Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (Wiley Series in Corrosion)
It is important to note that the chemical environment of bulk phase tank contents may be different than the conditions at the fuel-water-tank interface where biofilm formation likely occurs. At the fuel-water-tank interface, all of the necessities of life are present: Reports have indicated that acetic-acid-producing microbes may play a role in corrosion of pumping equipment at fueling stations Wilson et al. An industry report associated microbial acetic acid production with corrosion of underground storage tanks containing ultra-low-sulfur diesel Batelle Memorial Institute Organic acids, including acetic acid, are byproducts of many microbial metabolisms.
Microbial organic acid production has been shown to enhance corrosion or deterioration of many materials Little and Lee Fungal and bacterial organic acid production has been associated with fuel degradation and corrosion of carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, and other materials that are used to construct fuel storage and transportation infrastructure Salvarezza et al. Acetic acid production by Acetobacter aceti has been shown to accelerate corrosion of cathodically protected stainless steel Little et al. The corrosive nature of the Acetobacter spp. Jain found that carbon steel exposed to an acetic-acid-producing bacterial culture experienced pitting corrosion, and Sowards and colleagues demonstrated that an Acetobacter spp.
Sowards and Mansfield investigated the corrosion impact of biotically produced acetic acid on copper and steel in tests designed to simulate underground storage tank pump sumps. Corrosion damage was observed for both materials after direct exposure to the Acetobacter spp. Interestingly, acetic acid has been shown to impact the corrosion and cracking behavior of carbon steel in fuel-grade ethanol environments containing low amounts of water abiotic tests Lou et al.
The research of Lou and colleagues did not address MIC; however, microbial acetic acid production could potentially impact these phenomena. While fuels contain dissolved oxygen and oxic conditions are likely present in parts of a fuel tank environment Passman , anoxic micro-niches are likely to occur due to microbial oxygen consumption as has been demonstrated in biofilms Costerton et al. The presence of anoxic micro-environments and anaerobic microbes suggests that interactions of many types of microbial metabolisms may impact corrosion in these FGE environments; thus, it is important to consider microbial communities when attempting to control MIC.
Anaerobic microbes identified in the ECT samples include members of the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Additionally, these aerobic, acetic-acid-producing microbes are likely to consume oxygen and create conditions suitable for the growth of anaerobic Clostridium spp. The impact that the sulfate-reducing consortium cultivated in this study may have on corrosion of carbon steel are examined elsewhere Jain ; Sowards et al. While sulfate-reducing microbes are often associated with oil industry environments Cord-Ruwisch et al.
Methanogenic Archaea were identified in 4 of the 6 ECT sample pyrosequencing libraries. The most abundant methanogen identified OTU 2a is closely related to members of Methanobacterium including the cultured Methanobacterium congolense Cuzin et al. Kotsyurbenko and colleagues described an acid-tolerant, hydrogenotrophic methanogen of the Methanobacterium genus isolated from acidic peat bogs.
These types of methanogens as well as acetoclastic methanogens may thrive in ethanolic environments also containing acid-producing microbes. Methanogenic Archaea have been linked to elemental iron oxidation and corrosion Dinh et al. Zhang and colleagues suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogens from a marine biofilm were directly responsible for mild steel corrosion while the acetoclastic methanogens were not directly responsible for corrosion but grew syntrophically with sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Nelson and colleagues linked an increase in methanogens to the conversion of ethanol to acetate in soil column experiments designed to investigate the impact of ethanol-based fuels on microbial communities. Environments present in ethanolic fuel conveyance systems may provide niches in which methanogens thrive; however, the impact of methanogens on corrosion and deterioration of fuel industry infrastructure is not currently well understood. Methanogens may contribute to MIC as well as potentially play a role in substrate e.
The pyrosequencing library created from the biofilm found on the external surface of the E10 fuel tank sample EXT. The most prevalent OTU is closely related to Modestobacter spp. Ragon and colleagues identified Methylobacterium spp. Similar black crust biofilms may also be seen near exhaust vents of breweries.
Such organisms could reside as endoliths within the pore spaces of concrete or as biofilms on the surface but in either case could contribute significantly to the weathering of the concrete. Gundlapally and Garcia-Pichel identified Modestobacter spp. While some Methylobacterium spp. Phylotypes known to convert ethanol to acetic acid are not found in the EXT sample. In summary, reports of suspected MIC of materials exposed to FGE and water prompted the investigation of microbial communities in these environments. Microbial communities associated with tanks that contain FGE and significant amounts of water included microbes capable of metabolizing ethanol and producing corrosive organic acids as well as microbes associated with other biocorrosion mechanisms e.
Though low water availability and high solvent content fuel may inhibit microbial activity under ideal operating conditions in many parts of fuel storage and transportation systems, microbial conversion of ethanol to acetic acid could potentially enhance corrosion of steels and other materials in systems e. Putative acetic-acid producers Acetobacter spp. The presence of anaerobes such as sulfate-reducing bacteria suggests that syntrophs may impact corrosion in these environments.
Future research is needed to more thoroughly understand microbial corrosion in many fuel environments. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Published online Jun Williamson , Luke A. Jain , Brajendra Mishra , David L. Olson , and John R. Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion MIC is a costly problem that impacts hydrocarbon production and processing equipment, water distribution systems, ships, railcars, and other types of metallic infrastructure.
Microbial diversity, Fuel-grade ethanol, Microbiologically influenced corrosion, Pyrosequencing. Introduction The detrimental effects of microbial contamination of fuel systems have been well described as microbial activity causes biofouling, fuel degradation, and microbially influenced corrosion MIC Little and Lee ; Gaylarde et al.
Open in a separate window. Cultivation and identification of acetic-acid-producing and sulfate-reducing consortia Two of the samples collected from ethanol containment tanks ECT. Results Sample description Samples collected from the bottoms of ethanol containment tanks ECT samples included bulk liquid and solids from tanks that contained fuel-grade ethanol and water. Table 1 Sample information, pyrosequencing information, and biodiversity metrics. Pyrosequencing results To identify microbes present in tank environments associated with fuel-grade ethanol, we generated small subunit ribosomal RNA 16S rRNA gene libraries via pyrosequencing technology.
Cultivation of sulfate-reducing consortium Blackening of the modified Postgate B culture medium was indicative of growth of sulfate-reducing microbes, and sulfate reduction was observed only in vials inoculated with sample ECT. Discussion Reports of suspected MIC issues in environments in which carbon steel and other metal alloys are exposed to fuel-grade ethanol and water prompted the examination of the microbial diversity associated with these environments. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. Chain elongation with reactor microbiomes: Basic local alignment search tool.
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Microbial communities of urban stormwater sediments: Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine—a review. Int J Food Microbiol. Corrosion in systems storing and dispensing ultra low sulfur diesel ULSD , hypotheses investigation. Batelle Memorial Institute; Revised taxonomy of the methanotrophs: Int J Syst Bacteriol. Isolation of a novel acidiphilic methanogen from an acidic peat bog. Clostridium aceticum Wieringa , a microorganism producing acetic acid from molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Estimating population diversity with CatchAll. QIIME allows analysis of high-throughput community sequencing data.
Three events of Saharan dust deposition on the Mont Blanc glacier associated with different snow-colonizing bacterial phylotypes. Re-examination of the genus Acetobacter , with descriptions of Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in oil production. Iron corrosion by novel anaerobic microorganisms. Microbial diversity in a hydrocarbon- and chlorinated-solvent-contaminated aquifer undergoing intrinsic bioremediation. The occurrence, control and esoteric effect of acetic acid bacteria in winemaking.
Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust.
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Morphological, physiological, and molecular characterization of Actinomycetes isolated from dry soil, rocks, and monument surfaces. Base-calling of automated sequencer traces using phred. The diversity and biogeography of soil bacterial communities. Microbial contamination of stored hydrocarbon fuels and its control. The community and phylogenetic diversity of biological soil crusts in the Colorado Plateau studied by molecular fingerprinting and intensive cultivation.
Comparison of normalization methods for construction of large, multiplex amplicon pools for next-generation sequencing.
Ethanol Producer Magazine March 5, Accuracy and quality of massively parallel DNA pyrosequencing. J Gen Appl Microbiol. Characterization of a filamentous biofilm community established in a cellulose-fed microbial fuel cell. Evaluation of the propensity for microbiologically influenced corrosion of steels in fuel grade ethanol environments. Colorado School of Mines: Phylogenetic characterization of bacterial consortia obtained of corroding gas pipelines in Mexico.
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An overview of microbiologically influenced corrosion. Fungal-induced corrosion of wire rope. Lou X, Singh PM. Role of water, acetic acid and chloride on corrosion and pitting behaviour of carbon steel in fuel-grade ethanol. Effect of ethanol chemistry on stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel in fuel-grade ethanol.
Film breakdown and anodic dissolution during stress corrosion cracking of carbon steel in bioethanol. Brock biology of microorganisms. Microbiology of petroleum reservoirs. Corrosion of aluminum alloy by microorganisms isolated from aircraft fuel tanks. Structural RNA homology search and alignment using covariance models. Effects of ethanol-based fuel contamination: Hydrogen-isotopic variability in fatty acids from Yellowstone National Park hot spring microbial communities.
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Microbially influenced corrosion communities associated with fuel-grade ethanol environments
Presented at the 23rd National Tank Conference, St. Cambridge University Press Archiv; Although it is true that bacteria can use a coating from which to derive their metabolic needs and energy, not all coatings are equally stable against biological degradation. Filip and Pommer ranked epoxy and polystyrene polymeric materials as very stable with regard to their resistance to microbial attack 6. This fact has been corroborated by several authors, who also list epoxies as very resistant to microbial attack. Several laboratory experiments have been carried out in which epoxy resins and epoxy composites were exposed to sulfur reducing and hydrogen-producing bacteria for 90 days.
After the exposure time, the epoxy resins and composites were not adversely affected by microbial degradation 7. There are several epoxy polymeric options available for achieving these requirements. In general, coatings provide a protective barrier between the substrate and the environment.
Solvent-free epoxy materials provide additional features such as very low shrinkage during polymerization, very low odor, a minimal number of coats to achieve the desired thickness, quick drying, and better mechanical properties than epoxy materials that contain solvents. The multifunctionality of resins and crosslinks provides higher cross-linking density, which leads to enhanced chemical properties, mechanical strength, and thermal resistance. Novolac coatings, in particular, can be formulated by using phenol formaldehyde epoxy resins along with chosen additives and crosslinkers for achieving superior properties.
Part of the design process involves collecting demonstrable evidence that the coating is indeed fit for service. This implies that the epoxy coating requires laboratory testing for high-temperature immersion and chemical resistance to bacterially generated byproducts. This method is employed to determine the maximum temperature at which a coating is able to offer adequate long-term immersion protection.
EIS measures the resistance of a coating to the flow of current through it. Chemical resistance, on the other hand, is assessed by laboratory testing in accordance with ISO The samples are periodically reviewed for any sign of damage in the form of erosion, blistering, cracking, or delamination.
Polymeric Solutions for Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) in Industrial Environments
The test is typically run for 52 weeks. The observations, coupled with the length of exposure of the coating to the chemical, are used to assign a chemical resistance rating. The vessel is a carbon steel electrostatic coalescer Figure 1 located in an oil refining plant. The function of the coalescer is to induce droplet coalescence in emulsions of water in crude oil by using electrostatic fields.
Conditions inside of the vessel are ideal for bacteria to grow and induce corrosion. As a result, the lower section of the vessel was suffering from extensive metal loss Figure 2. A solution was required to avoid further complications and possible shutdown. Upon confirmation that the bacterial populations were eliminated, the surface was cleaned and degreased. The paste-grade epoxy material was applied to fill all pitted areas and smooth the substrate Figure 4.
A solvent-free epoxy coating was applied in two coats with contrasting colors to achieve a minimum total dry film thickness of 16 mils Figure 5. Upon completion of the application Figure 6 , the coating was allowed to cure for inspection. Spark testing was carried out to confirm coating continuity and spot any defects. All defects were repaired prior to final curing. The vessel was returned to operation and the coating achieved full cure while in service. The application took place in The vessel was last inspected in , and the coating was in perfect condition.
ATLAS CELL TESTING
Microbiologically influenced corrosion MIC is the degradation of structures as a result of the activity of various microorganisms. Following the Microbes in the Oil and Gas Industry Well-known microbes in the oil and gas industry include sulfate-reducing bacteria SRB , acid-producing bacteria, sulfuroxidizing bacteria, and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Oxygen in the stagnant water is readily depleted by normal corrosive reactions, resulting in an ideally anaerobic environment under which bacteria can develop biofilms and thrive.
Rough surfaces from welding — microbes can settle preferentially on materials with discontinuous composition and anisotropic properties. The microscopic heterogeneity of engineered materials, whether created intentionally or as an artifact, is the basis for their anisotropic properties. Weld regions are particularly attractive to microbes as the welding process alters the material surface characteristics 3.