The Mercury Fillings Compilation(Chinese): The Mercury Solution (Chinese Edition)
Considering the very poor bioavailability of mercury in cinnabar, whether the mercury in these preparations is of any therapeutic value is highly questionable To extensively comment on these studies is beyond the scope of this minireview, and much more studies are needed to fully justify the therapeutic basis for inclusion mercury in any form of traditional medicines. This minireview comments on natural mineral cinnabar used in traditional medicines. Cinnabar is insoluble, has very low bioavailability and thus is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.
Once absorbed into the blood, the mercury disposition from cinnabar follows the pattern for inorganic mercury salts and preferentially distributed to kidney, with a small portion to the brain. The heating, overdose and the long-term use of cinnabar are major causes of mercury intoxication, but at the therapeutic doses, the adverse effects cinnabar-containing traditional medicines seem to be tolerable and reversible.
In safety evaluation of cinnabar-containing traditional medicines, total mercury content alone is insufficient, and chemical forms of mercurial compounds should be taken into consideration. Toxicologically, cinnabar or synthetic mercury sulfide should be distinguished from mercury vapor, mercuric chloride, and methyl mercury.
Toxicological profiles of cinnabar, mercury vapor, mercuric chloride, and methyl mercury. The authors thank Drs. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Exp Biol Med Maywood. Author manuscript; available in PMC Oct 1. Goyer , 1 and Michael P.
Find articles by Jie Liu. Find articles by Robert A. Find articles by Michael P. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Exp Biol Med Maywood. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Mercury is a major toxic metal ranking top in the Toxic Substances List.wordpressmu-169721-489711.cloudwaysapps.com/map15.php
Dental Health (prevention, root canal, mercury toxicity) · Nutritional qexefiducusu.tk
Introduction Cinnabar contains mercury sulfide has been used for years in traditional Chinese medicines and in Indian Ayurvedic medicines 1 — 3. Open in a separate window. Human exposure of mercurial compounds Elementary mercury is the pure form of mercury, also called metallic mercury. When cinnabar is inappropriately overheated, mercury vapor can also be released, and in Chinese Pharmacopeia, heating cinnabar is never a part of preparation technique 1 , 8 Cinnabar Cinnabar is the naturally occurring mineral with mercury in combination with sulfur, and is red in color so called red mercury sulfide, Zhu Sha or China Red.
Disposition of cinnabar as compared to mercury vapor, mercuric chloride and methyl mercury The solubility and bioavailability of cinnabar are quite low. Table 2 Disposition of cinnabar, mercury vapor, mercuric chloride, and methyl mercury. Absorption Absorption of cinnabar 0.
Distribution and biotransformation The distribution of mercury from absorbed cinnabar basically follows the distribution pattern for inorganic mercurials. Toxicological profiles of cinnabar, mercury vapor, mercuric chloride and methylmercury The toxicity potentials for mercurial compounds, including cinnabar and cinnabar-containing Chinese medicines, vary greatly dependent on the chemical forms of these mercurials 9 — Children are sensitive to mercury toxicity Early life stages are particularly vulnerable to mercury intoxication Treatment Therapy for mercury poisoning should be directed toward lowering the concentration of mercury at the critical organ or site of injury.
Pharmacology studies of cinnabar The effects of cinnabar on anxiety-like behaviors in mice were studied using the elevated plus maze test. Summary This minireview comments on natural mineral cinnabar used in traditional medicines. Table 3 Toxicological profiles of cinnabar, mercury vapor, mercuric chloride, and methyl mercury. Acknowledgements The authors thank Drs. From traditional Chinese medicine to rational cancer therapy. Biol Trace Elem Res. Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines. Lynch E, Braithwaite R.
A review of the clinical and toxicological aspects of 'traditional' herbal medicines adulterated with heavy metals. Expert Opin Drug Saf. Public health risks from heavy metals and metalloids. J Toxicol Environ Health A. Chinese patent medicine as a potential source of mercury poisoning. General situation of the study on the toxicity of cinnabaris. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. Heavy metals and heavy-metal antagonists. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Toxic effects of metals. Toxicological Profile for Mercury update Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; The three modern faces of mercury.
Heavy metal content of ayurvedic herbal medicine products.
Cinnabar-gold as the best alchemical drug of longevity, called Makaradhwaja in India. Am J Chin Med. The toxicology of mercury--current exposures and clinical manifestations. N Engl J Med. Uptake and distribution of mercury in mice from ingesting soluble and insoluble mercury compounds. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. Absorption of mercuric chloride and mercuric sulphide and their possible effects on tissue glutathione in mice.
Absorption of mercuric sulphide following oral administration in mice. Evaluation of methods for assessing the oral bioavailability of inorganic mercury in soil. Abnormal auditory brainstem responses for mice treated with mercurial compounds: Neurotoxicological effects of cinnabar a Chinese mineral medicine, HgS in mice. Differential neurotoxic effects of methylmercury and mercuric sulfide in rats. Neurotoxic mechanism of cinnabar and mercuric sulfide on the vestibulo-ocular reflex system of guinea pigs.
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Mercury-induced renal autoimmunity in the MAXX rat. Mercury exposure in children: Prenatal methyl mercury exposure from fish consumption and child development: A review of evidence and perspectives from the Seychelles Child Development Study. National Research Council; The anxiolytic effect of cinnabar involves changes of serotonin levels. Investigation of metal-binding metallothioneins in the tissues of rats after oral intake of cinnabar. Effect of angong niuhuang pill and heavy metal constituents on EcoG of brain damage caused by LPS in rats. Effects of cinnabar and realgar in angong niuhuang powder on lactate dehydrogenase and its isoenzymes in rats with infectious cerebral edema.
Effects of realgar and cinnabar in Angong Niuhumang Pill on ischemia brain injury in rats. Mercury-containing dental amalgam is known to be a source of human exposure to mercury. We have explored the use of electron-yield Hg L III X-ray absorption spectroscopy to characterize the chemical nature of dental amalgam surfaces. We find that the method is practical, and that it shows extensive mercury depletion in the surface of the aged amalgam with significant differences between old and fresh amalgam surfaces. The toxicological implications of these results are discussed.
The use of mercury-based dental amalgam fillings as a dental restorative is a well established practice that was first introduced in France in 1.
When correctly formulated, and neglecting any concerns related to toxicity, mercury dental amalgams present an almost ideal substance for restorative work, with easy installation, low creep, minimal dimensional change and high compressive strength. However, dental amalgam is also one of several sources of human exposure to potentially toxic mercury 3 , and its disposal can also be a source of environmental mercury pollution 4. Because of this, in recent decades the use of mercury-containing dental amalgams has become controversial, and several countries including Sweden and Norway have recently banned its use 5.
In North America the traditional view is that the advantages of mercury-containing amalgam outweighs any possible health risks 3 and for this reason mercury-containing dental amalgams are still widely used.
These Powerful New Medical Devices Could Make Mercury Leak Out of Your Dental Work
Nevertheless, the debate continues and dentists are divided about whether the benefits outweigh the risks, or vice versa , and more research is needed to quantify and characterize mercury exposure from dental amalgam 6. A number of sources of human exposure are known, and these include evaporation of mercury from the surface of the filling and subsequent inhalation, and leaching of mercury into saliva, in which bacterial action may be involved. Other sources of mercury exposure have also been recently demonstrated, specifically, migration of mercury through the tooth dentinal tubules 6 from where it could enter the blood supply to the pulp.
One source of human exposure to mercury 7 from dental amalgam will be through the surface of the filling, and the chemical composition of the surface is therefore of interest. In this preliminary study we have used a surface sensitive spectroscopic tool — electron yield Hg L III X-ray absorption spectroscopy — to probe the chemical nature of mercury at the surface of fresh and exposed fillings. Information obtained from this study will assist in understanding released metal toxicological behavior at the molecular scale, and will provide much-needed insights into the potential hazards or otherwise of the use of dental amalgam.
Drilling, installation of restorative and burnishing were performed exactly as if for human installation. The filling had a distinctive bright metallic luster. The tooth examined in this study was a mandibular second molar with a mesio-occlusal restoration, and had a discernible dark patina.
The exact history and age of the restoration is unknown, but we estimate approximately 2 decades of exposure to normal aural conditions. The tooth was carefully washed with distilled water and allowed to dry in air. Teeth were mounted with conducting aluminum adhesive tape to the backplane of the electron yield detector, taking care to place a slight overlap with the edge of the amalgam filling in order to maintain electrical connectivity and to avoid sample charging artifacts 8. Chemicals were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich and were of the best quality available.
Samples of Ag-Hg amalgam and Sn-Hg amalgam were prepared by allowing liquid elemental mercury to come in contact with a small piece of silver or tin metal foil Goodfellow Metals, Huntingdon, UK whereupon the mercury was quickly absorbed to form an amalgam containing approximately A sample of pure metallic mercury suitable for spectroscopic measurements was precipitated from aqueous HgCl 2 solution by reduction with a slight excess of sodium borohydride, which yielded a gray-milky solution which was then frozen prior to spectroscopic examination.
Beamline is equipped with a rhodium-coated vertical collimating mirror upstream of the monochromator, and harmonic rejection was accomplished by setting the cutoff angle of this mirror to 15 keV. Incident X-ray intensities were measured using a nitrogen-filled ionization chamber.
All other spectra were measured by monitoring X-ray transmittance using nitrogen-filled ionization chambers. Spectra were energy-calibrated with reference to L III -edge spectrum of Hg-Sn amalgam foil measured immediately following data collection, the lowest energy inflection of which was assumed to be X-ray absorption spectra XAS arise from excitation of a core electron e.
Such excitation creates a core-hole which relaxes via dipole-allowed decay of an outer electron with either the emission of an X-ray fluorescent photon or the emission of an Auger electron. XAS is commonly detected by one or more of three methods — transmittance, fluorescence yield, electron yield Transmittance is conceptually simplest, and is recorded by monitoring the intensity of a monochromatic X-ray beam before and after the sample.
Haley d Mark R.