Plant Mites and Sociality: Diversity and Evolution
This book offers detailed descriptions of the diverse social systems and the social evolution of mites, ranging from genetic to ecological aspects.
Through a broad spectrum of studies including traditional natural history, taxonomy, modern evolutionary and behavioral ecology, and theoretical models as well, the book addresses a number of important findings on plant mite evolution and species radiation, with the author succeeding in combining theoretical and practical approaches in behavioral ecology by proposing a new game theory.
These findings reflect the complex evolutionary history of these taxa and also help to point out clearly what is known and what is not yet known to date. Mites have been considered a minor animal group, but the author shows that mites actually possess great diversity and therefore make unique materials for evolutionary and behavioral studies. Through a broad spectrum of studies including Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Plant Mites and Sociality: What Is a Life Type? Inbreeding Depression in Haplodiploidy.
Predators Other Than Phytoseiids. They have a haplo-diploid genetic system Saito, There are four species according to nest size area ; S.
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The mites of this genus are known to be monophyletic from ribosomal DNA sequences Sakagami, but are reproductively isolated from each other Saito and Takahashi, ; Mori K, Saito Y, unpublished data. In Stigmaeopsis species, copulation occurs inside the nest, so that the difference in nest size may be crucial to their precopulatory reproductive isolation. Group size is approximately proportional to the nest size Saito, a ; Mori K, Saito Y, unpublished data.
In the summer season July—August , the average numbers of individuals of each species per nest nests without predators in the fields were as follows: At least seven spider mite species can occur on the leaves of S. Because of such abundant prey fauna, many species of phytoseiid and stigmaeid predators co-occur Mori and Saito, Several predators specialize on a single spider mite species Chittenden, ; Chittenden and Saito, ; Saito, b ; Yanagida et al.
In a previous study Mori and Saito, , we determined that nest size influences the probability of intrusion by predator species and that larger nests are less effective in preventing predators from intruding.
Plant Mites and Sociality: Diversity and Evolution | NHBS Academic & Professional Books
Furthermore, the protective effect of the nest depends upon the predator species: Among five predator species that cohabit on Sasa , adult females of three predator species had great difficulty entering the nests of S. One of the latter species, Typhlodromus bambusae Ehara, was used in the present study. Because all stages of T.
In the present study, we concentrate only on the limited predator-prey relationships between Stigmaeopsis mites and T. The mites used in the present study were progeny obtained from field populations in Japan. These species were cultured on the leaves of S. All experiments were conducted on the detached leaves of the same host plants cultivated in a greenhouse.
We measured the counterattack efficiency against the larva of the phytoseiid mite, T. The larvae of this predator species never feed Chittenden and Saito, ; Saito, b , so that they are not active predators. However, the larvae molt to protonymphs without food at most within 2 days Chittenden and Saito, ; Saito, b , and Saito a , b demonstrated that the protonymph of T. Thus, we regarded T. When Stigmaeopsis spider mites encounter T. To evaluate counterattack ability of two adult females or males, experiments were performed on the underside of detached leaves. If we observe effective counterattack explained below , such a phenomenon strongly suggests the existence of a kind of altruism owing to alloparental care Saito, a.
After the defender females had constructed their nests and deposited several eggs, five experiments conditions for test in Table 1 were started: Early work confirmed that the larvae of this predator species could immediately enter the nests of all the species without difficulty, so that the web size effect i. We regarded a counterattack as successful when the death of the T. Because leaving the nest is another reaction of adult spider mites defenders , we also recorded their location.
In addition to the above experiments, we evaluated the effects of the number of defenders per nest on counterattack success for species having the ability to counterattack by the same procedures experimental groups 6 to 9 in Table 1. Even if no successful counterattacks were observed in the experiment, we could not conclude with certainty a species has no intruder-repelling behavior.
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Therefore, to examine in detail the anti-intruder behavior of all species, the encounter and subsequent interactions between defenders and T. A single defender of either sex and its eggs were left in the nest, and the other defender was removed. The modes of encounter and behavior were recorded at most for 20 min after the first encounter between defender and intruder. All statistical analyses were performed by JMP statistical package version 4. All testing was applied under two-tailed hypotheses, and the significance level p was set at.
Significant mortalities of 24 h after intruder introduction were observed in S. The results of Fisher's Exact probability tests of the mortality data abbreviated hereafter as FEP with sequential Bonferroni tests Rice, , abbreviated hereafter as SBT within each species were as follows: No effective counterattack by killing was observed in either sex of the S. Comparison of counterattack efficiency among the four species. To examine differences in mortality of predator along with the time between S.
Silk threads function as an ‘adhesive cleaner’ for nest space in a social spider mite
There was a significant difference between the two survival curves Wilcoxon test, S. Kaplan-Meier survival curves of the intruder in experimental groups of S. One day after the T. Both sexes of S. Open bars are the results of two defenders versus intruder.
Solid bars are the results of control experiments two defenders versus no intruder. Next, we observed whether there was some kind of group effect of individuals the effects of the number of defenders per nest on counterattack success either same sex or different sex on the counterattack success. Counterattack experiments for several adult combinations were conducted 6 through 9 in Table 1. The results are shown in Figure 4. Logistic regression analyses for each species showed that there are group effects in killing and driving out against the intruder larvae in S.
Two males of S. Comparisons of efficiency of group defense between S. MA indicates male s ; FA, female s. Vertical axis is the same as that of Figure 1b. In all experiments, regardless of defender sex, defenders were frequently observed to zigzag within their nests called patrolling in Saito, a just after the first encounter with an intruder. Thereafter, the defender repeatedly encountered the intruder. We observed three encounter modes: Encounter mode 1 was observed most frequently among the three modes in all cases: These results suggest that defender mites first discovered the intrusion of T.
The behavioral modes of the defenders after the encounters with intruders greatly varied among species and sexes. We observed eight behavioral patterns in the defenders Saito, a:. Repeated jabbing mode C: Assuming that behavioral aggressiveness decreases in order of A, B, C, and D, the frequencies of male aggressive behavior tended to decrease with the order of nest size, that is, S.
In fact, mode A capturing was only observed in S. The behavior of defender females also differed among species. Behavior frequencies of the defender against the intruder.
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Behavioral patterns are in accordance with Saito a Detailed explanations appear in the text: Solid, shaded, and open bars indicate aggressive, timid, and neutral behaviors, respectively. To examine the differences in frequencies of the behavior between species within each sex, chi-square tests were applied to the combined data categorizing aggressive, timid, and neutral behaviors Table 3.
In males, the behavior patterns of S.