The State of Love and Marriage (Transformations Series on Culture and Society Book 1)

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Transformation of intimacy generally denotes how intimate relationships are transformed from pre-modernity to modernity and from modernity to post-modernity or late-modernity.

Introduction

The lifestyle and livelihood pattern, nature, attitude, behavior, emotion and sexuality of the people of pre-modern society are gradually changed in modern society. And all of these of modern society are also gradually changed in post-modern or late-modern society Fig. Intimate relationship has over the last four or five decades evolved so far from its long-established ways—mutating in diverse directions—that its very nature and structuring, once a largely unquestioned given, is clearly up for some deep questioning and reformulating Augustus, Changes of human intimacy or changes of all the aspects of intimate relationship which human being possess, lead to changes the overall social system.

So with the transformation of intimacy from pre-modern society to modern society and from modern society to post-modern or late-modern society, the overall social system in these three phases is also transformed or changed. Human history can be divided into three phases: There is no definite beginning or end to each of these phases; rather they merge into one another, as not all societies moved forward at the same time. Although most industrialized countries are now considered post modern, a large proportion of the Third World 5 remains modern or in some cases pre- modern.

Pre- Modern is the period in society which came prior to Modernity, which began in Europe after the introduction of Industrial society and large scale production UKessays, They are just less likely to be found in an industrialized country like the United States, but they do still exist in some form here in our country. Also, if you were to travel to a place like Pakistan or Ghana, you would probably still find many pre-modern societies Study.

In pre-modern society love, relationship and intimacy were not so popular like modern and post-modern societies. Because in pre-modern society marriages were conducted at very early ages and people had very less opportunity to fall in love before marriage. It has been known for a long time that the age of marriage, particularly for females, has been quite early in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent Ahmed, There are strong indications that the age of marriage for both males and females has been rising during the last half-century Agarwala, In the pre-modernity, societies were agriculture based and developing countries were far behind from the advancement of science and technology.

Sometimes some love stories were found; and most of them were Persian or Arabian, but these also had a great impact among the people of Indian sub-continent. The love story of Laila and Majnu is a very famous one and is no less than a legend. They were two in flesh, but one in spirit. It is based on the real story of a young man called Qays ibn al-Mullawah from the northern Arabian Peninsula, in the Umayyad era during the seventh century.

Laila was a beautiful girl born in a rich family. Being no less than a princess , she was expected to marry a wealthy boy and live in grandeur and splendor. But love is born from the heart; it knows no rules Fig. Laila fell in love with Qays and he too loved her dearly. Qays was a poet and belonged to the same tribe as Laila. He composed splendid love poems and dedicated them to his lady-love, telling in them his love for her and mentioning her name often.

But such taunts had no effect on Qays. He was deeply in love with Laila and it was her thoughts alone that possessed his mind for all time.

Transformation of intimacy and its impact in developing countries

One day, he went up to them and put the big question before them. But Qays was a poor lad. It would mean a scandal for Laila according to Arab traditions. As fate would have it, the two lovers were banished from seeing each other. When Qays heard of her marriage he was heartbroken. He fled the tribe camp and wandered in the surrounding desert. His family eventually gave up on his return and left food for him in the wilderness. Day and night, he pined for her. Laila was no better. Seperated from Qays, she was shattered in mind, body and spirit.

But they could not find him. Not much later, their search for him came to an end. On a rock near the grave, he had carved three verses of poetry, which are the last three verses ascribed to him. The tragic love story of Shirin and Farhad is well known today, from Turkey to India and is especially popular in Iran. The encounter between Shirin and Farhad is part of a longer and much more tragic love story of Shirin and Khusrow. Farhad, the bearded man in the images, was a humble engineer, artist and craftsmen famed for his skillet carving rock, who served Shirin, the Queen of Armenia.

Farhad fell in love with Shirin. In order to dissuade Farhad from his love for Shirin, Khusrow set him the impossible task of carving a tunnel through Mount Behistun. Before starting this arduous task, Farhad carved the likeness of Shirin into the rock face. It was that moment that is captured in these two miniature paintings.

He is tricked by Khusrow into believing that Shirin has died, after which he kills himself using the tools that he had used to carve her very image into the rock Mia. Although these two tragic stories were Persian or Arabian, they had a great impact among the people of Indian sub-continent. Films were made in India about these two tragic love stories. These two famous films regarding two tragic love stories had a great impact among the people of whole Indian subcontinent. The Semitic romances of Shrin and Farhad, Laila and Majnun on their migration from Arabia and Persia, with the advent of the Muslims in India, have spread all over the Indian subcontinent.

Besides being immensely popular in the respective places of their origin, they have crossed their native borders, have spread widely and have extended their influence all around. In course of time, they have become the vehicles of expression of personal emotion, empirical feelings, spiritual experiences and national sentiments of the people of those lands too Shan, These two tragic love stories are the examples of love and intimacy in pre-modern society when premarital love relationships were not as common as we see in the present era and the rate of success in love was also very low, particularly in Indian subcontinent.

A modern society generally denotes a society that tries to continually move forward through its evolving ideas, norms, values, manners, practices and innovation. More specifically we can say that the idea of modern society is sort of social patterns that have been created as a result of industrialization. That means the era of modernity or modern society has been started from the very beginning of industrial revolution. Giddens concentrates on a contrast between traditional pre-modern culture and post-traditional modern culture.

In traditional societies, individual actions need not be extensively thought about, because available choices are already determined by the customs, traditions, etc. In contrast, in post-traditional or modern society people actors, agents are much less concerned with the precedents set by earlier generations, and they have more choices, due to flexibility of law and public opinion.

This however means that individual actions in modern society require more analysis and thought before they are taken.

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Society is more reflexive and aware; something Giddens is fascinated with, illustrating it with examples ranging from state governance to intimate relationships Giddens, It is an interesting idea that romantic love is a product of modernity — or, at least, was accompanied with the process of modernization. Romantic relationships are voluntary and symmetrical, in contrast to the kinship or legal bonds that commonly circumscribe care giving relationships.

Romantic relationships also involve dependency, which is reciprocal between the partners, unlike the more asymmetrical dependency of child on caregiver; and the reciprocal dependency of romantic partners is likely to be both greater and more extensive than the reliance of friends upon one another.

Finally, romantic relationships are marked by an amalgam of love, passion, and actual or anticipated sexual activity Andrew Collins and Alan Sroufe, Passion and sex, of course, have existed forever Giddens, Romantic love, on the other hand, has not it represents the first phase of modern intimacy and was first recognized in the eighteenth century. Romantic love is basically a type instantaneous attraction and it is monogamous. One partner is chosen for ever. That means romantic love is a love for ever.

We can see the examples of these in many Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi films, plays, short stories, poems and novels. In Indian sub-continent, more specifically in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, any kinds of premarital romantic relationships were so restricted from the late 18 century When romantic love came into being according to Giddens to late 20 century. At that time the success rate of these kinds of relationships were very low and the guardians or the parents did not allow these.

But some sociologists like Ulrich Beck , Zygmunt Bauman and Anthony Giddens repudiate the concept of post modernity and they argue that the process of modernization did not come to an end rather it continues into the contemporary era. Whether post modernity or late modernity, both indicate the present era which has been continuing since late 20 century.

Revolutionary changes have been occurred in the aspect of intimacy or in the nature of human intimate relationships in post modern or late modern societies. Confluent love is active and contingent. It jars with the forever, one and only qualities of romantic love. The emergence of confluent love goes some way towards explaining the rise of reparation and divorce.

Romantic love meant that once people had married they were usually stuck with one another, no matter how the relationship developed. Now people have more choice: Unlike romantic love, confluent love is not necessarily monogamous, in the sense of sexual exclusiveness.

Dallas Willard - Divine Conspiracy 01: Jesus & Culture

Sexual exclusiveness here has a role in the relationship to the degree to which the partners mutually deem it desirable or essential. In other words individuals remain in a relationship albeit not necessarily exclusive providing they are emotionally and sexually satisfied. Once this satisfaction is no longer present the individual chooses to end the relationship Giddens, Confluent love is contingent on lovers opening themselves out to each other.

Rather than basing relationships on romantic passion, people are increasingly pursuing the ideal of the pure relationship, in which couples remain because they choose to do so. Love is based upon emotional intimacy that generates trust. Love develops depending on how much each partner is prepared to reveal concerns and needs and to be vulnerable to the other. Each partner in the relationship constantly monitors their concerns to see if they are deriving sufficient satisfaction from the relationship for it to go on Giddens, There is a diversity of forms of pure relationship.

Marriage can be one, though it is increasingly an expression of such a relationship once it already exists as the number of couples cohabiting rises rather than a way of achieving it. However, pure relationships are certainly not limited to marriage or indeed to heterosexual couples. In some forms, same-sex relationships, because of their open and negotiated status, come closer to the ideal of pure relationships than do heterosexual ones Giddens, The concept of plastic sexuality is developed theoretically by Anthony Giddens It stands in contrast to the features associated with modernist sexuality, conceptualized as fixed, by biology or by social norms.

Plastic sexuality is that which can be shaped according to individual erotic needs and wants. Thus, the consequence of disengaging sex from reproduction is to increase the emphasis on pleasure and decrease the emphasis on phallic sexuality. Giddens argues that the most recent phase of modernity has seen another transformation in the nature of intimate relationships.

There has been the development of plastic sexuality. For people in these societies there is a much greater choice over when, how often and with whom they have sex than ever before. With plastic sexuality, sex can be untied from reproduction. This is partly due to improved methods of contraception, which have largely freed women from the fear of repetitive pregnancies and childbirths.

However, it is not only technological developments that led to the emergence of plastic sexuality, but crucially the development of a sense of the self that could be actively chosen Giddens, On the Frailty of Human Bonds. This book is about the central figure of our contemporary, liquid modern times -- the man or woman with no bonds, and particularly with none of the fixed or durable bonds that would allow the effort of self--definition and self--assertion to come to a rest. Having no permanent bonds, the denizen of our liquid modern society must tie whatever bonds they can to engage with others, using their own wits, skill and dedication.

But none of these bonds are guaranteed to last. Moreover, they must be tied loosely so that they can be untied again Bauman, On the one hand, there is the desire for freedom, for loose bonds that we can escape from if we so choose and for individualism. On the other hand, there is the desire for greater security that is gained by tightening the bonds between ourselves and our partners.

As it is, Bauman argues, we swing back and forth between the two polarities of security and freedom. Often we run to experts — therapists or columnists, for example — for advice on how we can combine the two. Bauman stresses that one of the requirements for such a relationship involves the tacit agreement to avoid all encounters with love and desire: No sudden tide of emotions It strongly relates to the theory that the less one invests in a relationship, the less one loses when emotions falter or change completely Bauman, In The Normal Chaos of Love , Beck 9 and Beck-Gernsheim 10 examine the tumultuous nature of personal relationships, marriages and family patterns against the backdrop of a rapidly changing world.

The traditions, rules and guidelines which used to govern personal relationships no longer apply, they argue, and individuals are now confronted with an endless series of choices as part of constructing, adjusting, improving or dissolving the union they form with others. The fact that marriages are now entered into voluntarily, rather than for economic purposes or at the urging of family, brings both freedoms and new strains Giddens, Men and women are increasingly becoming the authors of their own styles of life.

The nature of love is changing fundamentally in conjunction with transformations in sexual life and family forms. All this changed with the economic and political reforms and the civil rights climate of the s and s. The new independence of women and the new personal freedoms of youth enabled men and women to form healthier relationships and build more successful lives as singles. These changes also enabled same-sex couples to come out of the closet. But in the s and s, we saw a lot of turmoil as people struggled to adapt to these changes, especially as they dealt with a sharp economic downturn after In the s, family indicators improved.

Today divorce rates are down from their peak in the s, especially for college-educated couples. Teen births are at new lows. As of —although there have been setbacks since then—juvenile crime was lower than at any time since And the pace of family change has slowed, suggesting that predictions of the death of marriage were overwrought. But we must recognize that alternatives to marriage are here to stay. The rising age of marriage is a promising sign for many marriages since it is associated with greater family stability, but it also means that women have a longer period of life in which they can end up as unwed mothers, either by choice or by chance.

The majority of Americans, same-sex or opposite-sex, live together outside of marriage for a portion of their lives, and not all these relationships result in marriage. We may be able to create more healthy marriages in the future, but we can never again assume that all dependents, young or old, will be taken care of within first-marriage nuclear families. Even married-couple families face new challenges.

The male-breadwinner family is no longer the norm. Another cause, researchers are finding, is that couples tend to fall into traditional gender roles after the birth of a child, which can produce resentment in both parents. This failure to change enough is not simply an individual problem but a deeply institutional problem as well. Indeed, as individuals, many Americans are adapting remarkably to the changes in marriage and family life. After some initial resistance, most men have begun to share housework and childcare with their partners far more equitably.

Today, 49 percent of couples say they share child care equally, compared with 25 percent in Fathers who are more involved with their families raise sons who are more expressive and empathic and daughters who are more likely to do well in school—especially in math and science.

Meanwhile, working moms have increased the time they spend with their children even as they have increased their hours on the job. Single mothers have less time to spend with their families than married mothers, but they too have significantly increased their time with children. Even childless and unmarried individuals are doing immense amounts of family work, with one in four American workers spending seven hours or more each week caring for an aging parent. In fact, Naomi Gerstel of the University of Massachusetts and Natalia Sarkisian of Boston College find that childless single individuals give more time and practical support to parents, kin, and friends than married couples do.

For a man to take on a second, or multitude of wives, one must be able to financially and sexually satisfy each and obtain permission from his first wife. In recent years, most persons practicing Judaism have banned polygyny except in rare circumstances. However, some Jewish communities in non-European countries such as Yemen and the Arab world still practice polygyny. Under Sharia, Muslim men are allowed to practice polygyny and have up to a total of four wives.

There are strict requirements to marrying more than one woman, as the man must be able to treat each equally financially and in terms of support for each wife. The practice of polygyny is legal in most Muslim-majority countries and is illegal in Muslim-majority Turkey, Tunisia, and Central Asian Countries. Polygynous families are families with husbands who have multiple wives.

All of the wives interact with the husband at different times individually and as a whole. The wives also have relationships with one another as individuals and as a group. Whether there is jealousy between co-wives depends on the specific situation, individuals involved, and cultural attitudes toward polygyny.

Polygynous families may have children from multiple mothers and the same father. The connection between the children and the true mother and same mother siblings is always different and usually stronger than with the other children. This large family of mothers and children may again lead to jealousy and competition for the husband or father.

The competition between co-wives usually focused on how many children each wife had and what these children are given in materials and education. The wives are usually ranked higher depending on who married first, and with the addition of the status of the families they came from. The husbands are supposed to avoid showing favoritism, especially when it is out of ranking or anger and jealousy can break out in the family. The rivalries between wives can lead to bitter feuds and divorces. The wives depend on their children to support them after the husband dies, so education and the passing down of land or cash is crucial.

Most husbands can only afford to send one or two children to school, which is why there can be such fierce competition. When most people think about a relationship between more than two people, they generally envision one man with multiple wives, usually as part of a religious community. However, there is a growing community of people in the United States and other Western countries who engage in a relationship style called polyamory. Polyamory can take many forms; a closed relationship between three people is often called a "triad", while more complex arrangements are sometimes referred to as a "polycule" because the web of attachments between people can resemble complex diagrams of the structure of molecules.

Members of a triad, "polycule", or any other type of polyamorous relationship can be of any gender identities and sexual orientations, and different people choose this type of relationship for different reasons. The underlying philosophy of most polyamorous people is that love is not something with a finite quantity, and loving multiple people does not diminish the depth of the relationship with any of them. Monogamy is the practice of being married to one person at a time.

Cultural Anthropology/Marriage, Reproduction and Kinship

To be a serial monogamist is a lifestyle consisting of repeated relationships with one partner. Many relationships involve being with one person, and then when that relationship ends, moving on. With serial polygamy, it is the opposite. A serial polygamist will have multiple partners at any given point of their dating or marital life. This practice is often frowned upon in many western cultures, as cheating on a partner is a morally irresponsible thing to do, however there are many cultures that accept these types of arrangements as the norm; these can be seen in many lesser known religions as well as many native tribes in Africa and around the world.

There is still great prejudice against members of the LGBTQ community, and hate crimes are continuously prevalent, especially against the groups which are less commonly accepted such as transgender individuals. Even though the LGBTQ community has lived under this harassment for so many years, many major strides have been made in the United States to better the lives of everyone who identifies as part of the community; one of which being the landmark supreme court decision in the Obergefell vs.

Hodges case in This case determined that due to the legislation written in the 14th amendment created in marriage is not to be denied to any United States citizens. There is an ever spreading institution of clubs that promote equality and awareness, an example of which is the G.

Gay-Straight Alliance , the G. In schools, this is a large factor in the ever rising awareness and acceptance of the LGBTQ community. Groups such as these also support outreach to LGBTQ individuals, often youths, who have struggled with issues ranging from depression to poverty to complete abandonment and disconnection from their families upon coming out. Ghost marriages take place when a wealthy or influential male member of a village dies without any living children.

A woman will then marry his "ghost" at a ceremony, usually with the brother of the deceased as a stand-in. The wife is then said to be married to the ghost of the man, and can then have his children, using the brother to facilitate this. These children, although not biological children to the deceased, serve as heirs to his heritage and can inherit both his property and his status in a society.

However, this means that the brother is usually left without any children of his own before he dies, and then he must have his children through a ghost marriage, creating a circle. These practices are most common in Sudan but is also practiced in China. In China a ghost marriage is called Minghun. In china ghost marriages also mean when a man is married to a deceased female, more likely currently due to the growing shortage of females, so that he maintains his status in this world.

This can also help the deceased brides family from feeling the shame of an unwed daughter. The practices of a Minghun are conditional to that of the Sudanese ghost marriage. In arranging a ghost marriage in China, families do not use a diviner or priest, but feel the groom is "chosen" for the deceased ghost-bride. A red envelope used for money or gifts are placed in the middle of the street where a stranger will come to pick it up.

Meanwhile the family hides nearby. At which time the stranger picks up the envelope the family reveals itself and announces that the stranger is the ghost brides groom. Among other cultures who practice ghost marriage, is the Nuer of Nigeria. The Nuer believed that a man who died without male heirs would leave an unsatisfied angry spirit behind to trouble his family. A woman would then be chosen to marry a family member of the dead man and the children produced by these two would be thought of as belonging to the man who died.

Levirate Marriages are somewhat similar to ghost marriages. A levirate marriage is when a woman marries one of her husband's brothers after her husband has died. In some cases, this only occurs if the husband died without children. Then, since the woman marries his brother, the family name carries on. These marriages have mostly happened in places in Asia and the Middle East.

Arranged marriage is a union established by the parents, or other interested parties, often without consent from the couple involved. There are 5 different types or levels of arranged marriages:. Arranged marriages usually benefit the families more than the couple, as it strengthens economic and social ties between the two. For example, an arranged marriage to a cousin makes sure that wealth and rank stay within the family. Parents can make sure that the arranged marriage goes through in several ways. They can not come to a wedding that they do not approve of, they can pay only for the marriage that they want, and in some countries, they can even impose legal sanctions on the undesired marriage.

Arranged marriages tend to last because the people participating enter the marriage with lower expectations and no responsibility. Often the two parties will grow together, and learn to accommodate one another's needs. The responsibility for the happiness of the marriage lies with the parents who put the two together. These marriages also tend to be more functional and stable, and they can be maintained with less effort than traditional Western marriages. This, however, may be due to factors relating to the beliefs and traditions of the cultures in which arranged marriages are more common.

The Unification Church strongly believes in arranged marriages. This religion is present in over countries. In , couples in the U. Reverend Moon had arranged marriages for all of his followers, which he had personally picked out. Now that the church has grown immensely, he has passed down the responsibility to the mothers.

Many of them have arranged spouses for their daughters by the time they are However, the family waits to set them up until they graduate high school or sometimes college. There are two other forms of residence, however, they aren't as common. There's Ambilocal residence where the couple lives with one family for awhile and then moves to live with the other spouse's family. Eventually, they have to decide who to live with permanently. And then there's Duolocal residence where lineage membership is so important to both the husband and wife that even though the couple is married they still live apart from one another and with their families.

The division of labor by sex largely determines where a couple resides after marriage. If the male predominates in the division of labor than the couple's residence tends to be an Avunculocal and Patrilocal residence. However, if the females predominate than they tend to live in matrilocal residence. And if neither sex predominates in the division of labor than their residence tends to be more ambilocal or neolocal residence.

Often paired with marriage in many cultures is a trade of symbolic or economic goods. These types of exchanges can mainly be fit into two distinct camps, dowry and bridewealth. Dowry can also be viewed as an inheritance for the woman, though this is usually in cultures where both men and women are heirs. In other cases, such as in socially stratified societies, a dowry gives a woman the security of knowing that after she is married she can still enjoy her usual lifestyle and in the case of divorce, avoid poverty and discomfort.

If the husband and wife are to be divorced, the wife is able to get back the dowry that her parents had given. Usually, a woman with a greater dowry is able to find herself a rich husband, while a woman with a smaller dowry is able to only find herself a poor husband. Dowry is mainly found in Europe and Asia's agricultural communities, but can also be found in Africa. The types of goods that a dowry can consist of vary greatly from society to society, but some specific examples are:. More specifically, in the society of the northern Indian Khalapur Rajputs, how well women marry, and more importantly how they are treated by their husbands family corresponds directly with the size of their dowries.

This is because women will normally marry into a higher social ranking. This process forces them to move to their husband's village Patrilocal Residence , and assume the role of foreigner alongside the family. In more contemporary India, however, dowries have been banned, though they are still quite regularly used. This form of economic exchange is most often found in agricultural and pastoral patrilineal societies, though it is not limited those lifestyles.

In many cases, bridewealth also serves to create a positive relationship between the families of the husband and wife. When the wife's family receives the bridewealth, they use the goods they receive for their daughter to find her brother a wife. Some examples of the goods which are exchanged in regards to bridewealth are:. Kinship terminologies are shaped by the kind of clan organization found in a society, not by a group's position on evolutionary scale.

The term you use to identify someone in relation to you shapes how you should interact with them. Endogamy is the practice of marriage within a specific cultural group or social group based on custom or law. An example of endogamy is the marriage between those who are of the same faith or belief system. Practicing endogamy requires that you reject marrying someone on the basis that they do not fit into your social group whether it is because of religious affiliations, social classes, ethnicities, etc..

Individuals that practice endogamy says that it unifies social groups and encourages bonding. Some say the practice of endogamy allows for cultures to survive and maintain practices and beliefs when they move to an alien area. Yet this very same idea of cultural survival through endogamy may also lead to the extinction of some social groups that refuse to intermarry, leading to a decrease in their population. One social practice that can identify with endogamy is Jewish marriages.

Still many orthodox rabbis will not officiate at interfaith marriages because the three major branches of Judaism do not allow, people who want to be in intermarriages. This long-standing belief that intermarriages should not be allowed in Judaism originates from an idea that women are sanctified to their husbands and cannot be sanctioned if both are not Jewish. Endogamy is practiced for many reasons, and it is a large part of Jewish culture, but as globalization occurs more and more people are beginning to become part of intermarriages and stopping the practice of endogamy.

Although marriage within one's specific cultural or social group is common throughout various many societies, the presence of 'incest taboo' creates a prohibition on sexual relations between close family members. One proposed reason as to why this taboo prevent incest in so many societies is the correlation of increased birth defects when the two parents are genetically similar. The Westermarck Effect also works to combat incest as it causes a natural revulsion toward marriage or sex with close relatives. The Westermarck Effect is also responsible for a revulsion towards people that resemble your close family members, but not those that resemble you.

Exogamy is the practice of marriage outside of a specific cultural group or social group. Exogamy was said to have arisen as a way of avoiding inter-familial marriage or incest. Examples of exogamy groups include, but are not limited to, people from the immediate family, people whom are considered kin, and those of the same sex.

A lot of times exogamy is less likely to occur in places where different races are of higher classes than others are. Such as in South Africa the whites are considered to be of a higher class than the full Africans in the townships, so a parent would be against the exogamy of a white into the African community. Exogamy is often practiced in tribal communities, where a male from one tribe will marry a woman from a tribe outside of his own.

Exceptions to exogamy, such as interracial or same-sex marriages can make a person a pariah in their own community. American culture naturally harbors exogamy in the social and marital realms, since it is such a diverse nation. Hypergamy is the practice of marrying into a social or cultural group that is equal to or higher than the caste that one was born into.

Hypergamy deals with women marrying into a higher class. Hypergamy includes but is not limited to marring a person of higher education, financial status, as well as social status. Usually cultures that practice hypergamy have a very strong focus on class and the finances necessary to support a prosperous life. A man with higher earning power can provide better for offspring than a man of lesser status. Hypogamy is the practice of a man marrying a woman of a higher class or of higher social status than himself.

This happens mostly in countries where women have an equal opportunity to make money or be better educated. Hypogamy is less commonly found in cultures where women have fewer rights than men. Some examples of this are the Islamic and early American cultures. Isogamy refers to a biological condition where sex cells, or gametes, are identical to each other. Many fungi and plants have isogamous gametes. In mammals, though, the ovum female reproductive cell is larger and looks much different than the sperm cell male reproductive cell.

This is called anisogamy. This may also pertain to same-sex relations since monogamy means having a committed relationship with just one partner at a time. Isogamy could also mean being in a committed relationship with the same sex. Divorce is the termination of marriage. In the United States and many other countries it is a legal process in which a judge legally ends a marriage and all marital duties. A divorce does not declare a marriage null and void, as in an annulment, but instead states that the marriage was unsuccessful for any of a variety of reasons and declares the two individuals as single.

When a divorce takes place there are many things that the judge will have to rule on ranging from the custody of the children to the sharing of property. Western cultures have seen a sharp increase in divorces over the past fifty years. Most cultures make it possible for individuals to terminate a marriage. In some societies the process is longer and harder, while in others it is almost impossible.

There are many countries where divorce is illegal and taboo. There are numerous problems that can arise in a family which can lead to a divorce, one of which is dysfunction. Not only is the dysfunction a part of the cause of divorce but can also be a factor on the adjustment that children go through when a family separates. The many possible reasons behind such a high rate of divorce are the independence of women, declining earnings among men without college degrees, rising expectations for personal fulfillment from marriage, and greater social acceptance of divorce.

When getting divorced, there are many ways parents can help ease their children into their new family situation. Having couples initiate and encourage open discussions with their children, and reassure their support and love for their children can be extremely beneficial in the adjustment of a new divorce. Assure the parties involved that it is not their fault, and making sure continuous contact with the other parent is available.

Divorce in Shari'a law is often initiated by the wife with a the Khula, the returning or denial of her dowry or the husband simply saying the word "Talaq" three times. Divorce in Islam is focused on the reconciliation of the married couple whenever possible. Before the divorce can be finalized there is a waiting period called the Iddah. The standard period of an Iddah is three of the wife's menstrual cycles, this is to see if there is a child from the marriage.

If the woman cannot bear children then the waiting period is three months. During this time the wife may not seek out another marriage. A Muslim male is allowed to change his mind up to three times.

How and Why Intimacy Is Changing

In the Philippines, a married couple cannot divorce by law. Regardless of where they live, this law follows them throughout the entire world. Article 15 of the New Civil Code states that laws pertaining to familial rights and responsibilities, or to the standing, form and legal capability of persons, are compulsory upon inhabitants of the Philippines even though residing overseas. Therefore, Filipinos are still under the rule of their land even if they are in another location.

Annulment is the only recourse a Filipino citizen has under normal circumstances. This is different than a Decree of Nullity of Marriage. This states that the marriage was invalid at its inception. It was not legal due to incorrect agreement or performance by the clergy. Christianity as a general whole frowns upon divorce shading it as very negative. However, toleration among the different Christian domination's differs. The Roman Catholic Church for example expressly forbids divorce for any sacramental consumated marriage defining a couple as wed until the death of one or both of the spouses or unless an annulment is granted.

If there is no annulment, then even if separated, they may not remarry and are not considered "single" as defined by the term divorce. The topic of divorce can be found bibliographically in the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and the epistles of Paul. Paul addresses this issue forwardly in "his First Epistle to the Corinthians chapter 7: So then if, while her husband liveth, she be married to another man, she shall be called an adulteress" Romans 7: Demonstrating clearly the Roman Catholic view on the topic of divorce and the biblical support in it's standing.

The effects of so many divorces have tremendous long-term impacts on both the divorcees and any children involved. And divorce will affect not only the current generation but is suggested by mounting social evidence to even affect future generations. This has severe impacts on the society as a whole, with so many divorces occurring.

For example, it is estimated that families with children that were not poor before see their income drop by about fifty percent after a divorce; this then affects society as a whole when that family seeks financial assistance from the government. In addition many families who experience divorce do not maintain the same religious practices they had while married, this can be for several reasons. However, religious practice of any kind has been linked to better health, longer marriages and a healthier overall family, thus the reduction in practice can worsen the effects of the divorce on the children and parents.


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Marriage is an important aspect of any society, and the US government should realize this and re-focus spending to help sustain this vital aspect to increase the health of its current people and those to come Fagan [40]. Kinship refers to the culturally distinct relationships between individuals who are most likely thought of having family ties. Societies use kinship as a basis for forming social groups or for classifying people into roles and categories [26].

In anthropology, kinship includes people who are related by lineage and marriage. In many societies, kinship provides a way for transmitting status and property from one generation to the next.


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An ethnographic example of kinship would be in today's American culture, where the way in which kinship works can be seen when it comes to inheritance and the wills of the deceased. The closest in kin, such as the spouse or the children, tend to receive the inheritance before other, more distant, relatives do. An example of kinship in the Hindu religion is after the death of a family member, the rest of the family doesn't bath for sometimes ten or eleven days.

After that period is up the family then meets for a ceremonial meal and many times will offer gifts to charity. Though most of the residential arrangements consist of simply a nuclear family, it is becoming more and more diverse with adoption, families not willing to put their elders in nursing homes, and unemployment creating tough living situations for some; as kin, it is expected that we are willing to offer help, shelter, and monetary support to those to whom we are related.

An ethnographic example of how a "family" is defined is the family structure in contemporary Japan. The contemporary Japanese family is much like that of the contemporary American family, usually consisting of a mother, father, and children living in the same household nuclear family. This traditional system is unfamiliar to most Americans because it is more complex than what we are used to. The system consists of multigenerational households in which extended families, sometimes all the way up to great grandparents, all live together.

The line of descent is patrilinial, or traced through the father. The children are expected to eventually leave the family to join another family and find their own way in the world with regard to a household, career, and the like. Rural families with more than one son typically send their second or third sons into the city to begin finding work in the more contemporary and industrial society.

Historically, there was a different social cultural dynamic when it came to family roles. Presently, the family roles are, again, very much like those of the contemporary American family. Because the father is away for long hours nearly every day of the week at work, this creates Japanese family dynamic: Because she must be in charge of all of this, and keeping the household in order, the intimate relationship that usually exists between a mother and her children is essentially non-existent; rather, the relationship is very strained.

With all kinship, the behaviors and closeness of relationships, the traditions created within families, the way we refer to our relatives, and the rules of residency all depend on familial descent. Through these different types of descent, there can also exist Genealogical Amnesia , which is the structural process of forgetting while groups of relatives, usually because they're not currently significant in social life. Unilineal descent groups that are made up of links from the father's side of the family are patrilineal, and descent groups that are made through links on the mother's side are matrilineal.

Anthropologists also refer to bilineal descent as bilateral descent , which is the principle that a descent group is formed by people who believe they are related to each other by connections made through their mothers and fathers equally. Another form of bilineal descent is the bilateral kindred. This group is much more common and consists of the relatives of one person or group of siblings and is the kinship group that most European and North Americans are familiar with.

This type of group forms around a particular individual and includes all the people linked to that individual through kin of both sexes. These people refer to themselves as relatives to one another. A family is a primary social group, in any society, of which two individuals who wish to share their lives together in a long-term committed relationship, raising offspring. Anthropologists and feminists have debated whether or not an adult male has to be present to be considered a family, this caused anthropologists to come up with different terms to distinguish between these different types of families.

A conjugal family is one where a family is based on a marriage, a husband and wife, and their children. In most societies in the conjugal family, the spouse lives in the same dwelling, along with their children, though there are still some where the husband does not live with the wife and kids, but frequently visit them.

Non-conjugal families across cultures are usually infrequent, however, in the United States non-conjugal families have become increasingly more frequent. Having an extended family is also very common in the United States. An extended family refers to a consanguineal family and also kindred who do not belong to the conjugal family. It is also what goes beyond the Nuclear family.

Extended family consists of grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins etc. Your extended family may not always live in the same household with you but in many cases visit for many different occasions family reunions, birthday parties, or simply just to enjoy the company of family. This type of family usually consists of multiple different generations of people. A kindred family is an egocentric network of relatives that extends beyond the domestic group. This household form consists of only one person living by themselves.

According to the U. Despite New York City's massive population, Manhattan has the highest percentage of single-person households out of any place in the world. Marriage, at least in America, is also becoming less and less of a traditional ceremony. The term nuclear family is used to refer to a family and household setting that consists of a father, a mother, and their children. Nuclear families can be any size as long as the family can support itself and there are only 2 parents. If there is more than 2 parental figures in the family then it goes from being a nuclear family to an extended family [34] The Nuclear family is a symbol that is deeply rooted into western culture.

Historical studies in western family life have shown that this household form has been extremely common as far back as history reaches, especially in the Northwest part of Europe in countries like England, Holland, Northern France, and Belgium. Recently in the 21st century, gender roles are no longer expected and nuclear families have become less common and single parent families are becoming more frequent.