Low-Carbon Development: Opportunities for Nigeria (Directions in Development)
The current volume focuses on low-carbon development. Building on the work under way on Nigeria's nationally appropriate mitigation actions, the authors evaluate opportunities to pursue national development priorities using technologies and interventions that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases GHGs , referred to here as low-carbon options. The document is structured as follows: Chapter three describes the analytical approach, providing a summary of how the scenarios were developed, methods of analysis, models, and the data and general assumptions used.
Cite this article as: Article Figures and tables References. Public Interest Statement Achieving a low-carbon development involves the development of an economy based on a low carbon power sources with minimal greenhouse gas emission. Introduction In the last century, the world has metamorphosed and experienced a phenomenal transition in the way energy is used, from coal-based to petroleum-based.
Methodology, data and scenario development 2. The model The LEAP system Heaps, is an integrated modelling tool used for energy policy analysis and climate change mitigation assessment Stockholm Environment Institute, The algorithm of the LEAP model The LEAP model uses a framework for calculating energy consumption, transformation electricity generation, oil refinery, charcoal production, coal mining , and carbon emissions.
Transformation The transmission and distribution module calculations take the domestic fuel requirement faced by the module and map those corresponding to the output fuels directly to the module input fuels. Costs The total cost of sector is calculated Webmeets, Cost-benefit analysis The cost-benefit analysis 1 in LEAP calculates the costs of each part of the energy system, such as the capital and operating maintenance costs of purchasing and using the technologies in the Demand and Transformation systems; the costs of extracting primary resources and importing fuels; and the benefits from exporting fuels.
Business-as-usual case in all sectors Demand side: CFL introduction, moderate energy efficiency in appliances Demand side: LED introduction, aggressive energy efficiency in all sectors Demand side: Estimated share of fuel type: Estimated share of fuel for transport sector by Results and discussion 3.
Results of the cost-benefit analysis Cumulative costs and benefits: Reference Discounted at 5. Tonne per carbon dioxide equivalent. Conclusions and policy implications In this study we developed an energy model for Nigeria which considered vital factors capable of influencing energy policies in future. The authors received no direct funding for this research.
Positive and future prospects of solar water heating in Nigeria. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology , 7 , — Geothermal gradients in the southern Nigeria basin. Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology , 26 , — Energy Policy , 36 , — Guide to economic appraisal: Carring out a cost benefit analysis. The public spending code. Retrieved August 29, , from www.
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A regional energy planning methodology including renewable energy sources and environmental constraints. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 7 , 99— A cost-benefit analysis of document management strategies used at a financial institution in Zimbabwe: South African Journal of Information Management , 15 2 , 1— Leapfrogging to green future: Retrieved July 18, , from www.
Expanding access to pro-poor energy services in Nigeria. International Center for Energy, Environment and Development. Low-carbon energy development in Nigeria: Challenges and opportunity The Sungas Project. Sustainable energy development in Nigeria: International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy , 5 , — Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from electricity generation in Nigeria. Current status and policy options.
Low-carbon development : opportunities for Nigeria (English) | The World Bank
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 51 , — Improving electricity access in Nigeria: Obstacles and the way forward. Scenario analysis of urban energy saving and carbon abatement policies: A case study of Beijing city, China. Procedia Environmental Sciences , 13 , — Use of radar for ground water exploration in Nigeria, West Africa. Motorola Aerial Remote Sensing, Incorporated. Measures to Mitigate Climate Change. The millennium development goals and household energy requirements in Nigeria.
Springer Plus , 2 1 , 1—9. World energy outlook Geothermal exploration in Nigeria. Long-range energy alternatives planning system—user guide for version Subsurface temperature variations and heat flow in the Anambra Basin, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences , 28 , — Do power cuts affect productivity? A case study of Nigerian manufacturing firms. Energy commission of Nigeria. Energy commission of Nigeria ECN. Federal Republic of Nigeria. This would make the technologies more affordable and competitive in the global market, particularly when combined with a phasing out of fossil fuel subsidies.
Recent advances in technology and policy will allow renewable energy and energy efficiency to play major roles in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Renewable energy technologies are being rapidly commercialized and, in conjunction with efficiency gains, can achieve far greater emissions reductions than either could independently. Renewable energy is energy that comes from natural resources such as sunlight , wind , rain , tides , and geothermal heat , which are renewable naturally replenished. For wind power and many other renewable technologies, growth accelerated in relative to the previous four years.
However, grid-connected photovoltaics increased the fastest of all renewables technologies, with a 60 percent annual average growth rate for the five-year period. Energy for power, heat, cooling, and mobility is the key ingredient for development and growth, with energy security a prerequisite economic growth, making it arguably the most important driver for energy policy. Scaling up renewable energy as part of a low emission development strategy can diversify a country's energy mixes and reduces dependence on imports.
It can also lower geopolitical risks and exposure to fuel price volatility, and improve the balance of trade for importing countries noting that only a handful of countries export oil and gas. Renewable energy offers lower financial and economic risk for businesses through a more stable and predictable cost base for energy supply.
Energy efficiency gains in recent decades have been significant, but there is still much more that can be achieved. With a concerted effort and strong policies in place, future energy efficiency improvements are likely to be very large. Heat is one of many forms of "energy wastage" that could be captured to significantly increase useful energy without burning more fossil fuels. Biofuels , in the form of liquid fuels derived from plant materials, are entering the market, driven by factors such as oil price spikes and the need for increased energy security.
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However, many of the biofuels that are currently being supplied have been criticised for their adverse impacts on the natural environment , food security , and land use. The challenge is to support biofuel development, including the development of new cellulosic technologies , with responsible policies and economic instruments to help ensure that biofuel commercialization is sustainable. Responsible commercialization of biofuels represents an opportunity to enhance sustainable economic prospects in Africa, Latin America and Asia.
However, they offer the prospect of increased market competition and oil price moderation. A healthy supply of alternative energy sources will help to combat gasoline price spikes and reduce dependency on fossil fuels , especially in the transport sector. Nuclear power has been offered as the primary means to achieve a LCE. Concern is often expressed with the matter of spent nuclear fuel storage and security; although the physical issues are not large, the political difficulties are significant.
The liquid fluoride thorium reactor LFTR has been suggested as a solution to the concerns posed by conventional nuclear. France reprocesses their spent nuclear fuel at the La Hague site since and has also treated spent nuclear fuel from France, Japan, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Spain and the Netherlands. One proposal from Karlsruhe University   developed as a virtual power station is the use of solar and wind energy for base load with hydro and biogas for make up or peak load.
Hydro and biogas are used as grid energy storage. A further development of this is the use of the carbon capture, hydrogen and its conversion into methane SNG synthetic natural gas to act as a storage for intermittent renewables. This involves the use of the existing natural gas methane grid as the store. In this case, the carbon dioxide is given economic value as a component of energy carrier.
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This "solar fuel"  cycle uses the excess electrical renewable energy that cannot be used instantaneously in the grid, which otherwise would be wasted to create hydrogen via electrolysis of water. The hydrogen is then combined with CO 2 to create synthetic or substitute natural gas SNG and stored in the natural gas network. The natural gas is used to create electrical energy and the heat used as well in CHP on demand when there is not enough sun photovoltaic, CSP The German natural gas grid, for example, has two months of storage, more than enough to outlast renewable energy low production points.
The concentration of CO 2 in the upper layer of the world's oceans is higher than is found in air, and thus it is the most concentrated " mine " from which zero-net carbon fuels can be produced. While that was about twice the petroleum fuel cost in , it is expected to be much less than the market price in less than five years if recent trends continue.
The proposed strategy of carbon capture and storage CCS - continued use of non-renewable fossil fuels but without allowing carbon dioxide to reach the atmosphere - has also been considered as a means to achieve a LCE, either in a primary or supporting role. Major concerns include the uncertainty of costs and time needed to successfully implement CCS worldwide and with guarantees that stored emissions will not leak into the biosphere. Combined Heat and Power CHP is a technology which by allowing the more efficient use of fuel will at least reduce carbon emissions; should the fuel be biomass or biogas or hydrogen used as an energy store then in principle it can be a zero carbon option.
CHP can also be used with a nuclear reactor as the energy source; there are examples of such installations in the far North of the Russian Federation. Most of the agricultural facilities in the developed world are mechanized due to rural electrification. Rural electrification has produced significant productivity gains, but it also uses a lot of energy. For this and other reasons such as transport costs in a low-carbon society, rural areas would need available supplies of renewably produced electricity. Irrigation can be one of the main components of an agricultural facility's energy consumption.
Different crops require different amounts of energy input. For example, glasshouse crops, irrigated crops, and orchards require a lot of energy to maintain, while row crops and field crops do not need as much maintenance. Those glasshouse and irrigated crops that do exist will incorporate the following improvements: Livestock operations can also use a lot of energy depending on how they are run.
Feed lots use animal feed made from corn, soybeans, and other crops. Energy must be expended to produce these crops, process, and transport them. Free-range animals find their own vegetation to feed on. The farmer may expend energy to take care of that vegetation, but not nearly as much as the farmer growing cereal and oil-seed crops. Many livestock operations currently use a lot of energy to water their livestock.
In the low-carbon economy, such operations will use more water conservation methods such as rainwater collection, water cisterns, etc. Due to rural electrification, most agricultural facilities in the developed world use a lot of electricity. In a low-carbon economy, farms will be run and equipped to allow for greater energy efficiency.
The dairy industry, for example, will incorporate the following changes: Fishing is quite energy intensive. Improvements such as heat recovery on refrigeration and trawl net technology will be common in the low-carbon economy. Protecting forests provides integrated benefits to all, ranging from increased food production, safeguarded local livelihoods, protected biodiversity and ecosystems provided by forests, and reduced rural poverty.
Adopting low emission strategies for both agricultural and forest production also mitigates some of the effects of climate change. In the low-carbon economy, forestry operations will be focused on low-impact practices and regrowth.
Forest managers will make sure that they do not disturb soil-based carbon reserves too much. Specialized tree farms will be the main source of material for many products. Quick maturing tree varieties will be grown on short rotations in order to maximize output.
Flaring and venting of natural gas in oil wells is a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. The World Bank estimates that billion cubic meters of natural gas are flared or vented annually datum , an amount equivalent to the combined annual gas consumption of Germany and France or enough to supply the entire world with gas for 16 days.