BASIC MANAGERIAL CONCEPTS
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Although every organization or association is different, there must be some sort of plan implemented to achieve specified goals and objectives. Planning will involve all the various factors that may affect business or organization operations. Internal and external strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and even threats are all factored into the planning process and procedures.sme.ltd.uk/13299.php
Management Concepts for your Organization
There are many different areas of planning, such as financial, general assets available, employee pool and selection process, and so on. The management concept of planning should be practical and efficient. Once the overall goals, objectives, and operational strategy have been set forth, the next function of management is to organize all the resources to implement the organizational plan. It is true that any business is a series of relationships between groups and departments, employees, outside entities that interact with the organization, etc.
Rather than having the management concept of business as a war and battlefield, there should instead be one of harmonization between various components of the business model. To many others, management is nothing more than clerical work and putting fancy signatures. But truly management is the process of planning, organising, staffing, directing, co-ordinating and controlling the activities of business enterprises.
It is also described as the technique of leadership, decision making and a mean of co-ordinating. But a simple traditional definition, defines it as the "art of getting things done by others". This definition brings in two elements namely accomplishment of objectives, and direction of group activities towards the goal.
The weaknesses of this definition is that firstly it uses the word "art", whereas management is not merely an art, but it is both art and science. Secondly, the definition does not state the various functions of a manager clearly. A more elaborate definition given by George R. Terry, defines management as a process "consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish the objectives by the use of people and resources.
Secondly it states four management activities: Planning, organizing, actuating, and controlling. Planning is thinking of an actions in advance. Actuating is motivation and direction of subordinates. Controlling means the attempt to ensure no deviation from the norm or plan. Thirdly it states that manager uses people and other resources. For example a manager who wants to increase the sales, might try not only to increase the sales force, but also to increase advertising budget.
And fourthly, it states that management involves the act of achieving the organization's objectives. Management involves characteristics of both art and science. While certain aspects of management make it a science, certain others which involve application of skills make it an art. Every discipline of art is always backed by science which is basic knowledge of that art. Similarly, every discipline of science is complete only when it is used in practice for solving various kind of problems.
Whereas under "science" one normally learns the "why" of a phenomenon, under "art" one learns the "how" of it. In the words of Robert H. In the beginning of development of management knowledge, it was considered as an art. There was a jungle of management knowledge. Any one used it to get things done in his own way. But later by codifying and systemizing the management, it became a science as well as being an art.
The art is in knowing how to accomplish the desired results.
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This implies that there exists a body of knowledge which management uses to accomplish the desired results in organization. To ascertain the nature of management with respect of science or art, there is a need to know the exact meaning of the words 'science' or 'art' and subsequently, their application to management.
Management knowledge meets the first two criteria because it has grown into a systematic body of knowledge and also it can be acquired and learned through the formal education. There is no minimum qualification prescribed either for getting entry in the management profession or for becoming members of it. It is not governed by the laws of mechanics. A human being is not an inanimate machine. Hence, management dealing with complex human beings is bound to be an inexact science. Even then theoretical base of knowledge is essential for developing sound practice.
In fact, theory must be supplemented by practical knowledge continuously. Science and art are complementary and each supplements the other. Art reflects practical application of knowledge and it is perfected through knowledge and experimentation. Art is not only based on knowledge but it derives its inspiration through intuition, inspiration and such other purely subjective attributes. A manager is not only a scientist but also an artist.
As a scientist, he relies on the existing theory and philosophy of management and develops new knowledge, new principles and new schools of management thought. As an artist, he has to depend on his own experience, intuition and judgment while making a decision on any managerial problem and taking action on the decisions to realise the set objectives. Scientific attitude and scientific method shall be applied in problem-solving approach, e.
But decision making cannot be totally reduced to science. In reality, human judgement and experience enjoy the veto power in decision and as a decision-maker a manager is an artist.
Management Concepts and Applications/Management
In the ultimate analysis, decision making, the heart of management, is an Art, to be acquired by conscious effort and practice. Theoretical teaching of medicine and engineering is almost invariably accompanied by practical work in a hospital or workshop. Getting work done through people is an art of management. It is a tough job demanding initiative, drive, tact, discretion and other higher qualities. We need artistic managerial ability to perform a managerial job.
Management Concepts and Applications/Management - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
The art of management is fully reflected in the decision making capacity of a manager. Judgment and imagination are essential even in a computerised economy. A computer cannot replace a manager in decision making. Managerial revolution has brought about separation of management from ownership in corporate management in all countries slowly but steadily.
Hence, management is assuming a professional character during the last three decades. Management has now developed a specialised body of management theory and philosophy. Management literature is growing in all countries. In fact, management knowledge is the best passport to enter the world of employment.
Topis of management have been developed such as, accounting, business law, psychology, statistics, econometrics, data processing, etc. These branches of management profession have enhanced the practical utility of the science of management. Management studies in many universities and institutions of higher learning are recognised as a separate discipline. Seminars, special courses, training programmes are becoming fashionable and popular for orientation and retraining in management areas, e.
There is a growing tendency to select and appoint highly qualified, trained and experienced persons to manage the business in each functional area of management. Thus we have today an increasing tendency in favour of management by experts or professionals. Enlightened businessmen have recognised that business management is a social institution and it has social responsibilities to be fulfilled — towards customers, employees, and the public or community.
Corporations have now social conscience and awareness.