El Niño 1997-1998: The Climate Event of the Century

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The regression model also indicates an upward trend in the relative contribution of long-term warming, which increases across these 15 events until , and will foreseeably increase as regional warming continues to influence hot Aprils.

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A trendline for these datapoints calculated with the uncertainty is shown black dashed line. If some amount of the unexplained portion of the April SAT, apart from the contribution of weather-related noise, arose from a nonlinear change in the rate of global warming 30 , the imprint of regional warming on the extreme would be even larger than our estimate. With continued warming projected for the rest of this century 8 , will MSA experience more frequent, record-breaking hot Aprils?

Starting from and using a non-overlapping moving window of 30 years, we calculated the hottest April in each of the ensemble members for that baseline period.

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1997–98 El Niño event

We then determined the lead time for the next, new, record-breaking April across each member i. Finally, we repeated this procedure for windows from — to — to understand the effect of warming on the lead-time for the next record-breaking April Fig. The median lead times across all ensemble members indicate that indeed, with future warming, record-breaking April SATs occur more frequently in MSA Fig. We note that Understanding and projecting the impacts of global warming on regional extremes is of critical importance for adaptation purposes 32 , On the spatiotemporal scales addressed in this study, the magnitude of natural variability is large relative to long-term trends and makes the detection and attribution of global warming more challenging.

These extreme events could be quantitatively predicted some months in advance, and can thereby increase the preparedness of societies that will be impacted. We used four different observational data sets for analysing surface temperature in MSA: We also use temperature station data for Bangkok Supplementary Fig.

Though this was available from , we only focus on the post period because of the availability of HadISST1. Unless stated otherwise, we employed linear detrending to remove trends throughout our study.


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All the simulations were run with historical forcings until the year , after which the forcings follow the RCP8. Each member is unique due to the application of a small, random perturbation to the initial air temperature at , which leads to independent simulated trajectories in weather and internal climate variability among the members. However, since external forcings are the same, all the members contain the same anthropogenic forced response For the composite analysis Fig.

The composite plot was not sensitive to whether this threshold was increased to 0. However, similar to the CESM1-LE, each member is uniquely different also due to small perturbations in initial air temperature conditions, resulting in independent weather trajectories.

El Niño and Central Florida: Part 1

We refrained from using the complete data set from to due to potential edge effects affecting our analysis e. Small interannual variability remains in the ensemble mean, which we smooth using a year low pass filter. Our results were not affected if we chose 0.

The trend line in Fig. However, the regression configuration used in the main text provided the highest correlation coefficient. The MATLAB codes that have contributed to the results and analysis reported in this study are readily available upon request from the lead author K. Output from the CESM large ensemble 22 simulations can be found at http: How to cite this article: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The authors declare no competing financial interests. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jun 6. Kaustubh Thirumalai , a, 1 Pedro N. Received Nov 28; Accepted Apr 5. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. For women and children the effects of El Nino will be overwhelming.

Extreme temperatures in Southeast Asia caused by El Niño and worsened by global warming

According to a Inter-American Development Bank Study on the effects of El Nino on children it showed that children exposed to severe floods or drought in utero, especially during the third trimester, are shorter in stature five and seven years later. The study also concluded that children affected by El Nino score and most have with low birth weight.

Furthermore, households affected by El Nino suffer a decline in income, total consumption, and food consumption in the aftermath of the shock. By this time, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography had forecast that an ENSO was likely to take place during the latter half of Additionally, waters along the Pacific coast of North America continued to expand, now stretching from Alaska to southern Mexico. The extra heat energy created by this anomaly was also about 93 times more than the energy produced by fossil fuels in the United States during To add, ACE Index within that basin rose to Over in the North Pacific during , at that time, made the record for having the most tropical cyclones reaching Category 4 and 5 intensities with From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Journal of Geophysical Research. Retrieved July 22, The El Nino of —".