La Conjura de Saint Chartier (Spanish Edition)

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As for the acknowledgment of suhjection to the King and the Duke of York, the Iroquois neither understood its full meaning nor meant to abide by it. What they did clearly understand was, that, while they recognized Onontio, the governor of Canada, as their father, they recognized Corlaer, the governor of New York, only as their brother. He did his best, however, to make good his claims, and sent Arnold Viele, a Dutch inter- preter, as his envoy to Onondaga.

Viele set out for ihe Iroquois capital, and thither we will follow him. He mounted his horse, and in the heats of August rode westward along the valley of the Mohawk. On a hill a bow-shot from the river, he saw the first Mohawk town, Kaghnawaga, encircled by a strong palisade. Next he stopped for a time at Gandagaro, on a meadow near the bank ; and next, at Canajora, on a plain two miles away. Corlaer, or Cuyler, was the name of a Dutchman whom the Iroquois held in great respect.

He held his way along the old Indian trail, — now traced through the grass of sunny meadows, and now tun- nelled through the dense green of shady forests, — till it led him to the town of the Oneidas, containing about a hundred bark-houses, with twice as many fighting men, the entire force of the tribe. Here, as in the four Mohawk villages, he planted the scutcheon of the Duke of York, and, still advancing, came at length to a vast open space where the rugged fields, patched with growing com, sloped upwards into a broad, low hill, crowned with the clustered lodges of Onondaga.

There were from one to two hundred of these large bark-dwellings, most of them holding several families. The capital of the confed- eracy Ti-as not fortified at this time, and its only defence was the valor of some four hundred warriors. The object of Viele was to confirm the Iroquois in iheir very questionable attitude of subjection to the British Crown, and persuade them to make no treaty or agreement with the French, except through the intervention of Dongan, or at least with his consent.

The first was the veteran colonist of Montreal, Charles le Moyne, sent by La Barre to invite the Onondagas to a conference. They had known him, in peace or war, for a quarter of a century; and they greatly lespected him. The other was the Jesuit Jean de Lamberville, who had long lived among them, and knew them better than they knew themselves. Here, too, was another personage who cannot pass unnoticed. He was a famous Onondaga orator named Otrdouati, and called also Big Mouth, whether by reason of the dimensions of that feature or the greatness of the wisdom that issued from it.

He was an aatnte old Mvage, well trained in die arta of Iroqnoia ifaetoric, and gifted with the power of strong and canstie saicasm, w4iich has marked more than one of the chief otaton of the confederacy. He shared with most of his eonntiy- men the oonTiction that ibe earth had nodiing so great as the league of ibe Iroquois; bat if be could be proud and patriotic, so too he could be selfish and mean.

He Talued gifts, attentions, and a good meal, and would pay for them abundantly in promises, which he kept or not, as his own interests or those of his people might require. He could use bold and loud words in public, and then secretly make his peace with those he had denounced. Monsieur, with what joj the Senecas learned that you might possibly resolve on war. When they heard of the prepara- tions at Fort Frontenac, they said that the French had a great mind to be stripped, roasted, and eaten; and that they will see if their flesh, which they sup- pose to have a salt taste, by reason of the salt which we use with our food, be as good as that of their other enemies.

The Onondagas wish to bring about an agreement. Must the father and the children, thej ask, cut each other's throats? The meeting took place before the arrival of Viele, and lasted two days. The Senecas were at first refractory, and hot for war, but at length consented that the Onondagas might make peace for them, if they could, — a conclusion which was largely due to the eloquence of Big Mouth. The first act of Viele was a blunder. The pride of Big Mouth was touched. We must take care of ourselves. The coat-of-arms which you have fastened to that post cannot defend us against Onontio.

We tell you, that we shall bind a covenant chain to our arm and to his. We shall take the Senecas by one hand and Onontio by the other, and their hatchet and his sword shall be thrown into deep water. While these things were passing at Onondaga, La Barre had finished his preparations, and was now in full campaign. It is doing great harm. Our Indian allies will despise us. I trust the story is untrue, and that you will listen to no overtures. The expense has been enormous. The whole population is roused. If, after having gone so far, we do not fight them, we shall lose all our trade, and bring this countiy to the brink of ruin.

The Iroquois, and especially the Senecas, pass for great cowards.

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The Reverend Father Jesuit, who is at Prairie de la Madeleine, told me as much yesterday ; and though he has never been among them, he assured me that he has heard everybody say so. But even if they were brave, we ought to be very glad of it; since fiien we could hope that they would wait our attack, and give us a chance to beat them. If we do not destroy them, they will destroy us. I think you see bat too well that your honor and the safety of the country are involved in the results of this war.

One would think that there was a divided empire here between the King and the gov- ernor; and if things should go on long in this way, the governor would have a far greater share than his Majesty. The persons whom Monsieur la Barre has sent this year to trade at Fort Frontenac have already shared with him from ten to twelve thousand crowns.

This and the preceding letter lUnd, by a copyii t'l error, in the name of La Barre. If it had not aerfed their plans, he would have fonnd means to settle evezTthing; bat the merchants made him nndentsnd that thev were in danger of being plundered, and thau having an immense amount of mernhandise in the woods in neariv two hundred canoes fitted out last year, it was better to make use of the people ci the countiT to cany on war against the Senecas.

These aie assuiedlv the sole motives of this war, which has for principle and end nothing but mere interest. He says himself that there is good fishing in troubled waters. In my belief, he will content himself with going in a canoe as far as Fort Frontenac, and then send for the Senecas to treat of peace with them, and deceive the people, the intendant, and, if I may be allowed with all possible respect to say so, his Majesty himself. All Quebec was filled with grief to see him embark on an expedition of war tete-d'tete with the man named La Chesnaye.

Everybody says that the war is a sham; that these two will arrange everything between them, and, in a word, do whatever will help their trade. The whole country is in despair to see how matters are managed. Louis, and began the ascent of the upper St. In one of the three companies of regulars which formed a part of the force was a young subaltern, the timed mt an indemnity for the sixteen hundred livres in merchandise which the Senecas had taken from his canoes early in the year.

Full text of "The works of Francis Parkman"

Belmont adds that he wanted to bring them to terms without fighting. Of the latter was La E: Of these red jlI'.: The camp of the French w: If be bad ever entertained anj He dared not even insist that the offend- ing tribe should meet him in council, but hastened to ask the mediation of the Onondagas, which the letters of Lamberville had assured him that they were dis- posed to offer. He sent Le Moyne to persuade them to meet him on their own side of the lake, and, with such of his men as were able to move, crossed to the mouth of Salmon River, then called La Famine.

The name proved prophetic. Provisions fell short from bad management in transportation, and the men grew hungry and discontented. September had Iiegon; the place was unwholesome, and the mala- rious fever of Fort Frontenac infected the new encampment. The soldiers sickened mpidly. La Bane, racked with suspense, waited impatiently the return of Le Moyne. We have seen already the result of his mission, and how he and Lamberville, in spite of the envoy of the English governor, gained from the Onondaga chiefs the promise to meet Onontio in council.

Le Moyne appeared at La Famine on the third of the month, bringing with him Big Mouth and thirteen other deputies. La Barre gave them a feast of bread, wine, and salmon trout, and on the morning of the fourth the council began. The Ononda politician was not to be so deceived.

He, or one his party, spoke a little French ; and daring the nig roaming noiseless] v among the tents, he contrived learn the true state of the case from the soldiers. La Barre was seated in armchair. The Indians sat on the ground in a row op] site the governor; and two lines of soldiers, formi two sides of a square, closed the intervening space. Among the officers was La Hontan, a spectator the whole proceeding. He mav be called a man advance of his time ; for he had the caustic, sceptic and mocking spirit which a century later mark the approach of the great revolution, but which n not a characteristic of the reiim of Louis XIV.

According to hu La Barre opened the council as follows: I am willing to forget this; but, should it happen again, I am expressly ordered to declare war against you. If yoa refne Uxb' diK. During the delivexr ot this maitial haiangoe. Big Mouth sat silent and attoitiTe, his eyes fixed on the bowl of his pipe. Listen to my words. Now your eyes are opened; for I and my warriors have come to tell you that the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas, and Mohawks are all alive. I thank you in their name for bringing back the calumet of peace which they gave to your prede- cessois; and I give you joy that you have not dug Qp the hatchet which has been so often red with the blood of your countrymen.

I am not asleep. My eyes are open; and by the sun that gives me light I see a gieat captain at the head of a band of soldiers, who talks like a man in a dream. He says that he has come to smoke the pipe of peace with the Onondagas ; bat I see that he came to knock them in the head, if 80 many of his Frenchmen were not too weak to fight I see Onontio raving in a camp of sick men, whose lives the Great Spirit has saved by smiting them with disease.

Our women had snatched war- clubs, and our children and old men seized bows and arrows to attack your camp, if our warriors had not restrained them, when your messenger, Akouessan, appeared in our village. If toot alliei T-: When they buried batrbe: AlI a foru do cot choke this tree of peace. Big Mouth, on his part, entertained some of the French at a feast which he opened in person by a dance. There was another session in the afternoon, and the terms of peace were settled in the evening.

The tree of peace was planted anew ; La Barre promised not to attack the Senecas ; and Big Mouth, in spite of his former declaration, consented that they should make amends for tiie pillage of the traders. On the other hand, he declared that the Iroquois would fight the Illinois to the death; and La Barre dared not utter a word in behalf of his allies. The Onondaga next demanded that the council-fire should be removed from Fort Frontenac to La Famine, in the Iroquois countiy. This point was yielded without resistance; and La Barre promised to decamp and set out for home on the following morning.

Even the promise to pay for the plundered goods was contemptuously broken. The better to imdezstazid dieir naxoze. The two commandeis had a heavy task. The French were Bcaicely less wild than the savages. Many of them were painted and feathered like their red companions, whose ways they imitated with perfect success. But tbey were like children with the passions of men, inconsequent, fickle, and wayward. Here was an evil omen. But for the efforts of Perrot, half the party would have given up the enter- prise, and paddled home.

In the Strait of Detroit there was another hunt, and another accident. In firing at a deer, an Indian wounded his own brother. On this the tribesmen of the wounded man proposed to kill the French, as being the occasion of the mis- chance. Once more the skill of Perrot prevailed; but when they reached the Long Point of Lake Erie, the Foxes, about a hundred in number, were on the point of deserting in a body.

As persuasion failed, Perrot tried the effect of taunts. Their pride was roused, and for the moment they were full of fight. With much ado, they were per- suaded to go as far as Niagara, being lured by the rash assurance of La Durantaye that three vessels were there, loaded with a present of guns for them.

They carried their canoes by the cataract, launched them again, paddled to the mouth of the river, and looked for the vessels in vain. At length a solitary sail appeared on the lake. She brought no guns, but instead a letter from La Barre, telling them tliat peace was made, and that they might all go home.

Some of them had paddled already a thousand miles, in the hope of seeing the Senecas humbled. They turned Ixick in disgust, filled with wrath and scorn against tlie governor and all the French. Canada had incurred the contempt, not only of enemies, but of allies. There was danger tliat tliese tribes would 1 U Potherte, ii. The treaty made at La Famine was greeted with contumely through all the colony.

The governor found, however, a comforter in the Jesuit Lamber- ville, who stood fast in the position which he had beld from the beginning. He wrote to La Barre: In the condition in which your army was, you could not have advanced into the Seneca country without utter defeat. Their plan was to leep three hundred men inside, and to perpetually luuass you with twelve hundred others. All the Iioquois were to collect together, and fire only at the legs of your people, so as to master them, and bum them at their leisure, and then, after having thinned their numbers by a hundred ambuscades in the woodij and grass, to pursue you in your retreat even to Montreal, and spread desolation around it.

His colleague, Meules, on the other hand, declared that Lamberville, anxious to make favor with the gover- nor, had written only what La Barre wished to hear. Col, Docs,, ix MO. Saint- Vallier speaks in glowing terms of the Jiew governor. The Psalms of David were always in his hands. He was to repair the mischief wrought by his predecessor, and restore the colony to peace, strength, and security. The King liad stigmatized La Barre's treaty with the Iroquois as disgraceful, and expressed indigna- tion at his abandonment of the Illinois allies. What he most needed was more troops and more money.

The Senecas, insolent and defiant, were still attacking the Illinois; the tribes of the northwest were angiy, contemptuous, and disaffected; the English of New York were urging claims to the whole country south of the Great Lakes, and to a controlling share in all the western fur-trade ; while the English of Hudson's Bay were competing for the traffic of the northern triljes, and the English of New England were seizing upon the fisheries of Acadia, and now and then mak- ing piratical descents ui on its coast.

The great question l;iy l etween New York and Canada. Which of tliese two should gain miistory in the west? As a soldier, he had the experience of thirty years of service; and he was in high repute, not only for piety, but for probity and honor. Some of the Hurons of Michilimackinac were bent on allying themselves witii the English.

The scheme was that these prisoners should be released, on condition that the lake tribes should join the Senecas and repudiate their alliance with the French. Dongan understood the situation. He saw that tibe French aimed at mastering the whole interior of the continent. They had established themselyea in the valley of the Illinois, had built a fort on the lower Mississippi, and were striving to intrench themaelvet at its mouth.

In short, tibe grand scheme of French colonization had begun to declare itself. Dongan entered the lists against them. If his policy should prevail, New Franoa would dwindle to a feeble province on the St. Canada was matched against New York, or rather against the governor of New York.

The population of the English colony was larger than that of its rival; but, except the fur- traders, few of the settlers cared much for the ques- tions at issue. The two monarchs were cloBelj united. Both hated constitutional liberty, and both held the same principles of supremacy in Church and State; but Louis was triumphant and poweiful, while James, in conflict with his subjects, was in constant need of his great ally, and dared uot offend him.

The royal instructions to Denonville enjoined him to humble the Iroquois, sustain the allies of the colony, oppose the schemes of Dongan, and treat him as an enemy, if he encroached on French territory. At the same time, the French ambassador at the English court was directed to demand from James n.

In the absence of money and troops, he intrigued busily with his Indian aeighbors. I know beyond a particle of doubt that M. Dongan caused all the five Iroquois nations to be assembled last spring at Orange [Albany], in order to excite them against us, by telling them publicly that I meant to declare war against them. All these intrigues have given me not a little trouble throughout the summer. You may be assured, Monseigneur, that the EInglish are the chief cause of the arrogance and insolence of the Iroquois, adroitly using them to extend the limits of their dominion, and uniting with them as one nation, insomuch that the English claims include no less than the Lakes Ontario and Erie, the region of Saginaw [Michigan], the country of the Hurons, and all the country in the direction of the Mississippi.

This, Monseigneur, joined to our failure in the last war, has drawn upon us such contempt among all the tribes that there is but one way to regain our credit, which is to humble the Iroquois by our unaided strength, without asking the help of our Indian aUies. A crashing blow dealt against them would restore French prestige, paralyze English intrigue, save the Illinois from destruction, and confirm tlie wavering allies of Canada. Meanwhile, matters grew from bad to worse.

In the north and in the west, there was scarcely a tribe in the French interest which was not either attacked by the Senecas or cajoled by them into alliances hostile to the colony. Nothing can save ns but the sending out of troops and the building of forts and blockhoiises. Yet I dare not begin to build them ; for if I do, it will bring down all the Iroquois upon us before we are in a condition to fight them. At first, it was courteous on both. Denonville wrote to announce his arrival, and Dongan.

I have a very high respect for the King of France, of whose bread I have eaten so much that I feel under an obligation to prevent whatever can give the least umbrage to our masters. The King, my master, entertains af- fection and friendship for this country solely through Zeal for the establishment of religion here, and the support and protection of the missionaries whose ardor in preaching the faith leads them to expose themselves to the brutalities and persecutions of the most ferocious of tribes.

You know better than I what fatigues and torments they have suffered for the sake of Jesus Christ. I know your heart is pene- trated with the glory of that name which makes Hell tremble, and at the mention of which all the powers of Heaven fall prostrate. Shall we be so unhappy as to refuse them our master's protection? You are a man of rank and abounding in merit. You love our holy religion. Hi regarded them as dangerous political enemies, anc did his best to expel them, and put English priests ii their place. Another of his plans was to build a fort at Niagara, to exclude the French from Lake Erie Denonville entertained the same purpose, in order tc exclude the English; and he watched eagerly thi moment to execute it.

A rumor of the scheme wai brought to Dongan by one of the French eoureurM ii loisj who often deserted to Albany, where they wen welcomed and encouraged. The English govemoi was exceedingly wroth. He had written before in French out of complaisance. He now dispensed witb ceremony, and wrote in his own peculiar English: I cannot belcev that a person that has your reputation in the world would follow the stepA of Monsr.

Labarr, and be ill advized by some interested persons in youi Govemt. Des Novilles [Denonville's] humble servant as any iriend he has, and will ommit no opportunity of inanifesting the same. Sir, your humble servant, Thomas Dongan. For my part, I shall take all immaginalde care that the Fathers who preach the Holy Gospell to those Indians oyer whom I have power bee not in the least ill treated, and upon that veiy accompt have sent for one of each nation to come to me, and then those beastly crimes you reproove shall be checked seyerely, and all my endevours used to surpiess their filthy dnmkennesse, disorders, debauches, war- ring, and quarrels, and whatsoever doth obstract the growth and enlargement of the Cluistian faith amongst those people.

This drew an angry letter from Denonville: Monsieur, as to tell me that you would give up all the deserters who have fled to you to escape chastise- ment for their knavery. Never- theless, your emissary to the Onondagas told all the Five Nations in your name to pillage and make war on us. Denonville, steadfast in his plan of controlling the passes of the western country, had projected forts, not only at Niagara, but also at Toronto, on Lake Erie, and on the Strait of Detroit.

He thought that a time had come when he could, without rashness, aecure this last important passage; and he sent an order to Du Lhut, who was then at Michilimackinac, to occupy it with fifty cmireurs de bois. It was not a moment too soon. The year before, Dongan had sent a party of armed traders in eleven canoes, commanded by Johannes Rooseboom, a Dutchman of Albany, to cany English goods to the upper lakes.

Rooseboom again set for the lakes with twenty or more canoes. He to winter among the Senecas, and wait the arriv Major McGregoiy, a Scotch officer, who was to 1 Albany in the spring with fifty men, take oomii of the united parties, and advance to Lake Hu accompanied by a band of Iroquois, to form a gei treaty of trade and alliance with the tribes clai by Fnuice as her subjects.

It would be better to declare war against tiem than to perish by their intrigues, "i He complained bitterly to Dongan, and Dongan leplied: I desire you to send me word who it was that pre- tended to have my orders for the Indians to plunder and fight you. That is as false as 't is true that God is in heaven. I have desired you to send for the deserters. I know not who they are, but had rather such Rascalls and Bankrouts, as you call them, were amongst their own countrymen.

Denonville sent orders to Du Lhut to shoot as many of them as he could catch. Dongan presently received despatches from the English court, which showed him the necessity of caution ; and when next he wrote to his rival, it was with a chastened pen: I repeat and protes: I willingly lielieve that I should not be surprised that you tolerate them in your country; but I am astonished that you should promise me not to tolerate them, that you so promise me again, and that you perform nothing of what you promise.

Monsieur, make no promise that you are not willing to keep. Here, as in the west, there was violent rivaliy between the subjects of the two crowns. With the help of two French renegades, named Radisson and Groseilliers, the English Company of Hudson's Bay, then in its infancy, had established a post near the mouth of Nelson River, on the western shore of that dreary inland sea.

The company had also three other posts — called Fort Albany, Fort Hayes, and Fort Rupert — at the southern end of the hay. A rival French company had been formed in Canada, under the name of the "Company of the North;" and it resolved on an effort to expel its English competitors. One of them mounted by a ladder to the roof of the building, and dropped lighted hand-grenades down the chimney, which, exploding among the occupants, told them unmistak- ably that something was wrong.

At the same time, the assailants fired briskly on them through the loop- holes, and, placing a petard under the walls, threat- ened to blow them into the air.

Conjura de Amboise

Five, including a woman, were killed or woimded; and the rest cried for quarter. Meanwhile, Iberville with another party attacked a vessel anchored near the fort, and clunbing silently over her side, found the man on tbe watch asleep in his blanket. He sprang up and made fight, but they killed him, then stamped on the deck to rouse those below, sabred two of them as they came up the hatchway, and captured the rest.

Among them was Bridger, governor for the company of all its stations on the bay. They next turned their attention to Fort Albany, thirty leagues from Fort Hayes, in a direction oppo- site to that of Fort Rupert. Here there were about thirty men, under Henry Sargent, an agent of the company. Surprise was this time impossible; for news of their proceedings had gone before them, and Sargent, though no soldier, stood on his defence. TgliA X fiittLiir ii L r-tlu More than four months after, Louis XIV. Whether such a step was consistent with the recent treaty of neutrality may well be doubted ; for though James II.

At the end of March, the King had written that " he did not think it expedient to make uy attack on the English. L'hampigny, had b sent in his plaoe. He was as pious as Denonv himself, amU like him, was in perfect accord w the bishop and the Jesuits. He dissembled his purpose to last moment, even with his best friends. Denonville, in or to deceive the enemy, had directed these priests urge the Iroquois chiefs to meet him in council Fort Frontenac, whitht-r, as he pretended, he i al C Ut to go with an escort of trtjojis, for the purp of conferring with tliem.

On this, the elder Lamberville sent the younger with letters to Denonville to explain the position of affairs, say- ing at the same time that he himself would not leave Onondaga except to accompany the chiefs to the proposed council. Dablon to Dongan ? He lost no time in warning the Itoqnoii, and their deputies came to beg his help.

Danger humbled them for the moment; and they not onlj recognized King James as their soyereign, but con- sented at last to call his representative Father Corlaer instead of Brother. Their father, however, dared not promise them soldiers; though, in spite of the recent treaty, he caused gunpowder and lead to be given them, and urged them to recall the powerful war-parties which they had lately sent against the Illinois. They grumbled and hesitated, for they remembered the failures of La Barre. A revulsi of popular feeling followed; and the people, Denonville, " made ready for the march with ordinary animation.

Even to the moment of marchiDiir' Denonville pretondiMl that ho meant onlj to hold a peace coimcit a " Fort Frontonac. Lawrence, and slowly made their way to Fort Frontenac. Among the troops was La Hontan. When on his arrival he entered the gate of the fort, he saw a strange sight. Like La Barre before him, he had received orders from the court that, as the Iroquois were robust and strong, he should capture as many of them as pos- sible, and send them to France as galley slaves.

The intendant Champigny accordingly proceeded 1 La Homtan, i. They came to the number of thirty men and about ninety women and children, whereupon they were surrounded and cap- tured by the intendant's escort and the two hundred men of the garrison. He acquitted himself of his eirand with great address, and returned with eigh- teen warriors and about sixty women and children.

Ghampigny's exertions did not end here. Learning that a party of Iroquois were peaceably fishing on an island in the St. Lawrence, he offered them also the hospitalities of Fort Frontenac; but they were too wuy to be entrapped. Four or five Iroquois were however caught by the troops on their way up the river. They were in two or more parties, and they all had with them their women and children, which was never the case with Iroquois on the war-path.

Hence the assertion of Denonville, that they came with hostile designs, is very improbable. As for the last six months he had constantly urged them, by the lips of Lamberville, to visit him and smoke the pipe of peace, it is not unreasonable to suppose that these Indian families were on their way to the colony in consequence of his invitations. The other wairiorB were tied like the rest to staket at the fort. The whole number of prisoners thus secured was fifty-one, sustained by such food as their wives were able to get for them.

The survivon were all baptized, and then distributed among the mission villages in the colony. The men were sent to Quebec, where some of them were given up to their Christian relatives in the missions who had claimed them, and whom it was not expedient to offend; and the rest, after being baptized, were sent to France, to share with convicts and Huguenoti the horrible slavery of the royal galleys.

The bishop, on the other hand, mentions the success of the stratagem as a reward accorded by Heaven to the piety of DenooTille. Denunville's account, which is sufficiently explicit, is contained in the lonj? Shea, usually so exact, has been led into some error by coo- founding the different acts of this affair. He owed his life to an act of magnanimity on the part of the Iroquois, which does them signal honor.

One of the prisoners at Fort Frontenac had contrived to escape, and, leaping sixteen feet to the ground from the window of a blockhouse, crossed the lake, and gave the alarm to his countrymen. Appar- ently, it was from him that the Onondagas learned tiiat the invitations of Onontio were a snare; that he had entrapped their relatives, and was about to fall on their Seneca brethren with all the force of Canada.

The Jesuit, whom they trusted and esteemed, but who had been used as an instrument to beguile them, was summoned before a council of the chiefs. But you are not safe here. On the very day of his arrival, a canoe came from Niagara with news that a laige body of allies from the west had reached that place three days before, and were waiting his commands.

Menú de navegación

It was more than he had dared to hope. Shea thinks that it inToIves a contradiction of date; bat this is entirelv due to confounding the capture of prisoners by Perre' at Ganneious on July 3 with the capture by Champigny at Fort Frontenac about June Lamberville reached Denonviile's camp, one day's journey from the fort, on the evening of the twenty-ninth.

Charlevoix, with his usual carelessness, says that the Jesuit Milet had also been used to lure the Iroquois into the snare, and that he was soon after captured by the Hieidas, and delivered by an Indian matron. Champigny says regulars, 1V 0 militia, and Sl'H Indians. This was when the army left Montreal. More Indiana afterwards joined it. Belmont says l,8iX French and Canadiana and about Indians. The distances were vast, and the difficulties incalcolable. In the eyes of the pious governor, their timely arrival was a manifest sign of the favor of Heaven.

It was difficult to per- suade them, and when persuaded, scarcely possible to keep them so. Rooseboom and his men, however, naturally thought that they came to support the French ; and when La Duiantaye bore down upon them with threats of instant death if they made the least resistance, they surrendered at once.

The captors carried them in triumph to Michilimackinac, and gave their goods to the delighted Indians. La Durantaye's exploit produced a revulsion of feeling, and many of the Indians consented to follow him. He lost no time in leading them dawn the lake to join Du Lhut at Detroit; and when Tonty arrived, they all paddled for Niagara.

On the way, they met McGregory with a party about equal to that of Booseboom. This bold scheme was now completely crushed. All the Eng- lish were captured and carried to Niagara, whence they and their luckless precursors were sent prisoners to Quebec. A canoe despatched in haste from Fort Frontenac soon appeared ; and they were directed to repair at once to the rendezvous at Irondequoit Bay, on the bortlers of the Seneca country.

On the fourth of July he had embarked at Fort Frontenac with four hundred bateaux and canoes, crossed the foot of Lake Ontario, and moved westward along the southern shore. Far off on the glimmering water, he saw a multitude of canoes advancing to meet him. It was the flotilla of La Durantaye. Good manage- ment and good luck had so disposed it that the allied bands, concentring from points more than a thousand miles distant, reached tlie rendezvous on the same day.

This was not all. White and red, Denonville now had nearly three thoiLsand men under his command. Helmont, liintoirf tin Cantida ; La rotlurie. Here was the camp of the regulars from France, with the generars headquarters; the camp of the four battalions of Canadian militia, commanded by the noblesse of the country; the camp of the Christian Indians ; and, farther on, a swarm of savages of every nation. Their features were different, and 80 were their manners, their weapons, their decora- tions, and their dances.

The enemy, meanwhile, had taken alarm. Just after the anny arrived, three Seneca scouts called from the edge of the woods, and demanded what they meant to do. A volley of bullets was fired at the scouts; but they escaped, and carried the news to their villages. Many of the best warriors were absent. Troojis, officers, and Indians, all carried tlieir provisions at their backs. Tliey marched three leagues through the open forests of oak, and encamped for the night. Kaih led his liand of courncf th h..

On their left were the Iroquois con- yerts from the missions of Saut St. Louis and the Mountain of Montreal, fighting under the influence of their ghostly prompters against their own countiy- men. On the right were the pagan Indians from the west. The woods were full of these painted spectres, grotesquely horrible in horns and tail; and among tihem flitted the black robe of Father Engelran, the Jesuit of Michilimackinac.

Nicolas Perrot and two other bush-ranging Frenchmen were assigned to command them, but in fact they obeyed no man. These formed the vanguard, eight or nine hundred m all, under an excellent officer, CalliSres, governor of Montreal. Behind came the main body under Denonville, each of the four battalions of regulars alternating with a battalion of Canadians. Some of the regulars wore light armor, while the Canadians were in plain attire of coarse cloth or buck-skin. Denonville, oppressed by the heat, marched in his shirt. It was a surprise on both sides. So dense was the forest that the advancing battal- ions could see neither the enemy nor one another.

Appalled hy the din of whoops and firing, redoubled by the echoes of the narrow valley, the whole army was seized with something like a panic. Some of the officers, it is said, threw themselves on the gioand in their fright. There were a few moments of intense bewilderment. The various corps became broken and confused, and moved hither and thither without knowing why.

Denonville behaved with gieat courage. He ran, sword in hand, to where the upioar was greatest, ordered the drums to beat the chaige, turned back the militia of Berthier who were tiying to escape, and commanded them and all others whom he met to fire on whatever looked like an enemy. He was bravely seconded by Calliferes, La Valterie, and several other officers.

The Christian Iroquois fought well from the first, leaping from tree to tree, and exchanging shots and defiance with their heathen countrymen; till the Senecas, seeing them- selves confronted by numbers that seemed endless, abandoned the field, after heavy loss, carrying with them many of their dead and all of their wounded. We had the pain of witnessing the usuaI croeldes of the Indiams who cut the dead kxlies into qnartexs. It was a village or town of bark, on the top of a hill. They had burned it a week before.

We foond nothing in it but the graye3rard and the graves, hill of snakes and other creatures; a great mask, with teeth and eyes of brass, and a bearskin drawn over it, with which they performed their conjura- tions. There were hogs, too, in great number; for the Iroquois did not share the antipathy with which Indians are apt to legaid that unsavory animal, and from which certain philosophers have argued their descent from the Jews.

The soldiers killed the hogs, burned the old com, and hacked down the new with their swords. Next Aejr advanced to an abandoned Seneca fort on a hill half a league distant, and burned it, with all that it contained. Ten days were passed in the work of havoc. The amount of com destroyed was prodigious.

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  • Denonville reckons it at the absurdly exaggerated amount of twelve hundred thousand bushels. The Senecas, laden with such of their possessions M they could cany off, had fled to their confederates wthe east; and Denonville did not venture to pur- ine them. A few words are added from Saint- Vallier. Denon- ville left the wasps alive. Charleroix drew his account from a portion of them. It is inexact, and needs the correction of his learned annotator, Mr. The researches of Mr. Marshall, of Buffalo, hare left no reasonable doubt as to the scene of the battle, and the site of the neighboring town.

    The Seneca ambuscade was on the marsh and the hills immediately north and west of the present village of Victor ; and their cliief town, called Gannagaro by Denonville, was on the top of Boughton's Hill, about a mile and a quarter distant. Immense quantities of Indian remains were formerly found here, and many are found to this day. Charred corn has been turned up in abundance by the plough, showing that the place was destroyed bjHre. SoCf Sd Series, ii.

    Marshall with remarkable accnracj the story of the battle as handed down from his aaoestora who lived at Gannagaro, close to the scene of action. The Chevalier de Bangy, aide-de-camp to Denonville, kept a Joomal of the expedition, which has lately been discovered among the papers of his descendant, Madame de Vaveray. When Dongan heard that the French had inyaded the Senecas, seized English traders on the lakes, and built a fort at Niagara, his wrath was kindled anew. He sent to the Iroquois, and summoned them to meet him at Albany; told the assembled chiefs that the late calamity had fallen upon them because they had held councils with the French without asking his leave ; forbade them to do so again, and informed them that, as subjects of King James, they must make no treaty, except by the consent of his repre- sentative, the governor of New York.

    He declared that the Ottawas and other remote tribes were also British subjects ; that the Iroquois should unite with them, to expel the French from the west; and that all alike should bring down their beavernskina to the moooMs ixTASios. He did not send me here: When Dongan heard that the French had invaded the Senecas, seized English traders on the lakes, and built a fort at Niagara, his wrath was kindled anew.

    This was not without cause, for a report had come from Canada that the French were about to march on Albany to destroy it. He added another demand, which must have been singularly galling to his rival. He was hard pressed, and eager for peace with the Iroquois at any price; but Dongan was using every means to prevent their treating of peace with the French governor J Dongan to Sunderland, February, , N, Y.

    McGregory soon anriveii, ud Dongan sent him back to Canada as an emissary with a civil Oittsage to Denonville. Dongan to Denonville, 10 November, In this extremity, DenonviUe sent Father Vaillant to Albany, in the hope of bringing his intractable rival to conditions less humiliating. The Jesuit played his port with ability, and proved more than a match for his adversary in dialectics; but Dongan held fast to all his demands.

    Vaillant tried to temporize, and asked for a truce, with a view to a final settlement by reference to the two kings. He wrote to his rival in terms of studied civility; declared that he wished he could meet him, and consult with him on the best means of advancing the cause of true religion; begged that he would not refuse him his friendship; and thanked him in warm terms for befriending some French prisoners whom he had Bayed from the Iroquois, and treated with great kindness. New York, New Jersey, and New England had been formed into one goyemment under Sir Edmund Andros; and Dongan was summoned home, where a regiment was given him, with the rank of major-general of artillexy.

    Denonville says that in his efforts to extend English trade to the Great Lakes and the Mississippi, his lata rival had been influenced by motives of personal gain. Be this as it may, he was a bold and vigorous defender of the claims of the British crown. Sir Edmund Andros now reigned over New York and, by the terms of his commission, his rule stretched westward to the Pacific.

    The usual official courtesies passed between him and Denonville; but Andros renewed all the demands of his predecessor, claimed the Iroquois as subjects, and forbade the French to attack them. Denonville wrote to the minister: How far this had influenced the action of James II. What he has just done among the Iroquois, whom he pretends to be under his government, and whom be prevents from coming to meet me, is a certain proof that neither he nor the other English governors, nor their people, will refrain from doing this colony all the harm they can. He thought with good reason that the maintenance of the new iortat Niagara was of great importance to the colony, and he had repeatedly refused the demands of Dongan and the Iroquois for its demolition.

    But a power greater than sachems and governors presently intervened. Scurvy and other malignant diseases soon broke out among the soldiers. The Senecas prowled about the place, and no man dared venture out for hunting, fishing, or firewood. He declaret that the English are always " itching for the western trade ; " that their fiTorite plan is to establish a post on the Ohio, and that they kftTe made the attempt three times already. Denonville feared that he should be forced to abandon them both. The way was so long and so dangerous, and the governor had grown of late so cautious, that he dreaded the risk of maintaining such remote communications.

    He promised Dongan that he would demolish it, and he kept his word.

    At the imperious demand of Dongan and the Iroquois, he begged the King to send back the pris- oners entrapped at Fort Frontenac, and he wrote to the minister: The paliaate were torn down hx IVnonvilU't order on the fifteenth of September. If ill treatment has caused them all to die, — for they are people who easily fall into dejection, and who die of it, — and if none of them come Lack, I do not know at all whether we can persuade these barbarians not to attack us again.

    Famine, destitution, disease, and the Iroquois were making Canada their prey. The fur-trade had been stopped for two years ; and the people, bereft of their only means of subsistence, could contribute nothing to their own defence. Above Three Rivers, the whole population was imprisoned in stockade forts hagtUy built in every seigniory. The Iroquois roamed among the deserted settlements or prowled like lynxes about the forts, waylaying convoys and killing or capturing stragglers.

    Their war-parties were usually small; hut their movements were so mysterious and their attacks so sudden, that they spread a universal panic through the upper half of the colony. They were the wasps which Denonville had failed to kill. Tour Majesty's zeal for religion, and the great things you have done for the destruction of heresy, encour- age me to hope that you will be the bulwark of the Faith in the new world as you are in the old.

    I can- not give you a truer idea of the war we have to wage with the Iroquois than by comparing them to a great number of wolves or other ferocious beasts, issuing out of a vast forest to ravage the neighboring settle- ments. The people gather to hunt them down; bat nobody can find their lair, for they are always in motion.

    An abler man than I would be greatly at a loss to manage the affairs of this country. It is for the interest of the colony to have peace at any cost whatever. For the glory of the King and the good of religion, we should be glad to have it an advan- tageous one; and so it would Iiave been, but for the malice of the English and the protection they have given our enemies. His thirty-two companies of regulars were reduced by this time to about fourteen hundred men ; but he had also three or four hundred Indian converts, besides the militia of the colony, of whom he had stationed a large body under Vaudreuil at the head of the Island of Montreal.

    All told, they were several times more numerous than the 1 DfnonvilU au Roy, ; Ibid. He asked for eight hundred more regulars. The King sent him three hundred. Affairs grew worse, and he grew desperate. Rightly judging that the best means of defence was to take the offensive, he con- ceiyed the plan of a double attack on the Iroquois, — one army to assail the Onondagas and Cayugas, another the Mohawks and Oneidas.

    Nevertheless, he implored the King to send him four thousand soldiers to accomplish it. The gloiy of the King is involved ; for they are the only tribe who refuse to recognize his grandeur and his might. They hold the French in the deepest contempt; and unless they are completely humbled within two years, his Majesty will have no colony left in Canada.

    The appeal was vain. He had been more active of late in negotiating than in fight- ing, and his diplomacy had prospered more than his arms. It may be remembered that some of the Iroquois entrapped at Fort Frontenac had been given to their Christian relatives in the mission villages. Here they had since remained. Denonville thought that he might use them as messengers to their heathen countrymen, and he sent one or more of them tc Onondaga with gifts and overtures of peace. That shrewd old politician. Big Mouth, was still strong in infiuence at the Iroquois capital, and his name was great to the farthest bounds of the confederacy.

    He knew by personal experience the advantages of a neutral position between the rival European powers, from both of whom he received gifts and attention; and he saw that what iivas good for him was good for the confederacy, since, if it gave itself to neither party, both would court its alliance. In his opinion, it had now leaned long enough towards the English; and a change of attitude hud become expedient. Therefore, as Denonville promised the return of the prisoners, and was plainly ready to make other con- cessions.

    He set out at his leisure for Montreal, with six Onondaga, Cayuga, and Oneida chiefs; and, as no diplomatist ever understood better the advantage of negotiating at the head of an imposing force, a body of Iroquois warriors — to the number, it is said, of twelve hundred — set out before him, and silently took path to Canada. The ambassadors paddled across the lake and pre- sented themselves before the conmiandant of Fort Fnuitenac, who received them with distinction, and ordered Lieutenant Perelle to escort them to Montreal.

    Here the warriors halted, and the ambassadors with their escort gravely pur- sued their way to meet Denonville at Montreal. He told the governor that he and his people were subjects neither of the French nor of the English ; that they wished to be friends of both ; that tbey held their country of the Great Spirit; and that 4ey had never been conquered in war.

    Big Mouth, had prevented its execution. He concluded fay saying that he was allowed but four days to faring faack the governor's reply ; and that if he were kept waiting longer, he would not answer for what might happen. The time arrived, and they did not appear. It became known, however, tliat a number of chiefs were coming from Onondaga to explain the delay, and to promise that the deputies should soon follow.

    They reached La Famine, the scene of La Barre's meeting with Big Mouth ; but here an unexpected incident arrested them, and completely changed the aspect of affairs. Among the Hurons of Michilimackinac there was a chief of high renown named Kondiaronk, or the Rat. He was in the prime of life, a redoubted warrior, and a sage counsellor. The French seem to have admired him greatly. In spite of the father's eulogy, the moral condition of the Rat savored strongly of the wigwam.

    During tlie summer he raised a party of forty warriors, and came down the lakes in quest of Iroquois scalps. La Hontan saw the puty set cuty and says that there were about a hundred of tliem. The Rat paddZed oS viih bis wmkos. On this, the Rat and his friends hid themselves in the bushes. At their head was a famous p: The astonished captiyes protested that they were envoys of peace. The Rat put on a look of amazement, then of horror and fury, and presently burst into invectiyes against Denonyille for haying made him the instrument of such atro- cious perfidy.

    Though there is war between us, I give you your liberty. Onontio has made me do so black a deed that I shall never be happy again till your five tribes take a just vengeance upon him. In accordance with Indian usage, he, however, kept one of them to be adopted, as he declared, in place of one of his followers whom he had lost in the sUrmish ; then, recrossing the lake, he went alone to Fort Frontenac, and, as he left the gate to rejoin his party, he said coolly, " I have killed the peace: Mnent likely to rob iLe iz. Mas, con todo, el idilio ya ha terminado, porque la garrapata no percibe absolutamente nada de todo eso.

    El ejemplo de la garrapata manifiesta con claridad la estructura general del ambiente que es propia de todos los animales. Pobreza de mundo El comportamiento del animal no es nunca un aprender algo como tal algo. Esto muestra de forma convincente que la abeja no advierte en absoluto que hay un exceso de miel. No advierte este exceso, ni siquiera la falta de su abdomen. El aturdimiento [Benommenheit] del animal significa por tanto: En el aturdimiento el ente no es revelado [offenbar], no es abierto, pero precisamente por eso no es tampoco cerrado.

    El aturdimiento es la esencia del animal, es decir: En efecto, el instintivo ser-capaz del aturdimiento absorbido, es decir, del estar atrapado en lo que desinhibe, es un estar abierto a…, aunque sea con la marca de no relacionarse con ello. La piedra, por el contrario, no tiene ni siquiera esta posibilidad. La apertura en el aturdimiento es un tener esencial del animal. En virtud de este tener el animal puede carecer [enthehren], ser pobre, estar determinado en su ser por la pobreza. Giorgio Agamben - Lo abierto. Posted by ricardo marcenaro Posted in Poesia: Jorge Luis Borges - El otro el mismo - - parte 1 - Insomnio.

    Jorge Luis Borges - El amenazado - Links. ChineseKiwi account in youtube. Visitas de los bienvenidos. Translate to your language. Feedjit Feedjit Live Blog Stats. About Me ricardo marcenaro. I love the solitude, the desert, mountains, wild landscapes, love to see the force of nature in these places, alive, raw, no doubt.

    I know many people, I've moved a lot, I like to see the human landscape, feel, taste, walk, walking alone or with company, I love many people, in my way, as everyone has their own. I am an artist, a rebel, my sacred duty is to revolutionize your mind, to do that, I did with mine. Sigo una ruta marcada por un designio: I go through life leaving messages on others.

    I continue a path marked by a design: I was prepared for that. My work in me, has been to unite knowledges, taking them everywhere, so is my form to love, take and return transformed as a greeting, a symbol of unity, peace and love walking the world. Jorge Luis Borges - A un poeta menor de la Giambattista Tiepolo - Part 5 - 14 images Agatha Christie - El caso del bungalow - Araripegomphus andreneli - Cf A Anton Chejov - Aniuta - Links a mas Cuento Alfred Sisley - Part 9 - Links to precede George Orwell - Rudyard Kipling - 36 photo Cassandra Wilson - Wichita Lineman - Time a Rabindranath Tagore - Al mattino gettai Simon Siwak - In the ghostly fog Andrzej Kwiecinski - Umbrae Poetry: Tiziano - Part 6 - Links to precedent par Mao Zedong o Tse Tung - Retorno a las mont Veronicastrum - Part 1 - Data i Bernie Wrightson - Part 1 A Filetta - Ne'n tarra ne'n celu - U Sipolc Simon Siwak - Long women - Mujeres Louis Aragon - Charlot sentimenta Paolo Fresu - Uri Caine - Si dolce il torme Carlos Fuentes - Chac Mool - 18 fotos - L Francesco Petrarca - Benedetto si Vernonia - Part 2 - Links Escritura: Walter Benjamin - La tarea del traducto Camille Saint-Saens - Symphony No.

    Platon Antoniou - Part 9 - Portrai Paolo Conte - Sparring partner - Blue Tango Argentina - Atlantic Ocean South - Somethi Lee Jeffries - Homeless - Part 2 Lord Byron - Heaven and Earth - Part 3 Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra - El casamien Charles Wuorinen - Two Part Symphony Horacio Quiroga - Cuentos de amor. Curtis - Natives from No The Land Trio - Mujer Poesia: