I popoli del mare (Shardana i popoli del mare Vol. 1) (Italian Edition)

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Around BC the Phoenicians began visiting Sardinia with increasing frequency.

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The expedition failed and this caused a political revolution in Carthage, from which Mago emerged. He launched another expedition against the island, in BC, after the Sardinians attacked the Phoenicians' coastal cities. The Carthaginians, after a number of military campaigns in which Mago died and was replaced by his brother Hamilcar, overcame the Sardinians and conquered coastal Sardinia, the Iglesiente with its mines and the southern plains.

The Nuragic civilization survived in the mountainous mainland of the island. Sardinia together with Corsica became a Roman province Corsica et Sardinia , however the Greek geographer Strabo confirms the survival, in the interior of the island, of the Nuragic civilization even in Imperial times.

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The Nuragic civilization was probably based on clans, each led by a chief, with people living in villages of roundhouses with straw roofs, very similar to the modern pinnettas of the Barbagia shepherds. Religion and fighting both had a strong role in this society, which has led scholars to the hypothesis that the Nuragic civilization was a theocracy.

Some Nuraghe bronzes clearly portray the figures of chief-kings, recognizable by their wearing a cloak and carrying a staff with bosses. Also depicted are other classes, including miners, artisans, musicians, wrestlers the latter similar to those of the Minoan civilizations and many fighting men, which has led scholars to think of a warlike society, with precise military divisions archers , infantrymen. Different uniforms could belong to different cantons or clans, or to different military units.

Some small bronzes also give clues about Nuragic personal care and fashion. Women generally had long hair; men sported two long braids on each side of the face, while their head hair was cut very short or else covered by a leather cap. Throughout the second millennium and into the first part of the first millennium BC, Sardinia was inhabited by the single extensive and uniform cultural group represented by the Nuragic people.

Centuries later, Roman sources describe the island as inhabited by numerous tribes which had gradually merged culturally.

Sardinia - Wikipedia

They however maintained their political identities and the tribes often fought each other for control of the most valuable land. The most important Nuragic populations mentioned include the Balares , the Corsi and the Ilienses , the latter defying the Romanization process and living in what had been called Civitatas Barbarie now Barbagia. The representations of animals, such as the bull , belong most likely to pre-Nuragic civilizations, however they kept their importance among the Nuraghe people, and were frequently depicted on ships, bronze vases, used in religious rites.

Small bronze sculptures depicting half-man, half-bull figures have been found, as well as characters with four arms and eyes and two-headed deers: Another holy animal which was frequently depicted is the dove. Also having a religious role were perhaps the small chiseled discs, with geometrical patterns, known as pintadera , although their function has not been identified yet. A key element of the Nuragic religion was that of fertility, connected to the male power of the Bull-Sun and the female one of Water-Moon. An important role was that of mythological heroes such as Norax , Sardus , Iolaos and Aristeus , military leaders considered also as divinities.

The excavations have proved that the Nuragic people, in determinate periods of the year, gathered in common holy places, usually characterized by sitting steps and the presence of a holy pit. In some holy areas, such as Gremanu at Fonni , Serra Orrios at Dorgali and S'Arcu 'e is forros at Villagrande Strisaili , there were rectangular temples, with central holy room housing perhaps a holy fire. Some structures could have a "federal" Sardinian role, such as the sanctuary of Santa Vittoria near Serri , including both religious and civil buildings: At least twenty of such multirole structures are known, including those of Santa Cristina at Paulilatino and of Siligo ; some have been re-used as Christian temples such as the cumbessias of San Salvatore in Sinis at Cabras.

The Holy wells were structures dedicated to the cult of waters. Though initially assigned to the 8th to 6th centuries BC, due to their advanced buildings techniques, they most likely date to the earlier Bronze Age, when Sardinia had strong relationships with the Mycenaean kingdoms of Greece and Crete.

I popoli del mare (Shardana i popoli del mare Vol. 1) (Italian Edition)

The architecture of the Nuragic Holy wells follows the same pattern as that of the nuraghe, the main part consisting of a circular room with a tholos vault with a hole at the summit. A monumental staircase connected the entrance to this subterranean hypogeum room, whose main role is to collect the water of the sacred spring. The exterior walls feature stone benches where offerings and religious objects were placed by the faithful. Some sites also had sacrificial altars. Some scholars think that these could be dedicated to Sardus, one of the main Nuragic divinities.

A sacred pit similar to those of Sardinia has been found in western Bulgaria , near the village of Garlo. Located in various parts of the Island and dedicated to the cult of the healthy waters, these unique buildings are an architectural manifestation that reflects the cultural vitality of the nuragic peoples and their interaction with the coeval mediterranean civilizations. In fact, many scholars see in these buildings foreign Aegean influences.

They have a rectilinear form with the side walls that extend outwardly. Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. Amazon Restaurants Food delivery from local restaurants.

Archeologia Sperimentale Milano , Nel nostro leggero e poco ingombrante durante la marcia caso, il regime climatico presente nel Bacino del potendo essere portato facilmente su di una Mediterraneo non deve aver pesato particolarmente spalla Sotto il profilo tattico, le ridotte sulla resa degli scudi in cuoio.

Harding, Myceneans and Europe, op. Tale efficacia consisteva nel fatto che questo tipo di R. Shardana freccia inizialmente veniva a perdere potenza nello part. Armature di bronzo egee Harding, Myceneans and Europe, op. Battaglia navale di Ramesse III: C; lo rinvenuta ad Enkomi in una sepoltura nei pressi di ritroviamo in Mesopotamia nelle raffigurazioni di un santuario del XII sec. Green, Gods, Demons and Symbols of siti protonuragici di numerose statuette in bronzo Ancient Mesopotamia London , 95 fig.

Cavillier, Il contingenti che probabilmente penetrarono nel Faraone Guerriero, op. Ad ogni ben evidenziate nei rilievi egizi ci permettono, pur con qualche approssimazione, di poter applicare i principi di nautica. Casson, Ship and apprensione per i regni vicinorientali; infatti, il regno Seamanship in the Ancient World Princeton ; di Pilo predispose circa punti di avvistamento E.

Blackman, Marine Archaeology London , dal mare M.

Sardegna - Atlantide, oltre le Colonne d'Ercole parte 2

Chadwick, Documents in ; V. Chadwick, The Mycenenan World , Vinson, Egyptian Ships and micenei. Lo stesso dicasi per la costa Levantina e in Boats Oxford ; A. Tooley, Egyptian Models particolare per Ugarit: Per quanto riguarda la UT. In tale frangente, il della forma. Casson, Ship and Seamanship, op. Modelli e figure di imbarcazioni: Hockmann, La navigazione, op. Cambridge , 8. Pomey, nell'attacco le truppe, nettamente separato dai Archeologia Subacquea, Storia, tecniche, scoperte e corridoi riservati ai rematori ed eventuali avversari relitti, Milano , ; Hockmann, La catturati.

Risulta evidente che in ambito bellico sia da Navigazione, op. Le tavole del fasciame erano fig. VIII direttamente sulla chiglia o sul paramezzale attraverso una mastra apertura ricavata sul ponte - Secondo Casson Ship and Seamanship, op. Williams, Greek oared ships: Quaterly of the Department of Antiquity in Palestina Cambridge , ; pls.

Barnett and Seamanship, op. Nel Levante e in conformi a quelle levantine. Kenamun e sul graffito del vaso di Tell Abu Hawan. La nave di Gazi Wachsmann, The Ships, op. A questo testo possiamo affiancare un possibili pericolose sbandate in caso di condizioni testo in Lineare B da Pilo in cui si menziona un meteo avverse. Hockmann, La Navigazione, op. Gardiner, The recto 5,4. Wilbour Papyrus Commentary Oxford Nel Le informazioni desumibili dal Pap.

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Ucko, completato da Menu, Recherches, op. Zecchi, Urbanism London , ; id. Spermeru; oltre ai mercenari figurano sempre i vessilliferi PtH-m-Hb A Kitchen, The Third Intermediate, op. Sui titoli di Payankh: Torino e Pap. Analogamente, in un passo della stessa lettera 17 , Butenamon riceve in situ altri due messaggeri di Payankh. Davies, Egypt and Africa: Egypt in Africa Indianapolis ; E. Corridor to Africa - 2 inviato come messaggero in Nubia, al suo ritorno, ed. London ; T. Troy, New Kingdom Pharaonic Sites: Abbiamo a che di spagnola diretta prima da J.

II, Pinegem I — Menkheperra: Goyon, - Come da comunicazione da parte della studiosa op. Nella linea 12 della stele si cita fortezze Shardana. Vernus, Excavaciones en Meeks, State and Sethemheb. Sul titolo di idnw cfr. Meeks, State - Stele Cairo ; G. Meeks, State and Nimlot e sulla fortezza: Il palazzo reale di Ugarit 2.