Historias del Peirao (Spanish Edition)
In this sense, being a contemporary supposes For Benjamin, a prominent figure establishing a relationship with that present that adheres us to it through a distance. The contemporary, through this distance, next to the thinker, reader and writer, sees the darkness, resisting everything that prevents him from perceiving it. As recalled content with only describing the no of the light that blinds us Didi-Huberman, , by Lepenies, since it has been to combat p. The contemporary is not limited to see the present from the point of view the misery of the moment, the utopian of destruction, or a radical impossibility, of experience.
His distance to the present, system does not tolerate boredom or in fact, distinguishes small flashes, such as how to distinguish at night the glow of melancholy. Sadness and boredom are fireflies. In the fall of the experience is possible to become aware, pay some attention. Such awareness is what allows us to see that even in the fall of the experience, there Such organization and regulation is another possible experience to be made. At that present, which is a gap opened of desire, leisure, fun and free time between the past and the future, we can still become fireflies ourselves through acquire in the Nazi slogan a maximum gestures, actions and words, and through them build a community of hope that can perverse expression.
I wonder if certain still allow the transfer of the experienced. But this requires taking distance from time contemporary pedagogical obsession for and reality. This distance is not merely a critical distance, which is secured in a prior ordering leisure and free time, in which representation of what the reality of time is now, through an act of knowledge. This youth and adults are undifferentiated, is distance is an appropriate distance, or what is the same: A distance not an operation of biopolitics pedagogy located midway between a knowledge already established and a not knowing that with a scent of totalitarian solution.
A distance that allows us to make ourselves present in our present. Hannah Arendt said, totalitarian solutions always survive their own regimes. The disappearance of fireflies is a diagnosis of the present time and states Philosophy of experience a relation of pure contemporaneousness and thinking exercises with it.
Against a perhaps widespread opinion, being contemporary is to be I have decided to start from the strong intuition that lies behind these images —in a aware of a relationship of distance and contrast of light and shadow— to refer, not in a decidedly pessimistic nor optimistic estrangement with the present itself, tone, to a dramaturgy of the experience in education, that is, to certain idea of the or in other words the spirit of the time. Gadamer argued the same in Truth and method: In the second one of the most confusing Gadamer, , p.enter
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According to Gadamer, the modern scientific theory tried to bad thing that one his time is proud of, objectify the experience until completely freeing it of any historical moment: Who cannot settle on experience into experimentum. Only the subject of never do anything to provide happiness to experience knows what he has experienced, but cannot pass it on. Here, we bump into their fellow men Nietzsche, , p. Nowadays, any talk about the in relation to his own present as experience must be based on the verification that it is no longer feasible.
According to this principle, exhausted from a clash of events which he has not been able an experience is educational if it favors the conditions for the to transform into communicable experience. It is this inability student to grow so that this development, based on experiences to translate events into experience which makes daily life already carried out, allows further growth in other directions. To work well, Dewey said, people the same paradox of the experience generates. One would need freedom from the relationship between means and try to be aware that the experience is, at the same time, a ends.
Here, the concept that unifies all the pragmatism is the collective linguistic concept and a reminder that the meanings one of experience, a much more ambiguous term in English to which the experience points to always leave a surplus which experience in German, which separates it into two: The experience experience and erfahrung event. In a recent study, Sennet said would not be but merely the point of intersection between that the concept of experience has an affinity with the notion public language and private subjectivity, between the shared of craftsmanship, which focuses on objects and impersonal dimension that it is expressed through culture —destined to practices, depends on the curiosity, tempers obsession and be transmitted through teaching— and the ineffable of the guides the craft to the outside.
Experience has the value of a individual interiority Jay, Thus, while it would be true at trade —the trade of experience— which calls into question the same time that experience is what has been suffered, gone the kind of subjectivity that nests in the sheer process of feeling through or undergone —and in this sense incommunicable to Sennet, , p. Is not elements that make it transmissible. However, the characteristic typical of every dull concept, or something like a despotic signifier.
Dewey had to write a text to replicate not only his apprenticeship in the deepest sense of the term. The modern critics but also his evil disciples who, in an excess of loyalty to concept of education has put in brackets, perhaps as something their master, would have betrayed his philosophy of education. Thus, it appears activity, as something which did not randomly leave anything that a crucial issue is to explore how the relationship between outside itself, transformed the experience into a trained practice.
The belief that case of Dewey is paradigmatic, has focused on the exclusive use all authentic education takes place through experience does of the term. It is not intended to enclose in a narrow concept not mean that all experiences are true or equally educational. I have been getting convinced that as a other. Since some experiences are anti-educational Dewey, , field of knowledge, the philosophy of education is a kind of p.
What is gained in meaning is lost in sense, and a relationship with the world based on the production of presence is eventually forgotten. As a field of study, the philosophy of education is part of the humanities, and if there is one trait that characterizes the self-understanding of the humanities as a field of knowledge is conviction, historically verifiable, that its primary task, if not exclusive, is to attribute meaning to the phenomena it analyzes.
The consequence of this privilege of the most spiritual dichotomy is a categorical split between the being and the appearance, making it impossible to claim that in the sphere of human affairs being and appearing coincide; or said in terms of the cited author, a loss of the world, a dematerialization of the world Gumbrecht, , p. This is a practice which, in its relation to politics, does the test of reality, that in the criticism of deception, deceit and flattery finds its role in the truth, and that in the transformation of the subject, by himself and by the mediation of the other, an exercise.
A practice, therefore, outside politics, which tests the intentions of every discourse by trying to monopolize the regime of truth, a practice, in short, understood as an exercise, as asceticism. If so, then philosophy cannot intend to say what needs to be done in the order of politics, what happens with the truth or falsity, or trying to liberate the subject.
The philosophy as ascesis, the philosophy as critical, the philosophy as exteriority reluctant to politics: I think this is the way of being of modern philosophy. That was, in any case, the way of being of ancient philosophy Foucault, , p. From the pedagogical point of view, the philosophy of education, which maintains a certain exteriority with respect to the political and social environment, is a reflection on the transforming conditions of the subject of experience, as conditions of possibility of an access to a discourse on the truth, and is, ultimately an exercise of thought set in the present.
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It is from thinking exercises that reality emerges [ This type of thinking exercises do not intended to prescribe, i. That style is the one of the essay, and the the broken thread of tradition Arendt, essayistic vocation of the philosophy of education also affects the thinking. It is about , p. They are not born from a resigned weakness, but from an it is still possible, for a philosophical effort to enable an intermediate space between human finitude and its endless thirst reflection on education, a not strictly for knowledge.
The essay stands in a way that seeks to do justice to the complexity of conceptual experience of the world, the real, articulating speculation and everyday experience.
Synonyms and antonyms of derechura in the Spanish dictionary of synonyms
From the everyday places in the sense of a separation between is where the demanding task that is assigned to the philosophy of education starts: Thinking, for thought; or in other words, if an then, would be opening up to what makes us think, all that makes us discontinuous. It is the distance that in every time is producer of a presence not reduced adopted to see what is there; to see it and walk it, and go through it and pass it on. The focal point of the passing, in the passages in the gestures of the passing. A philosophical inquiry in argument is trying to recover a mode of education registered like this, is destined to think of this passing, think about these experience, in relation to a philosophical passages: It is in this sense that the philosophy we think and what we do.
All of this of education is a reflection on the relationship, the encounter and the transmissions goes through a particular encounter between generations in the filiation of time, and thinking about the voices that name with the real. This relationship supposes such encounter. I think, and I hope the reader agrees, that the essay as a literary Philosophy as a way of life form has a natural affinity with the The poetic distance in education exercises [of thought] I have in mind Arendt, , pp.
One can think of education from different perspectives and languages. In fact, Just as in literature it is possible education can be thought because the human being is a being registered in time to tell stories formed by mere trifles, and language. Time is experienced, in a narrative becoming, and the language is coincidences and unexpected effects, inhabited according to different ways of expression.
The experience of time and without incurring in a vulgarity absent language is multiple, and in both cases the transmission and the encounter between of a guideline narrative idea, so in the the generations is an, also, essential experience. What happens in that encounter is field of the philosophy of education it a transmission that is part of a temporary relationship mediated by language, which, would be feasible to produce thoughts contrary to a dominant perception of it, is not just a communication tool between not from a reason unrelated to the events equals, but the end of any communication that deserves to be called human.
With no —which gives food for thought— but time difference —in their own experience— there is no possibility of any transmission, from specific experiences that reflect because education is held in the existence of a passage of many things in a time adult the changes in which we find ourselves to another time boy or young. The purpose of an educational The time dimension in education is crucial if the idea is to rescue a way of philosophizing would not be the experience capable of renewing some educational gestures.
For it is in the field of normative pretension of changing what gestures where what happens is accepted and supported —i. The modern age of acceleration does not allow the delay, patience and —nor we keep track of what we see and waiting, which are fundamental elements to pay attention to what happens.
This is we do not realize that we are looking—: In his book Logic of sense, the reality from an outside, unable to Deleuze points out that reality is constituted by two kinds of elements: The time of things —where It is reality the one that, thanks the man is installed, lives and learns— is the present because things are in space, to the powers of a thinking turned and the events —which are incorporeal— rather than existing, insist on things and into discourse, which is examined, as if states of affairs.
They are made in them, and their time is the one of the becoming.
- Meaning of "derechura" in the Spanish dictionary.
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In these, by these, experience is moment of knowledge, and not for the made and its temporality is intensive. In the regime of the event a certain type of experience of personal transformation. Arguing, assessing, exploring, contrasting Now, it is not by distancing from reality, taking it as a mere object of knowledge, theories are, according to this as a knowledge of the world and ourselves will be achieved, but through a different philosophical education, core activities gesture which is making ourselves present in that reality.
As a result of this relationship of the intellectual work in this dominant of presence, is by analyzing ourselves as we shape our lives. This is the something, making it visible, showing it. Production of the presence. So when we moment when someone moves away want to make ourselves present in something or before someone, or to ourselves, from reality and feels entitled to look we become artists, creators, poets. There are activities such as teaching that have to at it from themselves. The ideal image do with this: This implies a poetics microscope is the one that best reflects of the presence and an art of the distances.
In this relationship of critical distance the examined one is the reality because draw pertinent conclusions later. It is, for this tradition reality is a problem to be solved but not presence. However — also, about a vision of the philosophy of and this is the second philosophical tradition— in its Greek origins, philosophy was education embedded in the tradition established as a way of life, a life style; it was considered the result of an existential established by Kant, a tradition focused choice, not the result of a cognitive decision, or a mere act of knowledge.
From this process of reality. This experience was going through constant meditation on death and on moving away from reality, taking a conversion of attention. The basic philosophical principle was not constantly perspective and to say from oneself in projecting into the future but consider in and by itself the action that is done. From an independent, objective and clear way this derives the deep existential and ethical value of attention: From that is the reason the one that can and it derives a double release of the subject: It is about, therefore, focusing on what can realistically be done, because moves.
Focusing on the present is a According to this tradition, the requirement of the action Hadot, This principle of cruelty of the something related to the judgment, the real expresses more or less that the real has a unique, singular, final and irremediable classification, categorization, justification, character: According to this strategy, it would it is oriented to claims of validity, both be nothing but telling the reality from an articulated principle in a series of categories ethical-normative and epistemological.
This ability of making oneself —educational research, educational practice, educational present in the present, to live the event of the present, is the policies— under the scrutiny of his own thought —theory, same as living what Goethe called the health of the moment concepts, knowledge—, or expressed in other words: The subject of knowledge should be self, who self assesses —and the one who transforms himself— kept as far away as possible to observe it objectively.
It is philosophizing postulates that the truth is not given to the this reality the one which affects and in the presence of which subject by a mere act of knowledge, but it is necessary that the it is decided to establish a relationship of presence to know so- subject is changed, transformed, moved, become, to some extent mething, not so much about it, but about ourselves. This is not and up to a certain point, into other than himself to be entitled to examine the reality, but to examine ourselves.
The question to have access to the truth Foucault, In Galician it is cadela, the perra gorda being called can dog. Here, too, there is great variety. The duro is commonly called peso. Patacon is the common word for one penny. In some parts, however, they are very various. Crossing the grey old bridge over the Cave into the town of Monforte one Sunday morning went women kerchiefed in the following hues in the space of a few minutes: It is all very interesting, but one thinks it must be woefully confusing in practical life, for simple minds.
The Galicians, however, have complicated minds and possess as singular a capacity for distinguishing in a confusion of issues as for confusing the issues. Beware of thinking a Galician a fool if he is slow to answer or evades one question by another. He has no love of directness, his innate caution bids him to be chary of committing himself to anything definite. And shall I not? O'Shea, A Guide to Spain , p. Thus in the year a half -educated Galician remarked, with a most knowing air, that " England still sends Ambassadors to Spain " — " Well?
Another Galician whose reading was confined to the serial stories in cheap newspapers, declared that it was not enough to be able to read, one must know how to read. And his Non le podo dicir Indeed, I cannot tell you is a source of evident satisfaction to him. If pressed he will answer as he conceives the wish of his questioner to be: Surely it is much more than two leagues? When the Galician is charged with avarice, it is well to remember that his thrift is directed to the charmingly bucolic ideal of becoming owner of a plot of land in his beloved country, for which in exile he feels such constant soidade mother of the Portu- guese saudade , and that he is scrupulously honest and trustworthy, and very seldom overcharges or runs into debt.
The traveller should perhaps not expect of the serious, hard-working Galicians the innate courtesy of the high-bred Castilians or the more superficial attractions of the butterfly Andalusians, but he will be helped on his way by many an act of true kindli- ness. Certainly they are very lovable and human, and having great gifts and a determined will, they are likely to make their influence more and more felt in the old world and in the new. G ALICIA 1 has been called the Switzerland of Spain, but it has really little or nothing of Switzerland and — apart from the Irish charac- teristics of its inhabitants — might more accurately be described as a mixture of Cumberland or Scotland with Italy or Greece.
Certainly it has a most various and entrancing beauty, a quiet charm which captivates the fancy and inclines even the foreigner to morrina when he leaves it. It is a land rich in springs and rivers toda es sembrada de rios, says Molina , and most of the rivers, the Mino, the Sil, the Tambre, Mandeo, Lerez, Ulla, Limia, Avia and a score of others, are of fascinating beauty, while the smaller streams, flowing through granite, are a succession of green transparent pools and rushing falls.
The population is about two millions: Coruiia ,, Lugo ,, Orense ,, Pontevedra, i They have taken the place of chestnuts as the food of the people, and in some villages are in fact called castanas de terra Fr. The chestnuts, which to the uninitiated look very much alike on the tree, are distinguished carefully by the peasant in a dozen or more kinds, according as they ripen early or late, are large or small, or the fruit of an ungrafted tree regoldonas.
Those which are ready by Michaelmas are called miguelists [miguelita or temporan ; the verdella is due about the 12th of October, the large patosa about the 20th. At Esgos the largest kind is called monfortina, and in some places marquesa, but there are very many more names, almost every village having its words for the different kinds. If you see smoke coming from a roof at an unusual time this does not mean that the family is ban- queting or warming the house, but that the year's chestnuts are being smoked.
The process continues during eight or nine days and each chestnut — they are placed on thin lathes of wood — has to be turned over every twenty-four hours. The chestnut trees, which might grow on most of the mountain-sides, are unfortunately dying out in many parts, the peasants, although they regret them, not troubling to replace the trees that are smitten by disease.
Yet the average yield of each tree, apart from the early " windfall " called derrame or chorreo , is three or four bushels, and the wood is the best grown in Galicia. It does not warp and is used for rafters and furniture generally in the farms. Another very useful tree in Galicia is the silver birch ahedul , which in Galician is called hidueiro, hidro, hidiio, hido and hedolo Portug.
The ox-carts are made of oak, the wheels being made of the very heart cerne of the oak. Pines cover a great part of the country, and there are a good many small sawing factories, although the pine-planks are not exported on a large scale. Many of the fields and orchards are surrounded by bays, and the groves of health-giving eucalyptus are magnificent. The oaks, on the other hand, are very small. Thcmaiaxiiap, the very staff of life in a great part of the country, is thejoaaize.
So much is this the case that it is difficult to imagine Galicia with- out it or realize that it was only introduced, hy;. Its Galician name increases the illusion that it is indigenous, for whereas in Sicily it is known as Indian corn and in Tuscany as Sicilian corn, it is here called millo Portug. Its bread, lighter than the Basque arioa or Asturian borona, yellower than the broa of Minho, is called brona, and is baked in great round loaves on cabbage leaves the Basque uses the leaves of the catalpa in nearly every peasant's house — the round oven often bulges from the side of the house — although in many parts it is not easily bought.
The maize is soaked in soot and water before sowing. The peasants who live on brona are white-faced, but are in reality far more vigorous and active than they seem at first sight. The granaries in which the cobs are stored are one of the chief features of Galician villages, and the desfolladas are one of the most picturesque autumn sights as the gay-kerchiefed women crouch round the growing mound of cobs of various colours and the heap of white husks.
The maize is cut close to the ground with a sickle most of the reaping in Galicia is done with sickles, and many and many a time one sees a solitary reaper bending over her sickle or holding it for an instant above her eyes to ward off the blinding sun, and perhaps singing a melancholy strain , so that there are no yellow stubble-fields as in the Basque country, and in a few weeks in this rainy season the stumps are covered by a thick crop of grass. The maize thus cut, leaving in the empty field but a few pumpkins which soon, with the maize-cobs, will sun themselves. The granaries, of chestnut wood and granite with little roofs of tiles, are raised from the ground on granite legs.
Occa- sionally they are as high as the house and have steps up them, or are entered from the house across a little bridge. More often these horreos, in many parts called cabazos, are some 6 ft. Sometimes, though rarely, they are built of osier and thatched, and have the shape of a bath or cradle ; more rarely still they are round instead of oblong, as if they had taken the shape of the maize-stacks in the fields. The great yine-growing districts of Galicia are in the. The new wine is drunk in con- siderable quantities immediately after the vintage, when it gives an impression of the true juice of the grape, with the sun still in it.
Cabbages, the main ingredient of the famous pote gallego eaten at most meals throughout Galicia, are grown in separate plots or among the vines. They stand ten and twelve feet high, and their gaunt stalks, with a tuft of leaves at the top, bend in the same curves and varying directions as the palm trees of Elche's groves, of which they are miniature copies.
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They are especially beautiful when planted among untrellised vines; occasionally one of them pokes its head through a vine-trellis, like a cow looking over a hedge. In the south of Galicia grow great hedges of blue-grey reeds, recalling the Huerta of Valencia ; they are used to trellis the vines. Most of the peasants own one or two animals, a couple of sheep, or a cow, one of those yellow-brown long-horned cows which have made the adjective for yellow, marela [— amarilla synonymous in Galicia for a cow ; or at least a pig chanclo, cocho, cerdo and one or two hens churras or doves rulas , while every farmer has one of those sturdy little ponies which thrive on hashed whin and nibble at the shoots of prickly whin on the moors.
The valleys , of Galicia especially renowned for their fertility are the Valle de los Angeles, del JRosal, that of Quiroga, near Monforte, that around Noya, the Valle del Oro, while the country round Vigo and some of the more sheltered towns is all a garden and orchard. In Galicia it is difficult to get away from the habitation of man, for all the many mountains, high-lying moors [gandara, gandra and marshlands [marina, marinao.
Even where the map is a blank, one finds village after village, and scattered houses cover league on league. The children in the towns are innumerable and are very vigorous and healthy, so noisy and uncontrollable in fact that one begins to sympathize with the prophet in his vindictive invocation of the bears. A motor-car left for an instant in a small town is rapidly covered with a swarm of children, like ants on a lump of sugar.
Despite their individualism in questions of property, the Galicians often seem a gregarious race, but they come together, in market and fair and pilgrimage and religious procession, only to separate again to a Hfe of semi-isolation, just as 1 Cf. Altamira, Historia de Espana. THE COUNTRY 35 the lonely beggar who, a sordid medley of red and brown and orange, wanders across the moors, sack on shoulder and long staff in hand, from farm to farm, or the beggar-women who sit outside Santiago Cathedral, grey and motionless as though only their quick, penetrating eyes were alive, or the witch or exorciser or curandeiro or gaiteiro or blind singer may for a moment become the centre of a group of many people.
There is no city of , inhabitants in Galicia, yet the Galicians are everywhere, and, not content with providing a hard-working population in the large cities of Spain and Portugal and South America, they are able to emigrate in thousands to Cuba, where the United States have been quick to recognize their worth, and send yearly whole trainloads of harvesters to Castille: It is congenial to the sly humour and tenacious spirit of the Galician that he should always seem to be so down-trodden, humble and oppressed and yet be so successful.
The system of land tenure is one of the difficulties in Galicia. Just as in architecture the Galicians retained archaic styles long after they had been given up by neighbouring countries and in their native tongue allowed fossilization to set in, so Galician property in the twentieth century is often held by virtue of mediaeval title-deeds.
The problem is an old one, and the enforced expropriation de- creed, with all the rashness of youth, by the Cortes of the Republic proved no remedy. It is the ambition of every Galician to own a small piece of land or capital or industry. This has its advantages as well as its drawbacks, and accounts for the considerable amount of work done on a small scale: One may compare the industry of a potter of Buno, turning out twelve score porringers in a day for his own profit, with the following conversation between the author and a young mason near Orense, who received 22 reales 5 J pesetas a day: Property in Galicia may consist of a single tree, a tiny ruined granite mill or a small pinewood on rocky soil above a ria.
About Orense there are properties of two or three copelos. The classical instance of subdivision is officially given as follows: Thus a Galician recently, having re- marked that he had sold his foros, on being asked if he was not glad to have got rid of his land before the " strike of foreros " that is, before the tenants began to refuse to pay the foros , answered: I had no land to get rid of. They are sometimes payable in money, but more often in kind. They are in fact even more various: Villa- Amil quotes a title of the year in which the foro consists of a sucking-pig, a measure of wine and a dozen eggs at Michaelmas, a kid, more wine and a dozen eggs at Christmas and Easter.
The f or ero was a kind of vassal of the af or ante ; he rarely received 1 Resefia Geogrdfica y EstadisHca de Espana Madrid, A good many proprietors have now agreed to the redemption of the foros, but some still insist on receiving them in kind. The largest tenant, called the cabezalero, collects and hands in the foros to their owner.
The tenant can sell and bequeath the land, and has in fact become its real proprietor. The properties are nearly all small in extent. A generation ago Villa- Amil gave twenty fanegas i as the average size ploughland, meadow, wood, soto chestnuts and mountain. The largest owners of vines at vine-growing La Rua, Senores Casanova, do not obtain yearly more than 10, litres of wine. Travelling in Galicia may be said to be a special science, for there are lew railways, and till a few years ago the horse diligencias were the chief means of conveyance.
They have now been replaced everywhere by huge motor omnibuses, which still, however, retain the names and divisions of the diligencia: Their arrival at a small town is the event of the day. The mails are carried off to the post-office, the passengers descend as best they may from the roof, to which presently a ladder is run up, and the huge brass-bound trunks of the commercial travellers are brought slowly down. But in some parts the horse diligencia survives, or there is a small motor like a private car which takes the mails and has room for four or five passengers.
Sometimes one has to hire a cesta basket , a spring- less wicker carriage drawn by two horses harnessed with ropes. But the best way of all is to go in one's own motor or on foot. It is a delightful country for walking, neither too hot nor too cold; the granite roads — and they are often excellent and well shaded — dry up an hour after rain has fallen and have no mud.
Their freedom from mud and dust in most parts is delightful. Not that much rain is to be feared if the right season of the year — June-September — be chosen.
Galicia is so often spoken of as rainy that few persons realize that the summer there can be almost rainless, a succession of days of cloudless turquoise-blue sky. The winter is indeed extremely wet and the sun not very often seen from October to March, but even in October it is possible to have many days of enjoyable walking, sometimes under 40 SPANISH GALICIA the darkest sky, when one feels rather like the Children of Israel in the Red Sea, for the water is clearly there, but a wind keeps it from descending, and one passes on dry.
This clouded weather excellently suits Galicia, then grey and dully in- tense, with dark pinewoods and leaden-blue or purple hills, and it is equally charming when the soft white mist, the Galician hretema, makes a dim mystery of the countryside. In the small towns one does not find the great bare Spanish posada or parador, and the exterior of the little fondas is often not alluring ; they may seem little more than cottages, indeed, and pigs may come trotting out of the front door. Inside, however, one finds as a rule good, well-cooked, plain food — eggs, fish, vegetables, meat not so good , coffee, milk, perhaps even butter — and clean, bare, whitewashed rooms.
There may be no electric light, no bell, no looking-glass, the doors may be ill-fitting and keyless, the sheets may be patched and darned, but they are white and clean, and only put on the bed after the traveller's arrival. Even the pedestrian, moreover, receives a ready welcome, and the charges even to-day are about five francs for the " complete day.
In the more remote parts it is well to take a little fine salt, or not to be impatient if the demand for salt is answered not by salt, but by a slow sound of thumping: The inn kitchens are delightful, with their huge pote or ola, hung on a chain above the fire of the lareira, which is scarcely, if at all, raised above the level of the rest of the floor, the black pots and tripods standing about the fire of gleaming turf or flaring whin and heather and cistus, the burnished tenazas small tongs lying by the ashes, the great chimney and comfortable chestnut benches.
The inns of the small coast towns, as Corcubion, Mugia, Camarinas, are clean if primitive, and often have exceptionally good food. In fact you will be inclined to agree with the commercial travellers, who know all about these things, that one fares best in the remote small towns of Galicia. Many a small town or village is, moreover, renowned for its waters, and has a hotel for summer visitors, while the hotels of the larger towns, Vigo, Coruiia, Orense, Ponte- vedra, Lugo, Santiago and others, are excellent and very moderate in their charges.
It is only in the famous spas and baths, as in the great hotels of La Toja or Mondariz, that charges are high, but even here they are not more than from twenty to forty pesetas a day. The huespedes of the fondas in the smaller towns are, with occasionally some local official or officer, 42 SPANISH GALICIA commercial travellers viaj antes , Galicians, Mur- cians, Valencians travelling in wines or boots, or Catalans travelling in cloth, and although their conversation is somewhat limited, they are good company and know all the ropes of the road, as they travel over the same country in a rarely varying circle throughout the year, taking orders tontando notas.
In summer many of the towns have a colony of invalids and veraneantes. Many go to Galicia for their health, and not only the mineral waters, but the sea and peaceful country give health abundantly. But there are many other reasons for a visit. It is a land of pleasant climate and many fruits and delightful gardens and wild flowers — flowers hy- drangeas, geraniums, carnations flame and glow along the granite window-ledges and verandas, dark-red caraveles claveles against the grey granite — and a deep-shaded wood, a meadow, a running stream, a hill, a steep flowered hedge are never far away, and the slow ox-carts pass, the boerina in front with a long aguillada in her right hand and pulling a rope attached to the long horns of the oxen with her left.
But it also contains vestiges of ancient races and ruins of famous build- ings which make it one of the most interesting parts of Spain. There are many castros burrows and earth mamoas tumuli. There are also many dolmens and some cromlechs, but the existence of menhirs is more doubtful. There are also logan or moving stones. In many of the mountains great pillars of granite look as if they had been thrown into the air and poised themselves marvellously as they fell. The granite slabs which so dehghtfully hedge the fields in many parts of Galicia are no doubt a reminiscence of the prehistoric buildings so common in all Celtic countries.
Even now if you ask the name of any rugged height of granite sierra in Galicia you will probably be told that it is " Los Castros. Gahcia, with its usual conservatism, clung to the Romanesque style long after it had been abandoned in other parts of Europe. Their horseshoe arches — an archaic horseshoe arch previous to the horseshoe arch of the Moors, with which it has no connection — are fairly common in Galicia, although one of the best instances is in neighbouring Leon, in the tiny church of Penalba, near Ponferrada.
The outside of the church might almost be taken for a cottage. One could not help thinking of the similar difference between the exterior and interior of Santa Maria la Blanca at Toledo. There is a horseshoe arch in the church of San Feliz at Santiago, there are two blocked-up horseshoe arches faintly visible in the convent of San Clodio, near Ribadavia.
The great monasteries of Galicia are mostly in 1 See E. Pardo Bazan, De Mi Tierra , pp. Some towns, indeed, as Santiago, Allariz, Betanzos, Pontevedra, seem one great monastery or fortress. Of great interest too are many of the old castles, pagos, and granite houses and farms. The details of the capitals are often of amazing variety and loveliness, and the statues on many a church fagade are as full of life as those of Santiago's Portico de la Gloria. The same lifelike expression animates the wood-carving throughout Galicia: In Spanish painting the human figure has always- ousted landscape — a preference more favourable to Castilian than to Galician art — but in the art of the future Galicia may perhaps produce landscape- painters as distinguished as her mediaeval and modem poets.
Don Ramon Ca- banillas, perhaps the most talented of all the younger poets, is more political and aspires to be the national poet of Galicia. Two great names,i Rosalia de Castro and Eduardo Pondal , in themselves spell Galicia. The poet of the Anllons, to the south of Coruna, and the poetess of the Sar and the country between Santiago and Padron, have drawn Galicia for us in its beauty and its sadness. Most of the modem poets of Galicia, however, tell us quite as much of the customs, dance, pilgrimage, vintage, harvest, as of scenery and places.
The novelists, with their broader canvas, have given fuller pictures of the country itself. The Galician novels of Don Ramon Maria del Valle Inclan — Galician in subject, not language — Flor de Saniidad, Sonata de Otono, have less of human interest, but portray the country, or skil- fully suggest the peasantry in the region between Santiago and the northern coast of the Ria de Arosa. It may be truly said that no one who has not read these four novels can properly enjoy his Galician travels, or understand the Galicians.
Don Wenceslao Fernandez Flores sketches Galicia — the marinas of Betanzos and the country some leagues south of La Coruna — in Volvoreta fourth edition, , and Aqui ha entrado un ladron , while Dona Francisca Herrera in her Galician novel Neveda depicts with penetrating sympathy a piece of the life and country near La Coruiia, and Don Alejandro Perez Lugin in La Casa de la Troya eighteenth edition, describes with wit and careful observation the University life of Santiago de Compostela.
UNLESS one arrives by sea it is well to follow Borrow's example and enter Galicia from Villafranca del Bierzo, the hospitable little pilgrims' town surrounded by mountains, with its summer sky of an un-Castilian turquoise softness. Up the famous pass of Fuencebadon the little villages, Pereje, Trabadelo, Portela, Ruitelan, have tiny grey churches with hollyhocks about them and peaked cabins, thatched and smoke-blackened.
Women with red kerchiefs or light-blue crossovers are to be seen sitting at the doors or chattering at the fountain. From Las Herrerias, off the road to the left in the valley, comes the thud, thud, thud of threshing on small floors throughout the village. It is done with flails: Lamas, another village, is on the road, and on the left the river now rushes through a steep and narrow gorge.
Castro, further up, has a church smaller than some of its houses, although they are by no means large, with a spirited little belfry. After Castro there are no more trees, and the road, broad and very white, cuts through the sierra of many colours, changing in sun and shadow, leaden blue in the distance or purple with heather in flower, here grey-green with broom, there yellow-green with bracken, or black, brown and dark wine colour where it has been burnt by recent or less recent fires.
Piedrafita is the first village in Galicia, under the high Chao de las Cruzes. It looks across to Castro in Leon. Castro is surrounded by silver birch; at Piedrafita the favourite tree is the mountain-ash, and at Becerrea the magnolia. Not far from Piedrafita, high in the mountains, lies the famous shrine of El Cebrero, originally built for pilgrims on their way to Santiago. An excellent new road goes on to Becerrea, but the old road or path across the bare, heather-crowned mountains, with sierras all round, has its own fascination, and climbs down finally through the little villages of Castelo and Doncos to Nogales on the high-road.
Becerrea is surrounded by lofty dark sierras, outlined splendidly in gold on the dawning sky. High in these moun- tains lies the village of Cervantes, often cut off from all communication by the winter snows. LUGO 51 Another good road of forty-one kilometres goes from Becerrea to Lugo, past Baralla, Corgo, Nadela, houses of great blocks of granite, fields of maize, potatoes, meadows hedged with lichened slabs of granite or with loose walls of granite or slate, of which the houses nearer Lugo are built.
The road is shaded on either side by tall silver birch trees.
Men on ponies pass to a neighbouring feria with great umbrellas against the rain, old crones with crimson or scarlet kerchiefs peer from smoke- blackened hovels, and girls, dressed in a mixture of beautiful dull browns and faded reds and purples. The Mino at Lugo is already a broad river. This, once the capital of Spain, is now a sleepy old town of slate and granite, cut off from the world.
The Madrid newspapers arrive at noon of the following day, and the boy sellers disturb the siesta with their cries. In the summer many veraneantes come to take the baths. On one of them Adam and Eve are seen eating the forbidden fruit, on another they are being driven from Eden. On another the Devil, very ugly, with great horns, is pouring out coins before the Child Jesus, with a large figure of the Guardian Angel on the other side.
The interior of the cathedral is of gleaming white granite. The three towers are of baroque architecture, as is the town hall, which, however, has a lichened dignity, the design of the building bearing its ornament well. Its tall slender clock- tower stands at one end of the rectangular Plaza Mayor, gaily planted with flowers and trees, copper beech and others, with a line of great elms at the further end.
De Castro family (Sephardi Jewish)
Down one of its sides are shops under arcades, a favourite promenade on wet days and most evenings, and the other is mainly taken up by the convent of the Franciscans. At the end of the Avenida de San Domingo is the church of the old Franciscan convent, said to have been founded by St. Francis of Assisi himself on his return from Santiago; with its graceful architecture and wonderful cloister it is the most beautiful and interesting building in Lugo.
These kerchiefs are one of the most delightful notes of colour in Galicia. LUGO 53 square of a farm's window, against pinewood or moorland, in maize-field or the dull green and brown marshland of a ria, they are like the precious stones on an ancient missal. In the Avenida de San Domingo also is the granite convent of the Agustinas, with walls covered with ferns and blackberry and brambles, and a great Romanesque entrance arch. The city is indeed rich in old walls and ways. There is little wheeled traffic and some of the paved streets faintly resemble Seville's Calle de las Sierpes.
A typically Galician sound is the continual clatter of wooden sabots on granite and asphalt; they are worn by the peasants even in the finest weather. Here and there a fig tree or a vine looks over an ancient wall, for Lugo is full of gardens, and on either side of the Roman walls there are gardens and orchards. From the picturesque little triangular plaza, with whitewashed irregular arcades and a stone fountain now called after the poet Aureliano J.
Pereira, near the cathedral, goes a long, curving, granite-paved street of low, whitewashed houses which might almost be a street of Andalucia, but the words on one of the houses, " Vinos do Pais," remind one that one is in Galicia; and the street itself is tautologically called Calle de la Rua Niieva. Into this street come others of classic name, Arniano, de la Luz, de las Tenerias, de S.
Froildn, de los Homos. The Calle de la Soledad curves in such a way that two streets in succession go out from the Rua Nueva, each labelled Calle de la Soledad, a test of sobriety for the inhabitants. Dark red carnations hang from granite ledges, geraniums flower red along the whitewash, half-crumbling walls are crowned with vine or a dishevelled mass of traveller's joy. Here one has a fine study of the town and of the interesting slate chimneys, which are sometimes merely an opening with a tile above raised on stones and more stones to keep the tile on, and of the plain and dark mountains beyond.
The whole city combines ancient splendour with a certain rustic quietness and simplicity. There are tiny shops with bread, nuts, fritters, candles, sabots in their windows of a few small panes, but many of the houses have elaborate granite coats of arms. Thirty kilometres to the south-east of Lugo the 1 They have been saved from destruction by being de- clared a national monument in April, 1. Sarria is larger than it seems, and in the plain of green meadows has many scattered houses, slate-roofed, whitewashed, with placid windows, like the eyes of the oxen.
The country all round Sarria is very Galician and has a growing attractior;, peaceful, gentle, meigo: Dark-red-kerchiefed girls and boys with brown herets keep a few pigs or sheep or cows for the Samos cows, ignorant of Moscow Communism, feed each in its small meadow , old women dressed in a mixture of brown, orange, purple and red, are busy in the houses. Samos is in more hilly country.
There is a good road from Sarria 13 kilometres. Near Samos a little hamlet, all slate and broad corredores of weather- grey chestnut wood, faces a fall in the river. The village of Samos itself is almost as poor, but its great convent in this sunny, sheltered hollow of the hills has, including lay-brothers, some fifty Benedictines.
The convent's large church is eighteenth century, but the inner cloister is older: The country between Sarria and Monforte — Oural, Rubian, Boveda — is not grand or beautiful, but it is typically Galician: Many roads converge upon Monforte across the plain. The river Cave flows here, a broad and placid river under a four-arch bridge, although when it joins the Sil it seems scarcely more than a mountain stream. The town clambers, house above house of brown-tiled roofs and dark red balconies, up the steep hill crowned by the tower and the Palace of the Counts of Lemos , and the church of San Vicente del Pino here again there is the fan pattern without capitals , and the convent of Benedictines with a three-storeyed granite cloister in the massive Herrera style.
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