Interpretive Planning: The 5-M Model for Successful Planning Projects

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Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Interpretive Planning by Lisa Brochu. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Interpretive Planning , please sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Interpretive Planning. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Feb 01, Tim Merriman rated it it was amazing Recommends it for: Heritage Interpreters, Landscape architects, architects, planners.

Lisa's 25 years of practical experience as a planner shines through in a thorough approach that has now been taught with hundreds of professionals through Interpretive Planning Workshops conducted by National Association for Interpretation. It has also become a valued textbook in many college curricula for heritage interpretation. Kathrin Randall rated it it was amazing Oct 22, Drew rated it it was ok Nov 03, Chris Winkler rated it really liked it Jul 02, Juliet rated it really liked it Apr 26, Bethany Nagle rated it liked it Feb 09, Dora rated it it was ok Jan 04, Jen rated it it was amazing Mar 31, Emily Davis rated it really liked it Jan 31, Cady rated it really liked it Apr 25, Al Price rated it really liked it Jan 30, Nancy rated it it was amazing Oct 09, Korri marked it as to-read Feb 18, A principal function of heritage interpretation should be to link people and places in order to conserve those places.

The motive to conserve does not arise only from within the interpretation field. Due to increasing urgency of biological and cultural heritage loss, the wider resource management field requires participation of all conservation-related tools, interpretation included. Any conceptual model concerned with integrating interpretation into conservation programs, then, must explain how interpretation's central elements of place meanings and audiences directly contribute to conservation. This paper, then, presents a conceptual interpretive planning model that involves audiences in place conservation by lever-aging culturally constructed place meanings in an interpretive framework to promote desirable actions that meet conservation objectives found in a place's policy framework.

It further describes how interpretive planning can facilitate people's natural process of constructing meaning, that when combined with appropriate place-based cultural narratives, interpretive media, and conservation knowledge, can result in audiences' increased likelihood to participate in conservation. Figures - uploaded by Jon Kohl. New systems-based conceptual interpretive planning model explicitly links culturally constructed meanings via memes with the fulfillment of explicit conservation objectives and reinvestment in interpretive programming.

A principal function of heritage interpretation should be to. Due to increasing urgency of biological and. Any conc eptual model concerned with. This paper, then, presents a conceptual interpr etive planning. I t furthe r describes how interpretive planning can facilitate. Tilden who, in his landmark book, Interpreting Our. Heritage, stated the purpose of interpretation: Not the least of the fruits of adequate interpretation is the certainty that it leads.

Indeed such a result. N ational Park Service has echoed this sentiment time and again. This is the goal of interpretation, not simply. It is clear that the interpretation literature and general interpretive discourse val ue stew-. The wider field of resource management also requires the participation. Urgency of heritage loss requires this participation. In the case of natural resources, the.

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Human activity is putting such. D espit e man y lo cal c onservation successes, global biodiv ersity loss continues at an.


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Of the many causes of. Be cause o f this urgency, donors, conservation groups, and the public demand. Foundations, for e xample, require more rigorous project evalua-. Another related effort is the recent establishment of the Conservation Measures. P ar t nership , a co nsortium of the largest international conservation organizations. W hile these examples r e fe r to natural heritage, the same can be said of cultural heritage. These efforts indicate a growing need for conservation tools to produce more measur-. T ools that can be used for conservation of natural and cultural heritage, then,.

Heritage interpretation is no exception, even though at times ,. K ohl argues this point based on three kinds of ev idence. Over three years, only 12 of concurrent sessions at the National A ssociation for. Interpretation annual workshops had titles containing keywords r elating to conserva-. B ibliography of Interpretive Resources. Perhaps a principal message from organizations dedicated to impro ving conservat ion prac-.

T o do this requires that managers design objective, measurable connections between places. One way to integrate interpretation into the wider fields of conservation and resource. S ince, by definition, 3 interpretation works with audiences, any. Al l aspec ts of such places perceived by people, both natural and cultural, are cultur-. M uch literature focuses on the role that paradigms Kuhn,. W este rn view of a mountain may focus on its geology and mor phology, while an indige-.

Ultimately people create meaning within a culture and the product of their creation. In fact, the ve r y definition of culture may be as varied as its expres-. A cultur e is an int er action of the communal or intersubjective mind of its people and. Because people constantly create and understand meaning through narratives Naugle,. This hypothesis is consistent with the theory of symbolic interactionism, which says that. It is also consist ent with the interaction of semantic and episodic.

Thus, ideas and narratives constitute part of a culture, and the most basic unit of. Interaction between subjects and their culture. For the interpreter , meme in. Memes, just lik e genes, are involv ed in the evolutionary processes of extinction,. The fields of memetics and memography continue.

F or this paper, the meme allows the interpretive planning model to clearly.

Interpretive Planning: The 5-M Model for Successful Planning Projects

Every place constantly undergoes memetic or cultural change Rochon, , albeit at. Consider Auschwitz, the principal Nazi co ncentra-. For the Nazis, place memes. Since W orld W ar II, however , the camp has become not only. Nagorski, ; Alv ord, H umans thus r e lat e to reality through meanings personal and relevant to them Ham,. Different people, for example, v iew the attack on the W orld T rade Center very differ-. Heritage interpretation, then, is the cultural. If interpretation is to be integrated into the larger realm of resource management and.

I nt erpr etive planning currently follows no standard model. Models that do exist tend t o. There are at least three published models. New systems-based conceptual interpretive planning model explicitly links.


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A section in K ohen. The field needs a model that explains to managers including interpretive planners and.

This way interpreters and planners can design interpretive pr oducts and. Given the lack of an existing model that makes these connections, this paper pr es-. Examples of remediation include the reduction. External audiences that might contribute. Interpretation can also secure support from internal audiences that is,.

T he interpretive planning model in Figure 2 4 is il lustrated with causal loop diagram-. These loop diagrams, often pr ecursors to. Each variable can increase or decr ease. Each arrow is an. The system also includes delays that. D es c ription of the Interpretive Planning Model. Starting in the upper left corner of Figure 2, place qualities are noteworthy traits having. Connections include past events such as a historic battle.

I n the present, the quality could be the degree of biodiversity or. A place quality may be in the future as exhibited by a tourist exclama-. T wo simultaneous processes construct memes. First, in any given place, backgr ound. Second, interpreters, writers, film. H ere, the more heterogeneous. Having more options can increase cont ent quality of an interpretive framework,. T o build an interpretive framework, interpreters prioritize memes, c hoosing some and.

This process, which occurs both naturally and intentionally, is meme. In the interpretive planning loop, the interpretive framework contributes memes and. During interpretive programming formulation,. For example, a fire-fighting program needs. M anagers then ask which segments of a.

Once they choose the. If successful, the visitor will feel. The provision of opportunities to. T he int e rpreter knows which actions he desires of the audience and thus, d uring the. Acc or ding t o the Theory of Planned Behavior Azjen, , such beliefs contribute to posi-.


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  • O thers have used interpretation to motivate people t o contribute money in more. Lindblad Expeditions regularly uses interpr etation so that its cr uise ship-. F or a broad review see Farnum, et al. Quinta Mazatlan Site Objectives. Interpr etive Plan, Chamber of Commerce formula for economic impact on a. Similarly, C ullins combined interpretation and donation. If the interpretation program meets its interpretive objectives, then the perc eived.

    In the short term, this. I n the long. Over time the perceived val ue of interpretation also increases the role of interpretation. This might happen in two ways inside the conservation planning. First, place managers might involve int erpreters in management and conservation. Managers ask interpreters in which ways inte rpretation might contribute to a. Second, as managers become more aware of interpreta-. Such frameworks, written or assumed, are the sum of all pre-existing will or.

    Managers could include interpretation within a policy framework through formal objec-. Figur e 3 sho ws the objectives in the interpretive plan for the Quinta Mazatlan natur e. As interpretation assumes greater responsibility in park operations, more opportunities. The interpretive planning model does much more than make cursory observations about. The model indicates that an. T o complete the loop in which memes travel. Depending on the results of the evaluation, memes that.

    This model does not imply that interpretation should or could be used alone in. Interpretation must also be seen as part of the conservation program itself in the. Th us, manag e rs must apply effectiv e program design from the earliest interpretive planning. This wa y, managers can track the. Much interpretation toda y seems more concerned with revelation as an end rather than any. For those, on the other hand, convinced of the science-based, objec-. This class of interpretive planning would help inter-. Because managers then do not see.

    This interpretive planning model provides guidance on two levels of practice that should. On the interpretive program design level, fr ontline inter-. The framework also leads to much richer evaluation, well bey ond simple visitor. R eac t ions. W ere they satisfied? Beyo nd satisfaction, what did participants ac tually learn during the program? D id par t icipants adopt any beha viors, apply what they learned, or take any. Did any concrete r esults come from their actions as a result of the program? W he n int erpretive p rogramming is based on the intersection of the policy and interpretive.

    As always, visitor satisfaction is.