also pendopo pavilion have become ubiquitous in Javanese and Balinese architectural features, as seen in Menara Kudus Mosque , Keraton Kasepuhan and Sunyaragi park in Cirebon , Mataram Sultanate royal cemetery in Kota Gede , Yogyakarta , and various palaces and temples in Bali. The vivid, rich and festive Balinese culture is considered as one of Majapahit legacy.
The Javanese Hindu civilisation since the era of Airlangga to the era of Majapahit kings has profoundly influenced and shaped the Balinese culture and history.
The aesthetics and style of bas-reliefs in Majapahit East Javanese temples were preserved and copied in Balinese temples.