Death of a God: Disgrace of the Gods (Part 3) (Legacy of the Gods Book 2)
Adam and Eve Were Aliens: Playground of the Gods Part 5 by Gary Margrove. Cain slew his brother Abel.
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David's wives Ahinoam and Abigail are taken in a raid on Ziklag , but he rescue them 1 Samuel The men of Israel flee before the Philistines, and three of Saul's sons are slain. Saul asks his armour-bearer to kill him, but is refused, so he takes his own life. The armour-bearer also takes his own life. Saul's body is beheaded and fastened to a city-wall by the victorious Philistines, but it is retaken by inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead 1 Samuel A man tells David of Saul's death and that he himself killed Saul. David has him killed 2 Samuel 1.
A long war starts between David and Saul's son Ish-bosheth 2 Samuel 3. David demands and is granted the return of his first wife Michal, despite the public grief of her new husband Palti. Two men assassinate Ish-bosheth, and David has them killed 2 Samuel 4. David wars victoriously with the Philistines. While transporting the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, a man called Uzzah carelessly touches it and is killed by God 2 Samuel 6.
David defeats and plunder several enemies, and "executed justice and righteousness unto all his people. The children of Ammon mistreat David's emissaries, and is defeated by his army 2 Samuel In order to make Bathsheba his wife, David successfully plots the death of her husband. This displeases God, and David is told that "the sword shall never depart from thy house.
She then gives birth to Solomon. David conquers and plunders the city Rabbah 2 Samuel David's son Amnon rapes his half-sister Tamar. Absalom , her full brother, in return has him killed 2 Samuel Absalom conspires and revolts against David. Absalom is finally defeated and dies in the Battle of the Wood of Ephraim , and David mourns him 2 Samuel Sheba son of Bichri revolts, but is ultimately beheaded 2 Samuel In 2 Samuel 21, David has seven of Sauls sons and grandsons killed, including "the five sons of Michal the daughter of Saul", though he spares Sauls grandson Mephibosheth.
More wars take place. Characters like Phinehas Num. As a response to the violence of the wicked, numerous psalms call on God to bring vengeance on one's personal enemies, for example Ps. In the Gospel of Matthew , Herod the Great is described as ordering the execution of all young male children in the vicinity of Bethlehem. There are sayings of Jesus where he states that he comes to bring fire or a sword. The earliest detailed accounts of the death of Jesus are contained in the four canonical gospels.
There are other, more implicit references in the New Testament epistles. In the synoptic gospels, Jesus predicts his death in three separate episodes. His death is described as a sacrifice in the Gospels and other books of the New Testament. Scholars note that the reader receives an almost hour-by-hour account of what is happening. The Book of Revelation is full of imagery of war, genocide, and destruction. It describes the Apocalypse , the last judgment of all the nations and people by God, which includes plagues, war, and economic collapse.
Some other books of the Gospels also use apocalyptic language and forms. Scholars define this as language that "views the future as a time when divine saving and judging activity will deliver God's people out of the present evil order into a new order This transformation will be cataclysmic and cosmic. Whenever Jesus calls people to a new vision in light of God's impending kingdom, judgment, or a future resurrection, he is using apocalyptic speech. Strozier, psychoanalyst historian says: Collins wrote a short book called "Does the Bible Justify Violence? The Bible has contributed to violence in the world precisely because it has been taken to confer a degree of certitude that transcends human discussion and argumentation.
Such a selective reading, privileging the death of Jesus or the suffering servant, is certainly possible and even commendable, but it does not negate the force of the biblical endorsements of violence that we have been considering. The full canonical shape of the Christian Bible, for what it is worth, still concludes with the judgement scene in Revelation, in which the Lamb that was slain returns as the heavenly warrior with a sword for striking down the nations.
Regina Schwartz is among those who seek to reimagine Christianity and the Christian biblical canon in ways that reduce violence which she describes as arising from the ancient Israelite invention of monotheism and some of the ways that the ancient Israelites conceived of themselves in relation to that one god and to other peoples, which Christians inherited. The tying of identity to rejection runs counter to much of the drive that could be found elsewhere, both in the Bible and throughout religious myth and ritual, to forge identity through analogy, even identification Among all the rich variety, I would categorize two broad understandings of identity in the Bible: It would be a Bible embracing multiplicity instead of monotheism.
Stephen Geller notes that both the Deuteronomist and the Priestly authors working in the Axial Age were re-evaluating and reformulating their traditions, like their neighbors were, using the literary means available to them. The Deuteronomists expressed their new notions of the transcendence and power of God by means of ideas and associated laws around unity—the one-ness of God, worshipped at the one temple in Jerusalem, by one people, kept distinct from the rest of world just as God is; zealously and violently so. In Geller's reading the blood is not magical nor is the animal just a substitute for a human sacrifice; instead blood is at once an expression of the violence of the fallen world where people kill in order to eat unlike Eden and the blood itself becomes a means for redemption; it is forbidden to be eaten, as a sign of restraint and recognition, and is instead offered to God, and in that action the relationship between fallen humanity and God is restored.
The Priestly authors underline the importance of all this by recalling the mortal danger faced by the High Priests, through the telling of the deaths of Nadab and Abihu when God refused their "strange offering" and consumed them with fire. Or, as I suspect, does no one believe a word of it? The churches are children playing on the floor with their chemistry sets, mixing up a batch of TNT to kill a Sunday morning.
Ushers should issue life preservers and signal flares; they should lash us to our pews. For the sleeping god may wake someday and take offense, or the waking god may draw us out to where we can never return.
Evan Fales, Professor of Philosophy, calls the doctrine of substitutionary atonement that some Christians use to understand the crucifixion of Jesus, "psychologically pernicious" and "morally indefensible". Philosopher and Professor Alvin Plantinga says this rests upon seeing God as a kind of specially talented human being. Historian Philip Jenkins quoting Phyllis Trible says the Bible is filled with "texts of terror" but he also asserts these texts are not to be taken literally. Jenkins says eighth century BCE historians added them to embellish their ancestral history and get readers' attention.
Old Testament scholar Ellen Davis is concerned by what she calls a "shallow reading" of Scripture, particularly of 'Old Testament' texts concerning violence, which she defines as a "reading of what we think we already know instead of an attempt to dig deeper for new insights and revelations. Discussions of bible and violence often lead to discussions of the theodicy - the question of how evil can persist in the world if God is all-powerful, all-knowing, and good. Philosopher Eleonore Stump says the larger context of God permitting suffering for good purposes in a world where evil is real allows for such events as the killing of those intending evil and God to still be seen as good.
Jon Levenson resolves the problem of evil by describing God's power not as static, but as unfolding in time: What the biblical theology of dramatic omnipotence shares with the theology of a limited God is a frank recognition of God's setbacks, in contrast to the classic theodicies with their exaggerated commitment to divine impassibility and their tendency to describe imperfection solely to human free will, the recalcitrance of matter, or the like.
In Hermann Gunkel observed that most Ancient Near Eastern ANE creation stories contain a theogony depicting a god doing combat with other gods thus including violence in the founding of their cultures. Hence, it seems that the account of God creating without violence in Gen. Canaanite creation stories like the Enuma Elish use very physical terms such as "tore open," "slit," "threw down," "smashed," and "severed" whereas in the Hebrew Bible, Leviathan is not so much defeated as domesticated. Most modern scholars agree that "Gen.
What is more, in Gen. God "calls the world into being" These stories in Genesis are not the only stories about creation in the Bible. In Proverbs 8, for example one reads of personified Wisdom being present and participant in creation. However, he also says the differences are more pronounced than the similarities. The intent of Genesis 1: Jon Levenson , writing Jewish biblical theology , asserts the creation stories in Genesis are not ex nihilo , but rather a generation of order out of chaos, similar to other ANE creation myths; the order allows life to flourish and holds back chaos which brings violence and destruction, which has never been obliterated and is always breaking back in.
He finds that the writers of the Hebrew Bible referred to God's actions at creation as a statement of faith in a God who could protect and maintain them, or who could also step back and allow chaos to rush back in, as God did with the Flood. He finds that the writers of the Hebrew Bible also held up God's actions at creation as a challenge for God to act, and a challenge for themselves to work in covenant with God in the ongoing work of generating and maintaining order.
Preface In this, the Bible story is dissimilar to the both the Memphite story and the Babylonian in that the Hebrew Bible says the divine gift of working with God in creation is limited to humankind, meaning, for the Hebrews, humans alone are part of God's being. This sense of honoring or empowering humankind is not in any of the Mesopotamian or Canaanite myths. Warfare represents a special category of biblical violence and is a topic the Bible addresses, directly and indirectly, in four ways: To understand attitudes toward war in the Hebrew Bible is thus to gain a handle on war in general In the Bible God commands the Israelites to conquer the Promised Land , placing city after city "under the ban" -which meant every man, woman and child was supposed to be slaughtered at the point of the sword.
Hans Van Wees says the conquest campaigns are largely fictional. Crouch compares the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah to Assyria, saying their similarities in cosmology and ideology gave them similar ethical outlooks on war. Violence against women appears throughout the Old Testament.
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Many have attributed this to a patriarchal society, while some scholars say the problem stems from the larger context of a male dominated culture. Women are treated in differing ways in the Bible. For example, the Book of Judges includes the judge Deborah , who was honored, as well as two of the most egregious examples in the Bible of violence against women: Scholar author Phyllis Trible looks at these instances from the perspective of the victim making their pathos palpable, underlying their human reality, and the tragedy of their stories. O'Connor says women in the Old Testament generally serve as points of reference for the larger story, yet Judges abounds with stories where women play the main role.
O'Connor explains the significance of this, saying: Beginning with the larger context and tracing the decline of Israel by following the deteriorating status of women and the violence done to them, which progresses from the promise of life in the land to chaos and violence, the effects of the absence of authority such as a king Judges The ancient Israelites did not worship the dead, sacrifice to them, or hope to reunite with them in an afterlife; a concept of hell as a place of punishment in the afterlife arose in Second Temple Judaism and was further developed in the Christian tradition; Judaism subsequently moved away from this notion.
For example Isaiah The word Sheol appears 65 times in the Hebrew Bible and the term "Tartaros" appears frequently in Jewish apocalyptic literature where it refers to a place where the wicked are punished. All the references to gehenna except James 3: A literal interpretation involves violence. According to a statement by the publisher of "Four Views on Hell", Zondervan , "probably the most disturbing concept in Christian tradition is the prospect that one day vast numbers of people will be consigned to Hell. Lewis argued that people choose Hell rather than repent and submit to God.
Miroslav Wolf argues that the doctrine of final judgment provides a necessary restraint on human violence. Tim Keller says it is right to be angry when someone brings injustice or violence to those we love and therefore a loving God can be filled with wrath because of love, not in spite of it. Oliver O'Donovan argues that without the judgment of God we would never see the love in redemption. As the early Christian Church began to distinguish itself from Judaism , the "Old Testament" and a portrayal of God in it as violent and unforgiving were sometimes contrasted rhetorically with certain teachings of Jesus to portray an image of God as more loving and forgiving, which was framed as a new image.
Marcion of Sinope , in the early second century, developed an early Christian dualist belief system that understood the god of the Old Testament and creator of the material universe, who he called the Demiurge , as an altogether different being than the God about whom Jesus spoke. Marcion considered Jesus' universal God of compassion and love, who looks upon humanity with benevolence and mercy, incompatible with Old Testament depictions of divinely ordained violence. Accordingly, he did not regard the Hebrew scriptures as part of his scriptural canon. Supersessionist Christians have continued to focus on violence in the Hebrew Bible while ignoring or giving little attention to violence in the New Testament.
From this foundation arose notions of flourishing of the nation as a whole, as well as collective punishment of the ancient Israelites and their enemies. Scholar Nur Masalha writes that the "genocide" of the extermination commandments has been "kept before subsequent generations" and served as inspirational examples of divine support for slaughtering enemies. Arthur Grenke quotes historian, author and scholar David Stannard: He points to sections in Deuteronomy in which the Israelite God, Yahweh, commanded that the Israelites utterly destroy idolaters whose land they sought to reserve for the worship of their deity Deut 7: According to Stannard, this view of war contributed to the It was this view that also led to the destruction of European Jewry.
Accordingly, it is important to look at this particular segment of the Old Testament: Sociologists Frank Robert Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn question "the applicability of the term [genocide] to earlier periods of history, and the judgmental and moral loadings that have become associated with it. Historian and author William T. Cavanaugh says every society throughout history has contained both hawks and doves.
Cavanaugh and John Gammie say laws like those in Deuteronomy probably reflect Israel's internal struggle over such differing views of how to wage war. Arie Versluis says, " This is shown by the example of Te Kooti Glick states that Jewish fundamentalists in Israel, such as Shlomo Aviner , consider the Palestinians to be like biblical Canaanites, and that some fundamentalist leaders suggest that they "must be prepared to destroy" the Palestinians if the Palestinians do not leave the land. Philosopher, sociologist, theologian and author Jacques Ellul says: It always contests political power.
It incites to "counterpower," to "positive" criticism, to an irreducible dialogue like that between king and prophet in Israel , to antistatism, to a decentralizing of the relation, to an extreme relativizing of everything political, to an anti-ideology, to a questioning of all that claims either power or dominion in other words, of all things political Throughout the Old Testament we see God choosing what is weak and humble to represent him the stammering Moses, the infant Samuel, Saul from an insignificant family, David confronting Goliath, etc.
Paul tells us that God chooses the weak things of the world to confound the mighty From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Tanakh Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim. Authorship Dating Hebrew canon. Pauline epistles Petrine epistles. Hermeneutics Pesher Midrash Pardes. Resources for the Use of Scripture in the Church. Westminster John Knox Press. Humanity, When Force is Justified and Why. New York, New York: The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. The Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. Retrieved 23 December The Book of Ezekiel, Chapters 1 A Christian Case for Non-Violence. Peace and Violence across the Testaments.
A Reexamination of Deuteronomy Journal of Biblical Literature. Johannes Botterweck; Helmer Ringgren Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Ernst Jenni and Claus Westermann, ed. Johannes Botterweck and Helmer Ringgren, eds. War in the Hebrew Bible: A Study in the Ethics of Violence.
Currents in Biblical Research. The Violence of Scripture: Overcoming the Old Testament's Troubling Legacy. Interpretations of the Flood. A Study of the Biblical Story of Joseph: An Introduction to the Bible. Retrieved 17 December Biblical Theology in the Form of a Commentary. Moses and God in Dialogue: Exodus in Postbiblical Literature. Peter Lang Publishing Inc. The Laws of Yahweh: A Handbook of Biblical Law. People and Land in the Holiness Code: The Books of Numbers. Sex, Drugs, and Violence in the Jewish Tradition: Challenges in Intelligence Analysis: Lessons from BCE to the Present.
The Jewish Publication Society. Justice and Compassion in Biblical Law. Memory and Tradition in the Book of Numbers. The Book of Numbers: A Critique of Genesis. Longman's, Green and Co. Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. A Mosaic Reading of Numbers The Book of Deuteronomy. Deuteronomy and the Hermeneutics of Legal Innovation. As Refracted Through the Generations.
The Continuum International Publishing Group. The Military History of Ancient Israel. The Moral Character of the God of Abraham. An Examination of Some Proposed Solutions. The Bible Knowledge Commentary: A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. A Translation with Commentary of 1 and 2 Samuel. King Saul in the Historiography of Judah. Center for Christian Ethics at Baylor University.
Retrieved 4 August The prophet's mantle, scenes from the life of Elisha, son of Shaphat. William Blackwood and Sons.see url
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A Study of Amos 1: Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. A God of Vengeance? Understanding the Psalms of Divine Wrath. Essays in Old Testament Theology.
The Bible and violence
Retrieved 31 October Concepts of the other in Near Eastern religions. B Scannell and P. Violence and Destruction in the World's Religions", M. The twenty-first century confronts its gods: Introducing the New Testament.
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Literary Forms in the New Testament: On the Psychology of fundamentalism in America. In Barr, David L. The Reality of Apocalypse: Rhetoric and Politics in the Book of Revelation. Society of Biblical Literature. University of Michigan Press. Does the Bible Justify Violence? The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monotheism. Pilgrim at Tinker Creek 1st Perennial classics ed.
Moral Chaos in Holy Writ". Preaching the Old Testament. Creation and the persistence of evil: Narrative and the Problem of Suffering. A Religio-historical Study of Genesis 1 and Revelation