Joint Publication JP 3-05 Special Operations 18 April 2011
Additional rooms were provided with the new arrangement to facilitate one-on-one discussion when needed, and large areas could be cleared for briefings of different classifications, pending attendance and content of the PN discussions [ 15 ]. Its goals and primary functions were to facilitate enhanced decision-making for USA and global SOF commanders, integrate PNs into SOCOM processes, increase inter-operability, improve staff processes to better inform strategic planning and resourcing, and enhance and accelerate the development of multilateral courses of action and cooperation among global SOF partners [ 16 ].
The conference brought forth a new issue not explored in depth in previous conferences: The idea got more attention in the aftermath of September 11, It takes networks to fight networks. Governments that want to defend against Netwar may have to adopt organizational designs and strategies like those of their adversaries. This does not mean mirroring the adversary, but rather learning to draw on the same design principles that he has already learned about the rise of network forms in the information age.
These principles depend to some extent on technological innovation, but mainly on a willingness to innovate organizationally and doctrinally, perhaps especially by building new mechanisms for interagency and multijurisdictional cooperation [ 19 ]. PNs are at all times encouraged to be physically close in proximity to each other to facilitate information sharing and collaboration [ 20 ].
The nature of the GSN is of such flexibility that each PN itself decides how comprehensively it wants to take part in or use the network. Some PNs are members because they need and want support through the GSN membership, while others are because they have SOF capacity and a desire to share the burden within the network. Today the GSN consists of multiple sub-networks that together create the overall network. The main sub-networks are:. The list does not represent all the sub-networks of the GSN.
However, these sub-networks are the most prominent at the interorganizational level [ 17 ]. One of the most difficult challenges so far has been the information assurance coordination between the different agencies and military representatives from the PNs. Each country has a national agenda and legislative systems to follow and, on several occasions, there have been challenges as to how to implement and share information both to and from certain PNs due to legal restrictions in information management.
This system offers potential solutions to information sharing; however, limitations in the distribution of the system exist, as it is a chain of command top-down distributed system. Regardless, the system and the network proved their value in July , as will be discussed in the next section, when the first phases of what were to become Operation Inherent Resolve OIR kicked off Figure 1.
Figure 1 depicts the lines of communication in the system and clearly underlines the importance and functions of the GSN [ 21 ]. This unique capability provides members of and commanders within the GSN to have live-feed, secure conversations in support of ongoing missions. On a regular basis, all LNOs need to communicate with national headquarters to get additional guidance. SOCOM has, on this matter, provided facilities for national reach-back, where every nation can install secure national communications systems.
Based on strategic inputs, a three-year operation cycle is developed. Complicating the process are the different timelines each PN sub-network operates under, the challenge of coordination with each national headquarters, and conflicting governmental guidance. We are living in a hyper-connected world; the spread of technology into an increasing number of cultures and societies is driving change in the strategic environment. The Cold War suppressed political mobilization in a variety of ways.
The removal of those constraints, coupled with technology, is creating both challenges and opportunities. Adversaries can now easily access tools that range from advanced weapons systems and cyber capabilities … By increasing transparency, communication, and collaboration with our partners, we maximize the effectiveness of our collective action against shared problem sets. SOCOM will continue to invest in these relationships so that our network development outpaces that of threat networks [ 22 ]. This statement, given on March 18, , wrapped up the ongoing process and described the coalition now operating in OIR.
By using the existing representation at SOCOM, the leadership set an example of how integration should be done. His experience with SOF and knowledge of fighting a network will definitely be added value in fighting Daesh. It is therefore important to establish informal communities of interest and formal communities of action.
In the GSN, these take the form of working groups facilitated by J3-I that can develop and foster PN contributions to mission-specific tasks. In the early stages of any operation, and in OIR specifically, knowledge and reporting of updated information to respective headquarters are essential; it is necessary to provide actionable information to national stakeholders and policy-making politicians. A challenge in fulfilling this requirement, as previously mentioned, is interagency cooperation. There is an educational gap in classification guidance at the operational level, leaving staff not fully trained in the use of appropriate classification.
SOCCENT representatives commented on several occasions throughout the coalition building process that information sharing does not begin until the commander, the J3-I, and authors of plans, orders, and briefing products embrace the information-sharing mindset and begin classifying documents and products for release within the MESF and other offices [ 15 ]. Army Major General Michael K. Until this issue of information sharing is resolved, it will be difficult to operate as a coalition.
Barriers to communication materialized as conflicts over command and control C 2 , rooted in lack of CF understanding of SOF capabilities [ 16 ]. Since the space between SOF leaders and national leadership may be compressed, decisions for SOF can be made quicker, and that speed creates a perception that SOF were building their own coalition. When establishing a coalition, there will always be jurisdictional challenges until the coalition is finalized. The OIR coalition was formed outside of a formal alliance construct, so PNs were not able to fit their contributions into a template or existing structure.
When forming new coalitions, new structures must be created and supported. To increase effectiveness, planners must be proactive and define billets and roles concretely. OIR was created with a non-doctrinal approach to C 2 structure, resulting in confusion and difficulties explaining current OIR C 2 to national military leaders. It is recommended that organizational structure be clearly articulated for operations at all levels, in accordance with Joint Publication JP Joint Operations and JP Special Operations when conducting joint missions or establishing a coalition.
In addition, a structural framework for PN billets needs to be developed, such as the one that was initiated in Afghanistan in The broad knowledge of the international personnel at J3-I prevented mistakes and solved ongoing challenges on the front end. Informal discussions among planners allowed them to develop best practices within the legal framework and advise their governments.
PN integration teams demonstrated success and led newer partners as the coalition began to build solid proof of the efficiency of the GSN in practice. RSO and I was supported both by USA and coalition partners, making the transition of personnel and goods flexible and precise. A living network, proactive rather than reactive, has proven the importance of developing the GSN. Coalitions must facilitate entry of new partners based on requirements, not based on convenience of previous partnerships or agreements.
An example of this is the fight against Daesh. While the regional problem is based in Syria, many nations have focused on supporting efforts in fighting the adversary in Iraq. There must be a way to expand the partnership so that it is the most operationally effective rather than the most politically expedient. SOF lines of communication are often short, and representatives will in many cases report directly to strategic military and political leadership in PN countries. During OIR development, most nations needed a whole-ofgovernment approach to the new line of operations, more than a CFversus- SOF approach as the C 2 structure represented in the initial phase.
The lack of protocol and doctrine on how to establish a coalition has been immense. Having temporary planners present will lend long-term, big-picture values to the JPGs, as LNOs have to deal with several additional duties, both as LNOs and as exchange officers. These opportunities adjusted PN expectations and provided more precise information on which capabilities were needed in OIR. The broadening of the GSN accelerated this process and resulted in greater efficiency and budget reductions. However, the change has already enhanced information sharing, and reports from several countries have been provided to the OIR JPG.
It is recommended for future operations that there be PN presences on SOF staff forward, with national and NATO communication systems, to improve planning prior to the deployment of the main body of any coalition partners. The GSN has proven its value in support of CF, preparing the battlefield and providing common knowledge through PN deployments and staff officers serving in joint staffs. A joint recce was conducted by representatives from The Netherlands, Spain, and Norway. This clarified the different authorities and SOFAs the different countries had with the government of Iraq.
SOF operations require high-resolution intelligence, hence the importance of trust between the communities. Whereas SOF are deployed to conduct operations on the ground, intel analysts are provided safe and secure environments, focusing on doctrinal work and collection. Every SOF operator is willing to go above and beyond the call of duty to solve a mission. An intelligence analyst, however, needs to prioritize among requirements and customers, and will in many cases resist revealing information without exchange and prior concurrence from higher headquarters [ 17 ].
A continuation of cooperation between IA operators and SOF will leverage operational experience of new technology and collection assets. It is needed and recommended that deployed forces view their role both within the GSN, and perhaps more importantly, the larger CF and IA environment. SOF and CF members are a part of the larger puzzle, the complex and evolving concept of war, which affects every soldier and nation participating in a conflict. A device which is designed for projection of munitions beyond the effective range of personal weapons. A geographic area in which military operations are conducted.
Contrast the first row of Table 1. Many of the remaining cases are easily converted to be of this form without any change of meaning. Starting, for example, from the definition:. The employment of cyberspace capabilities where the primary purpose is to achieve objectives in or through cyberspace. Here two conversion steps are needed. The first replaces the term to be defined with a singular noun following rule 2. The second, in accordance with rule 5, adds a representation of the appropriate parent term here, trivially, operation to yield:. An operation that employs cyberspace capabilities and has primary purpose: Such rules may seem trivial, and the effect of their application may be very slight when measured against the understandability and utility from the point of view of human beings of the definitions to which they give rise.
And second, the changes proposed bring aid not only to the formalization of joint doctrine terminology in the JDO — where adherence to rule 5 allows immediate generation of the backbone taxonomy of the ontology — but also to the quality assurance of joint doctrine definitions themselves, by allowing easier checking of logical consistency.
Our strategy for building the JDO follows an approach to coordinated ontology development as a means to advancing interoperability across multiple domains that was first successfully applied in the life sciences in the context of the Open Biomedical Ontologies OBO Foundry initiative .
The strategy rests on dividing the domain of biomedicine into a number of sub-domains for genes, proteins, cells, and so forth and creating ontology modules representing the corresponding general types of entities. Each ontology module consists of general terms organized hierarchically through the parent-child relation between types and subtypes.
This relation then serves as the starting point for the formulation of the definitions of the terms in the hierarchy in accordance with Rule 5 above. This strategy is currently being applied in a series of DoD and intelligence community projects, in each case drawing on the Basic Formal Ontology BFO , which serves as a common upper level starting point for the creation of definitions of the terms used in the domain ontologies at lower levels.
The predominance of general terms in JP reflects the purpose of military doctrine, which is to help warfighters understand the realities of war and their specific situations. It achieves these ends largely through the identification and explanation not of specific instances such as a particular aircraft or IT system but rather of important general categories.
Doctrine is re-usable because it is applicable to many different instances and to many different sub-kinds of the same general categories that re-appear in ever new situations. This approach is effective because the basic realities of war are not changed by the fielding of new commanders, equipment, specialties, or tactics.
A new IT system may provide a commander with more information in easier-to-understand formats; but the basic role of IT in supporting unified action remains unchanged. Because the developers of doctrine were so successful in identifying the high-level categories of C2, commanders and others continue to use these same categories when understanding how to employ each new IT system to create better operational capabilities. Nowhere is it stated explicitly in military doctrine that these are the basic categories of the reality of war.
Rather, the doctrinal publications are divided by area of warfare and by process C2, intelligence, fire support, logistics, planning, and so forth. One of the virtues of joint doctrine is its consistent use of the same general terms representing sub- categories of thing , attribute , and process across all the joint publications. It is impossible to understate the value of this achievement, which has not only diminished communications barriers among the warfighters of different specialties but also faci- litated the application of IT in planning, training, and real world operations.
What is remarkable is that the authors, managers, and terminologists of joint doctrine achieved this consistency with minimal documented theory and pro- cedures for categorization and for the writing of definitions. In our view, BFO provides the documented theory needed to fill this gap . BFO is architected around the same upper-level categories of thing , attribute , and process used by joint doctrine.
The CCO and other domain-ontology modules are 1 defined in BFO terms and then 2 they are themselves extended through the addition of domain-specific sub- ontologies along the lines illustrated in Figure 2. The BFO community has refined and tested the needed theory and procedures for generating such sub-ontologies in agile fashion and for preserving their usability and mutual consistency across successive versions.
Our strategy for building JDO is incremental. The creation of an ontology for each JP n-m then follows three steps:. Content from CCO is incorporated in each stage as needed. Examples are provided at http: JDO will provide a computationally accessible counterpart of the content of JP designed to support unified action by advancing terminological consistency and interoperability. The major benefit of JDO should take the form of better C2 through improved communication, self-synchronization, and projection into the future, and in each stage of development of the JDO we will be testing its utility in supporting improvements along all of these dimensions.
People can conduct C2 without facilities, equipment and so forth, but the latter cannot perform C2 without people. Since unified action occurs not only between people and organizations, but also between IT systems and people, by advancing interoperability in the ways described above, a successfully developed JDO can facilitate moving past the low level of unity of action among people, organizations, and IT systems that has been achieved until now.
A subsidiary benefit takes the form of providing ways to extend the range of IT-supported uses of the content of doctrine, for example, by allowing the DoD Dictionary to serve as an entry point for web-based searches across multiple repositories of authoritative data; by facilitating greater coordination of training and operations; and by increasing automation of processes such as plan specifi- cation, course of action development, and operations and Blue Force Status assessment, particularly within highly contested environments.
We anticipate that the JDO will allow further enhancements of JP , for example, by providing for each term in the dictionary its own web page that can serve as a repository of usage and of revision history. This last benefit is part of our more general strategy to assist developers of the hundreds of IT systems that are developed for U. These benefits include opportunities for logical tracking of dependences among terms and definitions to identify direct and indirect circularities and thereby to help to ensure, when changes in definitions are made in the process of revision, that the effects of these changes cascade appropriately through all dependent definitions.
For example, imagine that revisions need to be made to the definition of a term such as base defense illustrated in Figure 4. The Figure tells us which definitions then need to be checked for continued validity, by showing the terms in JP that are defined using base defense either directly or indirectly by inheritance from a definition lower down the corresponding chain.
We believe that terminological interoperability can be achieved only where the terminologies involved are developed as part of, or are defined in terms derived from, a common benchmark ontology framework. Only such a framework can provide a basis for clearly formulated logical relations between terms, and only this will allow the sort of automated checking for consistency that is needed when the terminological content of multiple information systems is aggregated together in larger actual or virtual systems.
This requirement for automated consistency checking becomes all the more urgent as terminological artifacts are revised over time. Finally, JDO can also help the many teams of ontologists working on different military and intelligence community initiatives to advance information discovery and processing. The JDO will enable doctrine to serve as a new source of ground truth for ontologists across DoD and IC that can help to ensure mutual consistency and identify wasteful redun- dancies as well as gaps and errors in existing ontologies.
It will contribute to consistent and yet agile development of IT technology while also counteracting current tendencies toward silo formation and failures of interoperation. The practical value of an ontology-based approach to supporting operational military IT has been demonstrated most conspicuously in the ICODES Integrated Com- puterized Deployment System load-planning system, a program of record employed by the DoD since .
Here, the goal was to create a domain model of U. Another AFRL effort used analogous rules in transforming a portion of the Joint Capability Areas JCA taxonomy into an ontology-based model that was then processed by a machine-learning algorithm to train an appli- cation. Formalizations of the JCA descriptions were used to allow comparisons of unstructured text against each of the formalized descriptions in order to determine matches. Initial attempts to disambiguate each of the JCA descript- tions failed because of redundancy and ambiguity. Instead, a hybrid was created consisting of formalizations of JCA de- scriptions along with word bags of their respective contents.
A machine learning algorithm was then used to compare historical user input against both to train the algorithm. The MIT Press, Smith , et al. Shapiro, and David S. How can we make the definitions of JP serve as a benchmark of interoperability for military IT systems? Need people and systems that curate your content like in data science - preprocessing. A team of data scientists that would mine and preprocessed your content and curate it for reuse! Build Knowledge Base by extracting knowledge from messages and data from web sites, etc.
Found a Public Domain Army System: So the Joint staff could drill down and the acquisition people could drill up to see say common parts and contractors for more cost effective and efficient procurement. Liked conceptual slide that reminded me of BeInformed Story: The goal of MAMA is to enhance cyber-situational awareness by the automated assessment of mission execution through the analysis of network traffic flows.
The goal of the Living Plan is to transform Air Force planning and operations assessment from a disjointed static approach based on paper documents into a unified dynamic and computational approach. The Dictionary is available for browsing, searching, or can be downloaded in the formats below. Joint Publication 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, is the capstone publication for all joint doctrine, presenting fundamental principles and overarching guidance for the employment of the Armed Forces of the United States.
It specifies the authorized command relationships and authority that military commanders can use, provides guidance for the exercise of that military authority, provides fundamental principles and guidance for command and control, prescribes guidance for organizing and developing joint forces, and describes policy for selected joint activities. It also provides the doctrinal basis for interagency coordination and for US military involvement in multiagency and multinational operations. Also includes publications used in development of Joint Doctrine.
This instruction establishes joint doctrine development policy to assist the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in implementing his responsibility to develop doctrine for the joint employment of the Armed Forces. This instruction establishes policy for the standardization of Department of Defense and multinational terminology. This manual sets forth procedures for joint doctrine development in support of the CJCS responsibility for developing doctrine for the joint employment of the Armed Forces.
This publication sets forth standard US military and associated terminology to encompass the joint activity of the Armed Forces of the United States. These military and associated terms, together with their definitions, constitute approved Department of Defense DOD terminology for general use by all DOD components.
Doctrine for planning, coordinating, and providing personnel support to joint operations. It also provides information relating to the functions, authorities, and responsibilities of a combatant commander, joint force commander and staffs, and the Service components as they relate to personnel management and selected activities that support the personnel needs of the joint force. This publication provides doctrine for planning, coordinating, and providing personnel support to joint operations.
This publication provides joint doctrine and information for the planning, preparation, and execution of legal support to joint military operations.
Joint Publication Jp 3-05 Special Operations 18 April 2011
This publication provides doctrine for religious affairs in joint operations. This publication provides doctrine for financial management in support of joint operations, to include multinational and interagency financial coordination considerations. Doctrine for conducting joint and multinational intelligence activities across the range of military operations. This publication is the keystone document of the joint intelligence series. It provides fundamental principles and guidance for intelligence support to joint operations. This publication provides doctrine for joint and national intelligence products, services, and support to joint military operations.
Provides the doctrinal foundation and fundamental principles that guide the Armed Forces of the United States in the conduct of joint operations across the range of military operations. This publication provides doctrine for joint counterair operations and protection against air and missile threats across the range of military operations. This publication provides overarching joint doctrine to plan, conduct, and assess amphibious operations. This publication provides doctrine for planning, preparing, executing, and assessing joint interdiction operations.
This publication provides doctrine for planning, coordinating, and conducting joint shipboard helicopter and tiltrotor aircraft operations from United States air-capable ships. This publication provides overarching doctrine for special operations and the employment and support for special operations forces across the range of military operations. This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, execution, and assessment of joint operations in an urban environment. This publication provides doctrine for the conduct of stability operations during joint operations within the broader context of US Government efforts.
This publication provides joint doctrine for the coordination of military operations with US Government agencies; state, local, and tribal governments; intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector. This publication provides fundamental principles and guidance for planning, coordinating, executing, and assessing joint fire support during military operations. This publication provides doctrine for the planning and execution of joint security operations.
This publication provides doctrine for planning, conducting, and assessing military operations in chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear environments. This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of joint cyberspace operations across the range of military operations. This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, preparation, execution, and assessment of information operations across the range of military operations.
This publication provides joint doctrine for planning joint space operations. This publication provides doctrinal guidance for planning and executing barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare for joint operations as they relate to strategic, operational, and tactical mobility and countermobility across the range of military operations. This publication provides doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States when they operate as part of a multinational force. It addresses operational considerations that the commander and staff should consider during the planning and execution of multinational operations.
This publication provides joint doctrine for planning, employing, and assessing air mobility operations across the range of military operations. This publication provides joint doctrine for planning, executing, and assessing joint forcible entry operations. This publication establishes joint doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States involved in or supporting foreign internal defense FID. It discusses how joint operations, involving the application of all instruments of national power, support host nation efforts to build capability and capacity to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, and insurgency.
This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, execution, and assessment of counterinsurgency operations. This publication provides joint doctrine for planning, executing, and assessing counterterrorism operations across the range of military operations. This publication provides joint doctrine for homeland defense across the range of military operations. It provides information on planning, command and control, interorganizational coordination, and operations required to defeat external threats to, and aggression against, the homeland, or against other threats as directed by the President.
This publication provides overarching guidelines and principles to assist commanders and their staffs in planning, conducting, and assessing defense support of civil authorities DSCA. This publication provides joint doctrine for planning, executing, and assessing foreign humanitarian assistance operations.
This publication provides joint doctrine for the command and control of joint air operations across the range of military operations. This publication provides doctrine for the command and control of joint land operations by a joint force land component commander JFLCC. It addresses considerations for forming and establishing a functional land force component with a designated JFLCC and for planning, executing, and assessing joint force land operations across the range of military operations. This publication provides doctrine for the command and control of joint maritime operations across the range of military operations.
It also describes the maritime domain; addresses considerations for establishing a joint force maritime component commander and attendant command relationships; provides principles and guidance for the planning, execution, and assessment of joint maritime operations; and presents considerations for specific maritime operations. This publication provides joint doctrine for the formation and employment of a joint task force JTF headquarters to command and control joint operations. This publication provides doctrine for the planning, command and control, execution, and assessment of joint engineer operations.
This publication provides joint doctrine and principles for planning and executing deployment and redeployment operations. It describes the deployment and redeployment processes and the planning and execution considerations that may impact deployment and redeployment operations to include command relationships and the interactions of combatant commands and Services with the Department of Defense and other US Government departments and agencies, host nations, multinational partners, and intergovernmental and nongovernmental organizations. This publication provides guidance and the basis for the planning and execution of military activities to counter weapons of mass destruction.
This publication provides joint doctrine for the military response to mitigate the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear event or incident. This publication provides joint doctrine to plan, execute, and assess airspace control during joint operations across the range of military operations. This publication provides joint doctrine for planning and conducting civil-military operations CMO by joint forces, employing civil affairs forces, conducting civil affairs operations, and coordinating with departments, agencies, or other organizations during the execution of CMO.
This publication sets forth the joint doctrine for the planning and execution of meteorological and oceanographic operations in support of joint operations throughout the range of military operations. This publication provides fundamental principles and guidance for public affairs support to joint operations.
It also addresses public affairs operations and the role of public affairs in strategic communication. This publication provides guidelines for planning and conducting detainee operations. It outlines responsibilities, discusses organizational options, and provides command and control considerations across the range of military operations. This publication provides doctrine for planning and conducting joint noncombatant evacuation operations throughout the range of military operations.
Specific information on repatriation operations is also provided.
Doctrine for joint logistic operations and a framework within which joint logistics can be planned, executed, and controlled effectively. The overarching ideas and principles contained in these publications provide a common perspective from which to plan, execute and control joint logistics operations. This publication is the keystone document of the joint logistics series. It provides overarching joint doctrine on logistic support to joint operations. It provides commanders and staff guidance and considerations for planning, execution, and assessment of joint operations.
This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning, command and control, and employment of resources within the Defense Transportation System. This publication provides doctrine for the planning, preparation, and execution of health service support across the range of military operations. This publication provides fundamental principles and guidance for providing bulk petroleum and water in support of US military operations. This publication provides fundamental principles and guidance for the planning and conduct of joint military mobilization and demobilization, force expansion, use of volunteers, and Presidential Reserve Call-up.
This publication provides joint doctrine for mortuary affairs support in joint operations. This publication provides joint doctrine for the planning and execution of US logistics in support of the Armed Forces of the United States during multinational operations. This publication provides doctrine for the planning, execution, and assessment of joint distribution operations. This publication provides doctrine for planning, executing, and managing operational contract support in all phases of joint operations.
Doctrine for conducting joint, interagency, and multinational planning activities across the full range of military operations. This publication reflects current guidance for planning military operations and, as a keystone publication, forms the core of joint doctrine for joint operation planning throughout the range of military operations. Doctrine for communications system support to joint operations and guidelines to our commanders regarding information systems and networks as a part of the Global Information Grid. This publication is the keystone document for the communications system series of publications.
It provides the doctrinal foundation for communications system support to joint operations and provides a comprehensive approach to the support of joint force command and control through the integration of joint communications and information systems across the range of military operations.
This chapter covers duties of personnel of the firing battery except those duties prescribed for the service of the piece and prescribes fire commands with explanation of their execution. It governs primarily the division artillery, but with obvious modifications applies to all types and calibers. Firing battery, as used in this manual, includes only that portion of a gun or howitzer battery at the firing position, carriages unlimbered or uncoupled and prepared for action.
Battery commander, as used in this manual, refers to the officer commanding the battery or conducting the fire of the battery. Fire discipline is that condition, resulting from training and practice, which insures the orderly and efficient functioning of personnel in the delivery of fire. The basis of fire discipline is the thorough training of the individual soldier. The object of training is the perfection of fire discipline throughout the firing battery as a whole. Training of the firing battery should be started shortly after instruction of gun squads is begun.
Firing battery instruction is started in the gun park. As proficiency is gained, the training advances to varied terrain and simulated service conditions. Fire on targets is first simulated, followed by subcaliber and service practice. Each battery should maintain a minimum of four trained gun squads. During maneuver or campaign Eas well as during the training year, frequent drill of the firing battery is necessary to maintain a high standard of fire discipline.
Accuracy in the performance of individual duties must be stressed; it is obtained by insistence upon exactness from the beginning. To eliminate the effects of lost motion, settings must be made in a uniform manner as prescribed for the particular piece or instrument concerned. Frequent checks of setting and laying are necessary to insure accuracy, both at drill and during firing. It must be made with an absolute minimum of delay in firing. When a piece is discovered to have fired with an error in laying, the error is corrected and reported immediately to the battery commander.
Uniformity is necessary both in giving and in executing commands. Special measures peculiar to a particular weapon will be found in the pertinent manual of the FM 6-series for the Service of the Piece. As soon as practicable after artillery materiel has been used, it is cleaned and put in order under the supervision of an officer. Lost or unserviceable parts are replaced or repaired. Before the piece begins firing, the chief of section verifies that the recoil mechanism contains the proper amount of liquid; thereafter he carefully observes the functioning of the recoil system.
In the case of separate-loading ammunition, the powder chamber is swabbed out after each round to extinguish sparks. Usually it is sufficient to wash the bore forward a distance of 2 feet from the breech for light and medium and 6 feet for heavy artillery. When time permits during suspension of fire, the breechblock is dismounted, cleaned, and oiled, and the bore cleaned as prescribed in Technical Regulations for the materiel.
Permissible rates of fire for short bursts up to 10 minutes and for prolonged fire are given in FM ; these rates are exceeded only if the situation demands it. Ammunition is sorted and stored by lots. When received boxed or crated, it is kept packed as long as practicable; after it is unpacked, it is protected from dirt and ground moisture by being placed on paulins or raised off the ground. The paulin or other covering should be raised to allow free circulation of air. When piled, the height will not exceed five layers for mm ammunition and three layers for mm projectiles.
Planks or brush are placed between layers. Care is taken to prevent injury to the rotating bands; they are always examined before firing and any burrs removed with a file. They are kept in moisture-proof containers until just before use. They are not carried on the person. Fuzes are seated securely screwed home with the fuze wrench issued for that purpose before firing. If difficulty is encountered in screwing home a fuze or if a fuze is otherwise defective, it is laid aside temporarily and at a convenient time it is buried 3 feet deep or turned over at the position to ordnance personnel if available.
Unloading fixed ammunition or projectiles is to be avoided whenever possible.
When unloading fixed ammunition, the breech is opened very slowly to reduce the likelihood of separating the cartridge case from the projectile and of scattering loose powder from the propelling charge inside the breech. Projectiles being removed should be prevented from falling to the ground when forced to the rear. Smoking in the vicinity of explosives is prohibited; care is taken to avoid sparks or open flames nearby. A round of ammunition held in preparation for reloading the piece is kept free from the path of recoil. With pieces using separate loading ammunition, primers are not inserted until after the breechblock is closed and locked in its recess.
When the long lanyard is used, it will not be attached until the piece is otherwise ready to fire. Pieces are examined before firing is begun to insure that their safety features are in order and that the bores are clear. Individuals at the firing battery are dismounted; they are not restricted to posts designated herein when their duties require their presence elsewhere.
The post of the executive is a position near the pieces from which he can best supervise the firing battery and be in communication with the battery commander. His principal duties are to:. The post of the assistant executive when at the firing battery is in the vicinity of the pieces where he can best perform his duties. His principal duties when at the firing battery are to: Assist the executive and to act as executive in the latter's absence. The chief of a piece section goes where he can control the service of his piece, hear commands, and perform his duties effectively.
To place the piece in position, to announce to his gun squad its number in battery, to measure and announce the minimum elevation or range , and to enforce camouflage and gas defense discipline. To follow fire commands, but to repeat only such part as may be called for by a member of his squad. For direct laying in which his section is used, to assign a part of the target to his gunner. See the pertinent manual of the FM 6-series for the Service of the Piece. For indirect laying, to indicate the general direction to be given the piece and to operate the gunner's quadrant when used.
To show that his piece is ready to fire by extending his right arm vertically as soon as his gunner calls "Ready. Except when otherwise prescribed, to give the command FIRE, dropping his arm sharply to his side. To supervise and check the work of the gun squad and to report to the executive errors discovered in the laying; for example, "No. To report when the piece is out of action and the reason therefor; for example, "No. During firing, to watch the recoil system and measure the length of recoil.
To ascertain by inspection that the recoil cylinder contains the proper amount of liquid and that the pressure in the counterrecoil system is correct. To have the section ammunition properly handled, cared for, and stored by lot, and the mat6riel and equipment cleaned as prescribed. To apply calibration corrections to his piece when and as prescribed by the battery commander. The battery coinmander will designate an ammunition sergeant or corporal.
His post is at the battery ammunition dump, if there is one; otherwise, in the vicinity of the post of the executive. Keep accurate records, by lot, of all ammunition issued to the battery, tabulating receipts, issues, and expenditures; prepare ammunition reports. The telephone operator is usually seated in rear of the battery and toward the windward flank. His duties are to:. Have ample slack wire left at the battery and to see that the wire is not damaged during the occupation of position.
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Establish communication promptly and report to the executive, "Communication established. Linemen at the position of the firing battery are with, and under the command of, the telephone operator. The battery commander designates a recorder. The recorder is seated beside the telephone operator. Inspect mat6riel, observe the functioning of the pieces, and make such repairs as can be made properly at the position. To distinguish pyrotechnic signals; to operate rocket boards; to call, "Barrage" immediately upon seeing the barrage signal; and to report other signals in accordance with his orders.
During action, casualties are replaced as follows: Permanent assignments and reassignments are made by the battery commander as appropriate. Casualties are reported to higher authority daily or at such times as called for.
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Under the direction of the battery commartder, the executive, assisted by the ammunition sergeant, supervises the ammunition supply. The battery commander makes a daily ammunition report to the battalion. Organization of the position is the systematic performance at the firing battery position of all functions which contribute to the prompt opening and delivery of accurate fire and to the concealment and protection of personnel, mat6riel, and ammunition. Organization begins when the position is selected and is continuous through occupancy.
All carriages are unlimbered or uncoupled and prepared for action. The pieces may be placed in line at regular intervals or they may be placed irregularly, in which case they are said to be "staggered. When the pieces are in line and the interval between muzzles is 20 yards, they are said to be at "normal" intervals. When a position is occupied after dark or positions have been selected for each individual piece, the executive designates to each chief of section the position for his piece and the direction of fire. Each chief of section conducts his section individually to the position designated.
Where practicable, in order to avoid a multiplicity of tracks, the position is occupied from the march formation. The position is approached from a flank in section column. The executive checks communication at the battery and posts the telephone operator at the position from which he will normally give commands. The executive lays the battery as commanded by the battery commander, or, if no commands have been received, lays it parallel in the direction indicated by the gun marker.
To refer a piece which has been laid for direction, an aiming point is announced and the deflection is measured and recorded. The command for referring is, for example: A common aiming point used for referring should be fixed, continuously visible, and as distant from the battery as possible. It should contain a clearly defined vertical line or a definite point on which the gunners can lay.
When a common aiming point is used, aiming stakes should be set up for emergency use at such a time as does not interfere with the firing. When a common aiming point is not used, the executive orders the aiming stakes set up as soon as the position is occupied. Two aiming stakes are used for each piece. One stake is set up at a convenient location at least yards from the piece; the other stake is set up at the midpoint between the first stake and the piece.
Both stakes are set up so that they and the sight of the piece are on the same straight line. Whenever aiming stakes are used, the pieces are also referred to an auxiliary aiming point which is used in case the aiming stakes are knocked down during firing. During darkness, a light is attached to each aiming stake, the near light lower than the far light. Each light is completely screened except for a narrow vertical slit visible through the sight.
The correction is made by the gunner who:. Lateral displacement is most likely to occur when the axle of the piece is not level. This is particularly true of materiel equipped with pneumatic tires. Lateral displacement may be prevented by placing sandbags against the outside of each wheel. If the pieces are staggered, the executive determines the interval from No.
These intervals are recorded and used for forming the sheaf as explained in paragraph As soon as each piece is established in position and laid in the direction indicated by the gun marker, the executive causes the minimum range or elevation to be measured. The foregoing is a rapid method providing a satisfactory safety factor for clearing an unoccupied crest. The battery commander normally will advise the executive as to the probable sector of fire and require a report as to the minimum elevation throughout the sector.
A few probable critical points can be selected readily by Inspection and the minimum elevations determined for them. In this way, accidents will be avoided in instances where the mask is very irregular. The executive may be required to determine minimum elevation for a particular projectile, charge, and fuze; further, he may be required to determine it for each piece. Pieces are not fired at a quadrant elevation less than the minimum elevation or that corresponding to the minimum range setting and site as determined by the executive.
If a fire command includes an elevation or range less than the minimum elevation or range , the executive reports to the battery commander, "Minimum elevation so much " or "Minimum range so much.
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When the above operations have been completed, the executive reports to the battery commander, "Battery ready. If complete fire commands are received before these operations have been completed and if it is obviously safe to fire, the opening of fire takes precedence. Further steps in the organization of position are completed as rapidly as possible provided they do not interfere with the fire. AS time permits, such of the following improvements are carried out as are appropriate for the type of mat6riel: Positions should be concealed from enemy ground and air observation.
Measures for concealment must not delay preparations for promptly opening fire. Passive means, such as camouflage, cover, and concealment, are used. Construction work must harmonize with the camouflage scheme and ordinarily be executed at night. All personnel must be instructed in defensive measures and selected individuals taught gas protection. Sentinels are posted at the pieces when the latter are not actually firing, the remainder of each gun crew being allowed to rest in sheltered positions near by. In the notebook he keeps data of semipermanent value to his piece, such as calibration corrections, base deflection, and data for defensive fires.
The ammunition report is prepared from this record. Extract copies of fire missions or fire schedules may be furnished by the battery commander to each chief of piece section and complete copies to the recorder. All schedules are carefully preserved. Firing is not interrupted because of casualties. Available first aid is administered immediately. Fire commands are commands which convey all the information necessary for the commencement, conduct, suspension, and cessation of fire, and activities incident thereto.
Firing data are the elements of a fire command which prescribe the settings of instruments and fuzes in the firing battery. The base piece is the piece usually No. Fire commands originate with the battery commander. They are sent to the firing battery by telephone, radio, signal flags, signal lamp, voice relay, or messenger. The executive repeats the commands of the battery commander to the gun squads, except as noted herein. Fire commands are not repeated by any member of the firing battery except on request of a subordinate or when a fire command has manifestly been unheard or misunderstood.
Repetitions are prefaced by "The command was so and so. The fire commands for the first firing from a position must contain all the elements necessary to cause instruments and fuzes to be set and the pieces to be laid, loaded, and fired. When firing more than one piece, a change for an individual piece or pieces will be preceded by the command NO. For the executive, the indication to fire is the battery commander's command for the range or elevation, except when otherwise specified herein. By the gunner during fire at moving targets with direct laying.
See the pertinent manual in the FM 6-series for the Service of the Piece. The pieces are left loaded and the laying conforms to the schedule. When fire may be delayed more than a minute, the battery commander should command: The commands FIRE and. A fire command will be followed by all pieces unless it includes NO. This command may be given as the first element of the fire command or may follow any other element of the command except the range or elevation.
At the command NO. The commands for ceasing and suspending fire may be given at any appropriate place in the sequence. When the command REFER is to be used as an element of a fire command, it follows the announcement of the aiming point. The first two are not repeated verbatim to the gun squads. The battery commander may direct the initial laying of the battery for direction by commanding: After the battery has been laid for direction initially, the battery commander announces changes in direction by commanding: It is an order to use direct laying.
Each gunner is assigned his part of the target by his chief of section; the latter also corrects the direction of his piece during firing. The battery commander commands: When the aiming point is not visible from all pieces of the battery, the executive may set the announced deflection on an aiming circle, sight on the aiming point, using the lower motion, and lay the battery as described in paragraph The executive does not repeat this command. The instrument should be at least 30 yards from any masses of metal which might deflect the needle. With the prismatic compass.
He holds the compass to his eye and gives the following command to the gunner: The execution of this command lays the piece on the prolongation of the line: The executive measures the compass reading of this line by reading to the sight of the piece. The remaining pieces are laid parallel by reciprocal laying on the base piece par. With the aiming circle. After clamping the needle, he lays each piece reciprocally on the aiming circle par.
The result is the firing angle for the base piece, using the aiming circle as an aiming point. The battery commander commands, for example: If the orienting line runs through the sight of the base piece, the executive commands, for example: The remaining pieces are laid parallel to the base piece by any convenient method. He then lays each piece reciprocally on the aiming circle par. The aiming circle is set up in a position suitable for use as an aiming point and the , line is established in the proper direction as described in paragraphs 54, 55 b, and With panoramic sights, 3, mils must be subtracted from readings which exceed 3, The executive commands, for example: This method should be considered only an emergency means of forming a parallel sheaf for use when an aiming circle is not available.
The base piece having been laid for direction, the executive may command, for example: When the pieces have been laid, the executive announces an aiming point and causes the pieces to be referred. The deflection announced is that of the base piece. After establishing the direction for the base piece, the battery commander may cause the others to be laid parallel by the command: If the battery commander desires to control distribution directly, following a command for direction he announces a command for deflection difference; for example: If the battery commander desires to control distribution indirectly through the executive, he will give a command for convergence par.
The command given by the battery commander is: He then determines the individual corrections to converge Nos. On occupation of position, the executive may prepare a convergence table as follows: He tabulates these results. For the mm gun, French, M, the command is: The command for shell is: I or other type designation ; the use of shrapnel is directed by the command for corrector setting. For charges termed normal, reduced, or supercharge, the charge is designated in a fire command only when other than the normal charge is to be used.
When a change is to be made from either of the two above charges to the normal charge, the command is: When using shrapnel or time shell , the command for a corrector setting is: When the fuze setter is graduated for corrector and time, the commands are: When using fuze setters graduated for corrector and range, the fuze range is the same as the range setting unless otherwise announced. When pieces are laid at an elevation rather than at a range setting, the fuze range is announced initially; thereafter, whenever changed. TO fire the battery, the command is: To fire one platoon, the command is: