Epiphyten des Amazonasgebietes (German Edition)
The Cyclanthaceae species stood out in this study for their abundance and frequency. The family was ranked third with regard to FIV and was also reported in lowland forests in the Neotropics Kreft et al. The species with the highest density and widest distribution in the area was Asplundia vaupesiana Harling 87 ind. The most diverse genera were Philodendron, Clusia, Miconia and Heteropsis , which together accounted for The most abundant genera were Philodendron, Guzmania, Asplundia, Anthurium and Alloschemone , which contained Philodendron had the highest generic diversity and abundance in the present study, a result that is consistent with those obtained by Nieder et al.
The representativeness of Philodendron is also cited in other Brazilian forest formations. In the survey by Neto et al. It is an exclusively Neotropical genus and approximately species have been described Mayo The general pattern of distribution of epiphytic species in tropical forests is one of many individuals of a few species and a few individuals of many species Richards According to Rudolph et al.
This pattern was confirmed in the present study: Considering the 15 species presenting the greatest sociological importance according to the IVe calculation, 11 belong to Araceae Tab 1. The species that most stood out with regard to IVe, which together make up These figures show that the two species are well distributed in the area, possibly due to their efficiency in reproduction and dispersion as well as survival strategies specific to each. This indicates a high colonization capacity in the various environments, strata and species of phorophytes available in the forest.
The representativeness of G.
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In Brazil, its geographical distribution is restricted to the states of the North and Northeast Forzza et al. The high abundance of P. The predominant ecological category in the study area was the hemiepiphytic growth habit. This was represented by 93 species belonging mainly to families Araceae, Cyclanthaceae and Clusiaceae, which make up The holoepiphytes were represented by 50 species A similar result was reported by Benavides et al.
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However, this result differs from the standard cited by most studies that address epiphytism both in the extra-Brazilian Amazon Engwald et al. In addition to these growth habits, there also occurred accidental and facultative holoepiphytes. This habit represented The distribution of the epiphytic community occurred over phorophytic individuals from 40 families, genera and species.
The greatest diversity of species used as phorophytes was recorded in the families Fabaceae Furthermore, these were the most abundant and contained The representativeness of these families as hosts is understandable, since these are the most diverse and abundant families according to various floristic surveys in the Amazon, although these studies do not associate them with the epiphytic community Amaral et al.
This result may indicate that epiphytes occurred more frequently on these phorophytes because these species possess a wide distribution, as well as high density in terra firme forests in the Amazon and, therefore, the majority of available species and individuals in this forest may be conducive to epiphytic colonization.
The most diverse phorophytic genera were Pouteria Sapotaceae , Licania Chrysobalanaceae and Eschweilera Lecythidaceae with 27, 26 and 19 species, respectively. These genera were also the most abundant, albeit in reverse order Tab. As expected, the most abundant phorophytic species in this study accumulated the highest absolute richness of epiphytes, among which stood out Eschweilera wachenheimii Benoist Sandwith Lecythidaceae , registered 57 times as support, which hosted 38 species and epiphytic individuals.
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In this classification sequence, species that stood out were Oenocarpus bataua Mart. Arecaceae with 18 repetitions and host of 35 epiphytic species and Heterostemon ellipticus Mart. Fabaceae , with 17 and 31 species, respectively. Generally, the epiphytic species and individuals uniformly colonized host trees. Of the total phorophytic species sampled, This indicates that these phorophytes were used as substrates by a maximum of five species and by up to five epiphytic individuals. Meliaceae , Vantanea parviflora Lam. Humiriaceae and Brosimum sp. An individual of species G. However, higher values have been reported for the Neotropics Kreft et al.
The epiphytic concentration on some host species may be linked to certain specific individual characteristics not evaluated in this study type of shell, architecture, inclination, etc. More detailed studies on the influence of these variables on epiphytic colonization are necessary to better understand the relationship between epiphytes and their phorophytes.
Many studies conducted in the Neotropics mention that the canopy is the area of greatest epiphytic richness and abundance Rudolph et al. According to these authors, the high species richness in the canopy can be attributed to the greater diversity of substrates for attachment bifurcations and different lighting conditions in the branches. However, the results obtained in the current study suggest greater epiphytic richness and abundance on phorophytic trunks species, 3.
Furthermore, in the analysis of the relative frequency of the species in the two segments, Most epiphytic species proved to be specialists regarding occurrence in the two main phorophytic segments. Of the total species recorded, Most exclusive species are restricted to the trunk, representing Among these, the ones with the highest number of exclusive individuals in this segment were: Krause Araceae , Evodianthus funifer Poit. Boyce Araceae and Philodendron sp. The species that had the highest frequency on trunks were Guzmania lingulata L.
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Among the unique species of the canopy, the most abundant were Codonanthe sp. According to Benzing , the epiphytic preference for certain regions of phorophyte is related to factors such as the search for moisture, light and substrate conditions. The preferential distribution of most epiphytes 95 species on the trunks of their phorophytes, regardless of their growth habit, showed a possible preference of these species for the forest understory, where climatic conditions are stable and the humidity is higher when compared to the canopy at the upper ranges of height.
The floodplain environment proved most favorable to epiphytism, where This was also the environment most colonized by those species for which only one individual was recorded in the study area Water availability is a limiting factor for the establishment and survival of epiphytes Padmawathe et al. For the epiphytic community, the floristic diversity H' was 3. In the Urucu River basin, the diversity analysis showed that the epiphytic community contributed significantly to the abundance and floristic richness of the forest, which supports several authors who have cited epiphytes as an important component for floristic diversity in the Neotropics Kelly et al.
Epiphytic richness reaches its maximum value in Neotropical montane forests at medium elevations between m with average annual rainfall of mm and little seasonality, where the highest rates of endemism, biomass and epiphytic diversity are concentrated Kreft et al. In a study by Nieder et al.
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In a comparative study of 16 inventories of epiphytic flora in the Neotropics, Kreft et al. These authors state that there are significant differences in epiphytic diversity between regions of the Amazon and that these differences are associated with average annual rainfall and its distribution throughout the year. The same authors also postulate that in the Amazon, the number of epiphytic species is strongly influenced by the moisture gradient the diminished dry season and by the higher elevation and soil fertility in the western Andes.
The Urucu river basin varies in elevation from 60 m to 70 m and has a very characteristic seasonality. Although the temperature range and annual variation in rainfall are small, the period of least rainfall June to November represents The low elevation and the annual cycle of rainfall in this forest may be the factors responsible for the epiphytic richness recorded there.
Araceae was the most diverse and abundant family, and the hemiepiphytic growth habit was dominant. This result confirms the expectation stated by Nieder et al. According to Ibish et al. As for the prevalence of the hemiepiphytic growth habit, this may be related to the fact that Araceae species benefit not only from sexual reproduction, but also vegetative propagation, which leads to greater success in the establishment and colonization of the species.
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